112th United States Congress

112th United States Congress
United States Capitol west front edit2.jpg
January 3, 2011 - January 3, 2013
Senate President Joe Biden (D)
Senate Pres. pro tem Daniel Inouye (D)
until December 17, 2012
Patrick Leahy (D)
from December 17, 2012
House Speaker John Boehner (R)
Members 100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Democratic
House Majority Republican
Sessions
1st: January 5, 2011[1] - January 3, 2012[2]
2nd: January 3, 2012[2] - January 3, 2013

The One Hundred Twelfth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2011, until January 3, 2013. It convened in Washington, D.C. on January 3, 2011, and ended on January 3, 2013, 17 days before the end of the presidential term to which Barack Obama was elected in 2008. Senators elected to regular terms in 2006 completed those terms in this Congress. This Congress included the last House of Representatives elected from congressional districts that were apportioned based on the 2000 census.

In the 2010 midterm elections, the Republican Party won the majority in the House of Representatives. While the Democrats kept their Senate majority, it was reduced from the previous Congress.[3] This was the first Congress in which the House and Senate were controlled by different parties since the 107th Congress (2001-2003), and the first Congress to begin that way since the 99th Congress (1985-1987). In this Congress, the House of Representatives had the largest number of Republican members, 242, since the 80th Congress (1947-1949).[4] It was also the first Congress since 1947 in which no member of the Kennedy family served, and it was viewed as one of the most politically polarized Congress since Reconstruction, and the least productive since the Second World War, with record low approval ratings.[5]

Major events

President Obama delivered the 2011 State of the Union Address on January 25, 2011
After delivering the 2012 State of the Union Address on January 24, 2012, President Obama embraces Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, who had been shot the previous year.

Potential government shutdown

A failure to pass a 2011 federal budget nearly led to a shutdown of non-essential government services on April 9, 2011, with the furlough of 800,000 government employees appearing imminent.[10] President Obama met Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and House Speaker John Boehner in the days preceding the deadline but was unable to come to an agreement to pass a budget.[] A one-week budget was proposed to avoid a government shutdown and allow more time for negotiations; however, proposals from both parties could not be accommodated.[] Obama said he would veto a proposed Republican budget over Republican social spending cuts.[] This was also backed by Senate Democrats who objected to such cuts as that of Planned Parenthood.[11][12][13] However, an agreement was reached between the two parties for a one-week budget to allow for more time to negotiate after Republicans dropped their stance on the Planned Parenthood issue.[12] The two parties ultimately agreed on a 2011 federal budget the following week.[]

There were many reactions to the possible shutdown with some saying the economy could be hurt during a fragile recovery[14] and others saying the lack of an unnecessary bureaucracy would not be noticed.[15] There was also criticism that while senators and representatives would continue to get paid others such as the police and military personnel would either not be paid for their work or have their payments deferred.[16]

Debt limit crisis

Speaker Boehner meeting with President Obama at the White House during the 2011 debt ceiling crisis

On August 2, 2011, the United States public debt was projected to reach its statutory maximum. Without an increase in that limit the U.S. Treasury would be unable to borrow money to pay its bills. Although previous statutory increases have been routine, conservative members of the House refused to allow an increase without drastically reducing government spending. Over several weeks and months, negotiators from both parties, both houses, and the White House worked to forge a compromise. The compromise bill, the Budget Control Act of 2011, was enacted on August 2.

Major legislation

Enacted

Proposed

See also: Active Legislation, 112th Congress, via senate.gov

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.

Senate

Final Senate Membership
     51 Democrats      47 Republicans
     2 Independents, caucusing with Democrats
Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 56 2 42 100 0
Begin 51 2 47 100 0
May 3, 2011 46 99 1
May 9, 2011 47 100 0
December 17, 2012 50 99 1
December 26, 2012 51 100 0
January 1, 2013 46 99 1
January 2, 2013 47 100 0
Latest voting share 53% 47%
Beginning of the next Congress 53 2 45 100 0

House of Representatives

Final House Membership
     191 Democrats      240 Republicans
     4 Vacant
Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Republican
End of previous Congress 255 179 434 1
Begin 193 242 435 0
February 9, 2011 241 434 1
February 28, 2011 192 433 2
May 9, 2011 240 432 3
May 24, 2011 193 433 2
June 21, 2011 192 432 3
July 12, 2011 193 433 2
August 3, 2011 192 432 3
September 13, 2011 242 434 1
January 25, 2012 191 433 2
January 31, 2012 192 434 1
March 6, 2012 191 433 2
March 20, 2012 190 432 3
June 12, 2012 191 433 2
July 7, 2012 241 432 3
July 31, 2012 240 431 4
August 15, 2012 190 430 5
November 6, 2012 193 241 434 1
November 21, 2012 192 433 2
December 3, 2012 191 432 3
January 2, 2013 240 431 4
Latest voting share 44.3% 55.7%
Non-voting members 6 0 6 0
Beginning of next Congress 200 233 433 2

Leadership

Section contents: Senate: Majority (D), Minority (R) o House: Majority (R), Minority (D)

Senate

Senate President
Senate President pro Tempore
Daniel Inouye
Daniel Inouye (D)
(until December 17, 2012)
Daniel Inouye
Patrick Leahy (D)
(from December 17, 2012)

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

House of Representatives

Speaker of the House

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

Members

For the first time in the history of Congress, over half its members were millionaires as of 2012; Democrats had a median net worth of $1.04 million, while the Republicans median was "almost exactly" $1.00 million.[22][23] In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 2012; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 2014; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 2016.

Senate

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

Senate

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Nevada
(1)
John Ensign
(R)
Resigned May 3, 2011 due to an Ethics Committee investigation.[26]
A successor was appointed April 27, 2011 to serve the remainder of the term that ends with this Congress.
Dean Heller
(R)[27]
May 9, 2011[28]
Hawaii
(3)
Daniel Inouye
(D)
Died December 17, 2012 [29]
A successor was appointed December 26, 2012 to serve until a special election was held to finish the term ending January 3, 2017.
Brian Schatz
(D)
December 27, 2012
South Carolina
(3)
Jim DeMint
(R)
Resigned January 1, 2013, to run the Heritage Foundation[30]
A successor was appointed January 2, 2013 to serve until a special election was held to finish the term ending January 3, 2017.
Tim Scott
(R)
January 2, 2013[31]

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
New York 26th Christopher Lee
(R)
Resigned February 9, 2011, due to a personal scandal.[32]
A special election was held May 24, 2011.[33]
Kathy Hochul
(D)
June 1, 2011
California 36th Jane Harman
(D)
Resigned February 28, 2011 to become the head of the Woodrow Wilson Center.[34]
A special election was held July 12, 2011.[35]
Janice Hahn
(D)
July 19, 2011
Nevada 2nd Dean Heller
(R)
Resigned May 9, 2011, when appointed to the Senate.[27]
A special election was held September 13, 2011.[36]
Mark Amodei
(R)
September 15, 2011
New York 9th Anthony Weiner
(D)
Resigned June 21, 2011, due to a personal scandal.[37]
A special election was held September 13, 2011.[38]
Bob Turner
(R)
September 15, 2011
Oregon 1st David Wu
(D)
Resigned August 3, 2011, due to a personal scandal.
A special election was held January 31, 2012.[39]
Suzanne Bonamici
(D)
February 7, 2012
Arizona 8th Gabrielle Giffords
(D)
Resigned January 25, 2012, to focus on recovery from 2011 Tucson Shooting.[40]
A special election was held June 12, 2012.[41]
Ron Barber
(D)
June 19, 2012
New Jersey 10th Donald M. Payne
(D)
Died March 6, 2012.[42]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[43]
Donald Payne Jr.
(D)
November 15, 2012
Washington 1st Jay Inslee
(D)
Resigned March 20, 2012 to focus on gubernatorial campaign.[44]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[45]
Suzan DelBene
(D)
November 13, 2012
Michigan 11th Thaddeus McCotter
(R)
Resigned July 6, 2012 due to personal reasons.[46]
A special election was held November 6, 2012.[47]
David Curson
(D)
November 13, 2012
Kentucky 4th Geoff Davis
(R)
Resigned July 31, 2012 due to personal reasons.[48]
A special election was held November 6, 2012[49]
Thomas Massie
(R)
November 13, 2012
California 18th Dennis Cardoza
(D)
Resigned August 15, 2012 due to personal reasons.[50] Vacant until the next Congress
Illinois 2nd Jesse Jackson Jr.
(D)
Resigned November 21, 2012, due to a personal scandal. Vacant until the next Congress
California 51st Bob Filner
(D)
Resigned December 3, 2012 to become Mayor of San Diego. Vacant until the next Congress
South Carolina 1st Tim Scott
(R)
Resigned January 2, 2013 when appointed to the US Senate.[24] Vacant until the next Congress

Committees

[ Section contents: Senate, House, Joint ]

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint appointments

Caucuses

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Elections

Membership lists

References

  1. ^ Pub.L. 111-289
  2. ^ a b Senate Calendar for January 20, 2012.
  3. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (November 2, 2010). "G.O.P. Captures House, but Not Senate". New York Times. Retrieved 2010.
  4. ^ Abramowitz, Alan (December 12, 2010). "Get ready for the most conservative Congress ever". Salon.com. Retrieved 2012.
  5. ^ "The Polarization of the Congressional Parties". January 30, 2016.
  6. ^ Yadron, Danny (January 6, 2011). "House Reads Constitution, Gets Civics Lesson". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011.
  7. ^ "Odyssey Dawn: Phase One Of Libya Military Intervention". The Epoch Times. March 19, 2011. Archived from the original on February 23, 2015.
  8. ^ "US troops complete their withdrawal from Iraq". Herald Sun. Australia. Retrieved 2011.
  9. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (January 24, 2013). "Senator Unveils Bill to Limit Semiautomatic Arms". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013.
  10. ^ Rowley, James (April 7, 2011). "U.S. Government Shutdown Threatens 800,000 People As Obama Seeks Solution". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011.
  11. ^ "US budget talks remain deadlocked". Al Jazeera. April 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  12. ^ a b Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Faler, Brian (April 9, 2011). "Wrangle Over U.S. Budget Compromise Defines Next Two Years' Fiscal Debate". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011.
  13. ^ "Pres. Obama and Congressional Leaders Reach Budget Deal". CSPAN. April 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  14. ^ Dodge, Catherine; Goldman, Julianna (April 8, 2011). "Long Government Shutdown Would Harm U.S. Economy, Hit Washington Hardest". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011.
  15. ^ "Editorial: Government shutdown survival guide". The Washington Times. April 7, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  16. ^ Goldman, Julianna (April 7, 2011). "Boehner Gets Paid While Soldiers Wait When Congress Shuts Down Government". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011. Members of Congress 'shouldn't be getting paid, just like federal employees shouldn't be getting paid' during a shutdown, Boehner said today on ABC's 'Good Morning America'
  17. ^ "U.S. Senate, Democratic Committees". Archived from the original on May 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  18. ^ "U.S. Senate Conference Secretaries". Retrieved 2011.
  19. ^ a b c "U.S. Senate, Democratic Steering and Outreach Committee". Archived from the original on August 6, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  20. ^ Office of the Speaker of the House (December 2, 2010). "Pelosi Announces Steering and Policy Committee Members". PR Newswire. Retrieved 2011.
  21. ^ "Congressman Capuano's Update". FN Online. February 3, 2011. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  22. ^ "Millionaires' Club: For First Time, Most Lawmakers are Worth $1 Million-Plus". OpenSecrets Blog. The Center for Responsive Politics. January 9, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  23. ^ "Half of US Congressional politicians are millionaires". BBC News. January 10, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  24. ^ a b 2012 Congressional Record, Vol. 158, Page H7467 (December 30, 2012)
  25. ^ Access Denied. NationalJournal.com. Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  26. ^ "Nevada Sen. John Ensign announces resignation". Politico. April 21, 2011.
  27. ^ a b Murray, Mark (April 27, 2011). "Sandoval appoints Heller to fill Ensign seat". NBC News.
  28. ^ Heller in transition: One foot in House, one foot in Senate | Las Vegas Review-Journal. Lvrj.com (May 3, 2011). Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  29. ^ "Sen. Daniel Inouye dies of respiratory complications". MSN News. Associated Press. December 17, 2012.
  30. ^ "South Carolina Republican US Sen. Jim DeMint resigning to take over at Heritage Foundation". The Washington Post. December 6, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  31. ^ Scott's appointment took effect January 2, 2013, upon his resignation from the House of Representatives; he took the oath of office on January 3, 2013.[1]
  32. ^ "Lee Resigns After Photos Surface". Political Wire. February 9, 2011. Archived from the original on February 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  33. ^ "Governor Cuomo Signs Bill to Ensure Military Voters are Treated Fairly in Special Elections, Calls Special Election in 26th Congressional District". Governor of New York's Press Office. March 9, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  34. ^ Allen, Mike; Cohen, Richard E. (February 7, 2011). "Rep. Jane Harman to resign from House". Politico.com. Retrieved 2011.
  35. ^ "Governor Brown Issues Proclamation Declaring Special Election for 36th Congressional District". Governor of California Press Release. March 14, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  36. ^ "Sandoval Sets Fall Special to Fill Heller's Seat". Roll Call. April 29, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  37. ^ Camia, Catalina (June 20, 2011). "Anthony Weiner Officially Steps Down Tuesday". USA Today. Retrieved 2011.
  38. ^ "Governor Cuomo Sets Special Elections for September 13 to Coincide with Statewide Primary Day". Governor of New York's Press Office. July 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  39. ^ Freking, Kevin (August 4, 2011). "Wu notifies governor, speaker of resignation". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved 2011.[permanent dead link]
  40. ^ "Giffords resigns House seat to focus on recovery". Associated Press. January 25, 2012.
  41. ^ Nowicki, Dan (January 27, 2012). "Brewer sets Giffords seat election dates". AZCentral.com. The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 2012.
  42. ^ "U.S. Representative Donald Payne dead at 77". New Jersey Real. March 6, 2012.
  43. ^ Livingston, Abby (March 30, 2012). "New Jersey: Special Election Dates For Payne Seat Set". Roll Call. Retrieved 2012.
  44. ^ "Inslee resigning House seat for governor's race". Politico.com. March 10, 2012.
  45. ^ Cornfield, Jerry (March 29, 2012). "Gregoire: Election in works to replace Inslee". HeraldNet. The Daily Herald. Retrieved 2012.
  46. ^ "Rep. Thaddeus McCotter resigns from Congress". Abcnews.com. July 6, 2012.
  47. ^ Toeplitz, Shira (July 10, 2012). "Michigan: Governor Calls Special Election for Thaddeus McCotter Seat". Retrieved 2012.
  48. ^ "Statement from congressman geoff davis". July 31, 2012. Archived from the original on August 2, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  49. ^ Associated Press (August 17, 2012). "Beshear calls special election to replace Davis".
  50. ^ Doyle, Michael (August 14, 2012). "Capitol Alert: Rep. Dennis Cardoza announces resignation". Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  51. ^ S.Res. 5, 112th Congress
  52. ^ a b c d H.Res. 1, Electing officers of the House of Representatives, 112th Congress
  53. ^ "VIDEO: Speaker Boehner Swears In Father Patrick J. Conroy as House Chaplain". May 25, 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  54. ^ Matthew A. Wasniewski (Matt) - Congressional Staffer Salary Data. Legistorm.com. Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  55. ^ Sergeant at Arms-United States House of Representatives
  56. ^ See: Rules of the House: "Other officers and officials" Archived June 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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