%C5%BDilina
?ilina
City
Zilina city 90.jpg
Andrej Hlinka Square
Flag
Coat of arms
Country Slovakia
Region ?ilina
District ?ilina
Tourism region Horné Pova?ie
Rivers Váh, Raj?anka, Kysuca
Center Andrej Hlinka Square
 - elevation 342 m (1,122 ft)
 - coordinates 49°13?22?N 18°44?24?E / 49.22278°N 18.74000°E / 49.22278; 18.74000Coordinates: 49°13?22?N 18°44?24?E / 49.22278°N 18.74000°E / 49.22278; 18.74000
Area 80.028 km2 (30.90 sq mi)
Population 81,155 (2014-12-31)
 - urban 108,114
 - metro 154,000
Density 1,014/km2 (2,626/sq mi)
First mentioned 1208
Mayor Igor Choma
Timezone CET (UTC+1)
 - summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 010 01
Area code +421-41
Car plate ZA
Location in Slovakia
Location in Slovakia
Location in the ?ilina Region
Location in the ?ilina Region
Wikimedia Commons: ?ilina
Statistics: MO?/MIS
Website: www.zilina.sk

?ilina (Slovak pronunciation: ['?ilina]; German: Sillein, [zi'la??n] or ['z?la??n]; Hungarian: Zsolna ['?oln?]; Polish: ?ylina [??'lina], names in other languages) is a city in north-western Slovakia, around 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the capital Bratislava, close to both the Czech and Polish borders. It is the fourth largest city of Slovakia with a population of approximately 85,000, an important industrial center, the largest city on the Váh river, and the seat of a kraj (?ilina Region) and of an okres (?ilina District). It belongs to the Upper Váh region of tourism.

Etymology

The name is derived from Slavic/Slovak word ?ila - a "(river) vein".[1][2] ?ilina means "a place with many watercourses". Alternatively, it is a secondary name derived from ?ilinka river or from the name of the local people, ?ilín/?ili?ane.[1]

History

Panorama of the historic center

The area around today's ?ilina was inhabited in the late Stone Age (about 20,000 BC). In the 5th century, Slavs started to move into the area. However, the first written reference to ?ilina was in 1208 as terra de Selinan. From the second half of the 10th century until 1918, it was part of the Kingdom of Hungary.

In the middle of the 13th century, terra Sylna was the property of the Cseszneky de Milvány family.[3] The city started to develop around 1300, and, according to records in 1312, it was already a town. In 1321, King Károly I made ?ilina a free royal town. On 7 May 1381, King Lajos I issued Privilegium pro Slavis, which made the Slav inhabitants equal to the Germans by allocating half of the seats at the city council to Slavs.[4] The town was burned in 1431 by the Hussites.

During the 17th century, ?ilina gained position as a center of manufacturing, trade, and education, and, during the baroque age, many monasteries and churches, as well as the Budatín Castle, were built. In the Revolutions of 1848, Slovak volunteers, part of the Imperial Army, won a battle near the city against Hungarian honveds and gardists.[]

The city boomed in the second half of the 19th century as new railway tracks were built: the Kassa Oderberg Railway was finished in 1872 and the railway to Bratislava (Pozsony in Hungarian) in 1883, and new factories started to spring up, such as the drapery factory Slovena (1891) and the Pova?ie chemical works (1892).

It was one of the first municipalities to sign the Martin Declaration (30 October 1918), and until March 1919, it was the seat of the Slovak government. On 6 October 1938, shortly after the Munich Agreement, the autonomy of Slovakia within Czechoslovakia was declared in ?ilina.

During World War II, ?ilina was captured on 30 April 1945 by Czechoslovak and Soviet troops of the 4th Ukrainian Front, after which it again became part of Czechoslovakia.

After Second World War, the city continued its development with many new factories, schools and housing projects being built. It was the seat of the ?ilina Region from 1949-1960 and again since 1996.

Today, ?ilina is the third largest city in Slovakia, the third most important industrial center and the seat of a university, the ?ilinská univerzita (founded in 1953). Since 1990 the historical center of the city has been largely restored and the city has built trolleybus lines.

Geography

?ilina lies at an altitude of 342 metres (1,122 ft) above sea level and covers an area of 80.03 square kilometres (30.9 sq mi).[5] It is located in the Upper Váh region (Slovak: Horné Pova?ie) at the confluence of three rivers: Váh, flowing from the east into the south-west, Kysuca, flowing from the north and Raj?anka rivers from the south, in the ?ilina Basin. The city is surrounded by these mountain ranges: Malá Fatra, Sú?ovské vrchy, Javorníky and Kysucká vrchovina. Protected areas nearby include the Strá?ov Mountains Protected Landscape Area, the Kysuce Protected Landscape Area, and the Malá Fatra National Park. There are two hydroelectric dams on the Váh river around ?ilina: the ?ilina dam in the east and the Hri?ov dam in the west.

Climate

?ilina lies in the north temperate zone and has a continental climate with four distinct seasons. It is characterized by a significant variation between hot summers and cold, snowy winters. The average temperature in July is 18 °C (64 °F), in January, -4 °C (25 °F). The average annual rainfall is 600-700 mm (23.6-27.6 in); most of the rainfall occurs in June and in the first half of July. Snow cover lasts from 60 to 80 days per year.

Climate data for ?ilina
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 0
(33)
3
(38)
8
(47)
14
(58)
20
(68)
22
(72)
25
(76)
25
(77)
20
(67)
14
(58)
6
(44)
1
(35)
13.2
(56.1)
Average low °C (°F) -5
(22)
-5
(23)
-1
(30)
3
(37)
8
(46)
10
(51)
12
(54)
12
(53)
9
(47)
5
(41)
0
(33)
-4
(26)
3.7
(38.6)
Average precipitation cm (inches) 2.85
(1.12)
2.67
(1.05)
3.10
(1.22)
4.08
(1.61)
4.82
(1.90)
6.99
(2.75)
6.84
(2.69)
5.19
(2.04)
4.74
(1.87)
4.19
(1.65)
3.91
(1.54)
3.42
(1.35)
52.8
(20.79)
Source: MSN Weather[6]

Symbol

The coat of arms of ?ilina is a golden double-cross (so-called cross of Lorraine) with roots and two golden stars on an olive-green background. The double-cross is of Byzantine origin and stems from Cyrillic-methodic tradition. This is one of the oldest municipal coat of arms, not only in Slovakia, but in Europe. It has been used as the city's symbol since 1378.

Demographics

Municipality Urban Metro
?ilina 85,302 85,302
Kysucké Nové Mesto - 16,420
Varín - 3,537
Tepli?ka nad Váhom 3,502 3,502
Belá - 3,361
Rajecké Teplice - 2,950
Rosina 2,925 2,925
Stre?no - 2,661
Vi??ové 2,610 2,610
Divina - 2,483
Dlhé Pole - 2,029
Turie 1,981 1,981
Kamenná Poruba - 1,826
Strá?avy - 1,822
Lietavská Lú?ka 1,786 1,786
Rudina - 1,669
Lietavská Svinná - Babkov - 1,596
Lietava 1,422 1,422
Rado?a - 1,391
Konská - 1,393
Dolná Ti?iná - 1,243
Gbe?any 1,239 1,239
Kras?any 1,223 1,223
Sne?nica - 1,013
Svederník 1,003 1,003
Kunerad - 949
Nededza 927 927
Divinka - 882
Lysica - 864
Luti?e - 795
Podhorie - 781
Horný Hri?ov - 763
Dolný Hri?ov 1,506 1,506
Hri?ovské Podhradie - 374
Hôrky 635 635
Bitarová 630 630
Ov?iarsko 511 511
Brezany 462 462
Moj? 450 450
Porúbka - 447
Rudina - 384
Nezbudská Lú?ka - 366
Total 108,114 159,729

?ilina has a population of 85,302 (as of May 31, 2009), with the population of the urban area of 108,114 and the population of the metro area of 159,729. According to the 2001 census, 96.9% of inhabitants were Slovaks, 1.6% Czechs, 0.2% Romani, 0.1% Hungarians and 0.1% Moravians. The religious makeup was 74.9% Roman Catholics, 16.7% people with no religious affiliation, and 3.7% Lutherans.[5]

Economy

?ilina is the main industrial hub of the upper Váh river basin region, with a fast-growing economy as north-west Slovakia's business center with large retail and construction sectors.

By far the biggest and most important employer is Korean car maker Kia Motors. By 2009, the plant produced 300,000 cars a year and had up to 3,000 employees. Kia Motors' direct investment in the ?ilina car plant amounts to over 1.5 billion USD. In 2009 the ?ilina car plant produced Kia cee'd, Kia Sportage and Hyundai ix35 car models. Kia Motors is further upgrading its capacity to be ready to produce engines for a sister company, Hyundai, located near Ostrava in the Czech Republic with a planned investment of 200 million USD.

?ilina is also the seat of the biggest Slovak construction and transportation engineering company, Vahostav. The chemical industry is represented by Pova?ské chemické závody and Tento, a paper mill company. Siemens Mobility also has an engineering center in ?ilina.[7]

Main sights

Mariánske námestie with burgher houses
Budatín Castle
Frescoes inside the church of St Stephen the King

The historical center of the city, reconstructed in the early 1990s is protected as a city monument reserve (Slovak: Mestská pamiatková rezervácia). It is centered on the Mariánske námestie and Andrej Hlinka squares. The Mariánske námestie square has 106 arcade passages and 44 burgher houses along the whole square.[8] It is dominated by the Church of St. Paul the Apostle, the old building of the city council, and the baroque statue of the Virgin Mary. Nearby is the Church of the Holy Trinity, a sacral building built around 1400, which is since February 2008 the cathedral of the Diocese of ?ilina.

The Church of Saint Stephen the King (Slovak: Kostol Sv. ?tefana krála) is the oldest architectural relic of town Zilina,[9] located just 1 kilometre (0.6 miles) southwest from the center. It is one of the first Romanesque churches in Slovakia,[10] dating back to the years 1200-1250, by the experts. The legend goes that the Hungarian King István I himself ordered to build it. Valuable is the inner decoration of the church. Wall paintings originate from approximately 1260; in 1950 they were discovered and later on restored by the ?ilina fine artist Mojmír Vlkolá?ek.[11] Nowadays it is a popular place for wedding ceremonies.

Other landmarks around the city include:

  • Budatín Castle, housing Pova?ie Museum with its tinker trade exhibition
  • The wooden Roman Catholic church of St. George in the Trnové section (one of the few outside north-eastern Slovakia)
  • The Orthodox synagogue, which now houses the Museum of Jewish culture
  • The New Synagogue, now a cultural centre

The city is a starting point for various locations of western and eastern Slovakia, including hiking trails into the Lesser Fatra and Greater Fatra mountains. Other locations of interest include Bojnice Castle, Stre?no, Orava region, and the villages of ?i?many and Vlkolínec.

Culture

?ilina is home to two multi 3D digital theaters, in Mirage Shopping Centre - Cinemax MAX and Ster Century Cinemas in Max Shopping Centre OC Max Solinky.

Museums include:

  • Pova?ská galéria (Museum of Art ?ilina)
  • Pova?ské múzeum (Pova?ie museum), in the Budatín castle
  • Múzeum ?idovskej kultúry (Museum of Jewish culture)

Sport

Football (soccer) club M?K ?ilina plays in the top Slovak division Fortuna liga and is one of the most successful teams in recent years, having won five domestic titles and been runners-up three times between 2001 and 2010. The team's colors are the yellow and green, taken from the city's flag. Home games are played at the Stadium Pod Dub?om which is situated at the edge of city center in the neighborhood of the ice hockey stadium. They played in the 2010-11 UEFA Champions League in the group stage for the first time in their history.

Ice hockey club MsHK ?ilina plays in the Slovak Extraliga. They have won one domestic title so far.

Rugby club plays in Slovak league, and is the one with the best location in Slovakia. They participate to the Czech championship, with the support of Olomouc Rugby Club, and made a partnership with Rugby Klub Bratislava to organize rugby events.

Slovak professional road bicycle racer for World Tour team Bora-Hansgrohe, Peter Sagan, was born in ?ilina in 1990, and is considered one of cycling's most promising young talents, having earned many prestigious victories in his early twenties. He was the winner of the points classification in the Tour de France in 2012 through 2016; as a result, Sagan became the first rider to win the classification in his first five attempts. In 2015, he was also the first Slovak cyclist to win the UCI Road World Championships.

Government

?ilina City Council
View over ?ilina

The city is governed by a mayor (Slovak: primátor) and a city council (Slovak: mestské zastupite?stvo). The mayor is the head of the city and its chief executive, with a four-year term of office. The current mayor, Igor Choma, was nominated in 2010 by a coalition of the political parties SMER-SD, SZ, ?S-HZDS and HZD. The council is the city's legislative body, with 31 councilmen. The last municipal election was held in 2014 and councilmen are elected to four-year terms, concurrent with the mayor's. Choma was reelected. ?ilina is divided into eight electoral districts, consisting of the following neighborhoods:[12]

  • Staré mesto, Hliny I-IV, Hliny VIII (5 councilmen)
  • Hliny V-VII, Bôrik (4 councillors)
  • Solinky (5 councilmen)
  • Vl?ince (6 councilmen)
  • Hájik (3 councilmen)
  • Byt?ica, Rosinky, Trnové, Moj?ová Lú?ka (2 councillors)
  • Závodie, Bánová, Strá?ov, ?ilinská Lehota (2 councillors)
  • Budatín, Pova?ský Chlmec, Vranie, Brodno, Zádubnie, Zástranie (3 councilmen)

?ilina is the capital of one of eight considerably autonomous Regions of Slovakia.[13] It is also the capital of a smaller district. The ?ilina District (Slovak: okres ?ilina) is nested within the ?ilina Region.

The city also hosts a regional branch of the National Bank of Slovakia.

Education

former building of ?ilina University - Faculty of Nature Science
Memorial dedicated to Saints Cyril and Methodius, with Holy Trinity Church in the background

The city is home to the University of ?ilina, which has seven faculties and 12,402 students, including 625 doctoral students.[14]

There are 18 public primary schools, one private primary school, and three church primary schools.[15] Overall, they enroll 7,484 pupils.[15] The city's system of secondary education (some middle schools and all high schools) consists of eight gymnasia with 3,514 students,[16] ten specialized high schools with 3,696 students,[17] and nine vocational schools with 4,870 students.[18][19]

Transport

The city is an important international road junction, and ?ilina railway station is a major rail junction.

Roads and railways connect the city with Bratislava and Prievidza in the south, ?adca in the north, and Martin in the east. The construction of the D1, and D3 motorways and their feeders continues towards ?ilina.

The city is also served by international ?ilina Airport, which is about 10 kilometres (6 miles) away from the city center.

Public transport within the city is operated by DPMZ[20] and consists of buses (since 1949) and trolleybuses (since 1994).

Notable people

Twin towns - sister cities

?ilina has numerous twin towns around the world:[21]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b ?tefánik, Martin; Luka?ka, Ján, eds. (2010). Lexikón stredovekých miest na Slovensku [Lexicon of Medieval Towns in Slovakia] (PDF) (in Slovak). Bratislava: Historický ústav SAV. p. 577. ISBN 978-80-89396-11-5. 
  2. ^ Kr?ko, Jaromír (2011). Hydronymia horného povodia Váhu [Hydronymy of the Upper Váh Basin] (in Slovak). Banská Bystrica: Univerzita Mateja Bela. p. 125. 
  3. ^ Monumenta Hungariae historica
  4. ^ Kirschbaum, Stanislav J. (1995). A history of Slovakia : the struggle for survival. New York: St. Martin's Press. 
  5. ^ a b "Municipal Statistics". Statistical Office of the Slovak republic. Archived from the original on 2007-12-17. Retrieved . 
  6. ^ "Monthly Averages for ?ilina, Slovakia". MSN. Retrieved 2008. 
  7. ^ "Railway Gazette: Rail Automation Business Unit opens". Retrieved . 
  8. ^ Spectacular Slovakia 2004: ?ilina and Northern Slovakia, the Malá Fatra mountains
  9. ^ "Tourist information office ?ilina". Tikzilina.eu. Retrieved . 
  10. ^ "What to see in Zilina". Slovakiatravels.com. Retrieved . 
  11. ^ "Church of St. Stephen the King / Kostol Sv. ?tefana krála (Zilina, Slovakia) - Medieval Churches on". Waymarking.com. Retrieved . 
  12. ^ "?lenovia Mestského zastupite?stva" (in Slovak). Retrieved . 
  13. ^ Brusis, Martin (2002). "Between EU Requirements, Competitive Politics, and National Traditions: Re-creating Regions in the Accession Countries of Central and Eastern Europe". Governance. 15 (4): 531-559. doi:10.1111/1468-0491.00200. 
  14. ^ "?ilinská univerzita" (PDF) (in Slovak). Ústav informácií a prognóz ?kolstva. Retrieved . 
  15. ^ a b "Preh?ad základných ?kôl v ?kolskom roku 2006/2007" (PDF) (in Slovak). Ústav informácií a prognóz ?kolstva. 2006. Retrieved . 
  16. ^ "Preh?ad gymnázií v ?kolskom roku 2006/2007" (PDF) (in Slovak). Ústav informácií a prognóz ?kolstva. Retrieved . 
  17. ^ "Preh?ad stredných odborných ?kôl v ?kolskom roku 2006/2007" (PDF) (in Slovak). Ústav informácií a prognóz ?kolstva. Retrieved . 
  18. ^ "Preh?ad zdru?ených stredných ?kôl v ?kolskom roku 2006/2007" (PDF) (in Slovak). Ústav informácií a prognóz ?kolstva. Retrieved . 
  19. ^ "Preh?ad stredných odborných u?ilí?? a u?ilí?? v ?kolskom roku 2006/2007" (PDF) (in Slovak). Ústav informácií a prognóz ?kolstva. Retrieved . 
  20. ^ DPMZ
  21. ^ "?ilina - oficiálne stránky mesta: Partnerské mestá ?iliny [?ilina: Official Partner Cities]". © 2008 MaM Multimedia, s.r.o.. Retrieved . 
  22. ^ "Bielsko-Bia?a - Partner Cities". © 2008 Urz?du Miejskiego w Bielsku-Bia?ej. Retrieved . 

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


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