Apache Cordova
Apache Cordova
Open source Apache Cordova logo image.png
Original author(s) Joe Bowser, Michael Brooks, Rob Ellis, Dave Johnson, Anis Kadri, Brian Leroux, Jesse MacFadyen, Filip Maj, Eric Oesterle, Brock Whitten, Herman Wong, Shazron Abdullah
Stable release
7.0.1 / May 12, 2017 (2017-05-12)
Development status Active
Written in C#, C++, CSS, CSS3, HTML, HTML5, Java, JavaScript and Objective-C
Operating system Android, BlackBerry, Firefox OS, iOS, Symbian, Ubuntu Touch, webOS, Windows Phone, Windows 8
Available in English
Type mobile development framework
License Apache 2.0 License[1][2]
Website cordova.apache.org

Apache Cordova (formerly PhoneGap) is a mobile application development framework originally created by Nitobi. Adobe Systems purchased Nitobi in 2011, rebranded it as PhoneGap, and later released an open source version of the software called Apache Cordova.[3] Apache Cordova enables software programmers to build applications for mobile devices using CSS3, HTML5, and JavaScript instead of relying on platform-specific APIs like those in Android, iOS, or Windows Phone.[4] It enables wrapping up of CSS, HTML, and JavaScript code depending upon the platform of the device. It extends the features of HTML and JavaScript to work with the device. The resulting applications are hybrid, meaning that they are neither truly native mobile application (because all layout rendering is done via Web views instead of the platform's native UI framework) nor purely Web-based (because they are not just Web apps, but are packaged as apps for distribution and have access to native device APIs). Mixing native and hybrid code snippets has been possible since version 1.9.

The software was previously called just "PhoneGap", then "Apache Callback".[5][6] As open-source software, Apache Cordova allows wrappers around it, such as Appery.io or Intel XDK.

PhoneGap is Adobe's productised version and ecosystem on top of Cordova. Like PhoneGap, many other tools and frameworks are also built on top of Cordova, including Ionic,[7]Monaca, TACO, Onsen UI, Visual Studio, GapDebug, App Builder, Cocoon, Framework7, Evothings Studio, NSB/AppStudio, Mobiscroll, the Intel XDK,[8] and the Telerik Platform.[9] These tools use Cordova, and not PhoneGap for their core tools.

Contributors to the Apache Cordova project include Adobe, BlackBerry, Google, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Mozilla, and others.[10]

History

First developed at an iPhoneDevCamp event in San Francisco,[11] PhoneGap went on to win the People's Choice Award at O'Reilly Media's 2009 Web 2.0 Conference,[12] and the framework has been used to develop many apps.[13]Apple Inc. has confirmed that the framework has its approval, even with the new 4.0 developer license agreement changes.[14] The PhoneGap framework is used by several mobile application platforms such as Monaca,[15]appMobi,[16]Convertigo,[17][18]ViziApps,[19] and Worklight[20][21] as the backbone of their mobile client development engine.

Adobe officially announced the acquisition of Nitobi Software (the original developer) on October 4, 2011.[22] Coincident with that, the PhoneGap code was contributed to the Apache Software Foundation to start a new project called Apache Cordova. The project's original name, Apache Callback, was viewed as too generic.[23] Then, it also appears in Adobe Systems as Adobe PhoneGap and also as Adobe Phonegap Build.[24]

Early versions of PhoneGap required an Apple computer to create iOS apps and a Windows computer to create Windows Mobile apps. After September 2012, Adobe's PhoneGap Build service allows programmers to upload CSS, HTML, and JavaScript source code to a "cloud compiler" that generates apps for every supported platform.[25]

Design and rationale

The core of Apache Cordova applications use CSS3 and HTML5 for their rendering and JavaScript for their logic. HTML5 provides access to underlying hardware such as the accelerometer, camera, and GPS. However, browsers' support for HTML5-based device access is not consistent across mobile browsers, particularly older versions of Android. To overcome these limitations, Apache Cordova embeds the HTML5 code inside a native WebView on the device, using a foreign function interface to access the native resources of it.[26]

Apache Cordova can be extended with native plug-ins, allowing developers to add more functionalities that can be called from JavaScript, making it communicate directly between the native layer and the HTML5 page. These plugins allow access to the device's accelerometer, camera, compass, file system, microphone, and more.

However, the use of Web-based technologies leads some Apache Cordova applications to run slower than native applications with similar functionality.[27]Adobe Systems warns that applications may be rejected by Apple for being too slow or not feeling "native" enough (having appearance and functionality consistent with what users have come to expect on the platform). This can be an issue for some Apache Cordova applications.[28][29]

Supported platforms

Apache Cordova currently supports development for the operating systems Apple iOS, Bada, BlackBerry, Firefox OS,[30] Google Android,[31] LG webOS, Microsoft Windows Phone (7 and 8), Nokia Symbian OS, Tizen (SDK 2.x), and Ubuntu Touch. The table below is a list of supported features for each operating system.[32][33]

Feature Android[34] Apple iPhone /iPhone 3G Apple iPhone 3GS and newer Bada BlackBerry 10 and PlayBook OS BlackBerry OS 4.6-4.7 BlackBerry OS 5.0-6.0+ Firefox OS Symbian Tizen webOS Ubuntu Touch Windows Phone
Accelerometer Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Camera Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Compass Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes N/A N/A Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes
Contacts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A N/A Yes
File Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A Yes N/A Yes Yes
Geolocation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Media Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Yes Yes
Network Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Notification (alert, sound, vibration) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Storage Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

See also

References

  1. ^ "PhoneGap License". Phonegap.com. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ "FAQ | PhoneGap Build | Edge Tools & Services | Adobe & HTML". Html.adobe.com. Retrieved . 
  3. ^ "Adobe Announces Agreement to Acquire Nitobi, Creator of PhoneGap". Adobe.com. 2011-10-03. Retrieved . 
  4. ^ Jose Fermoso (April 5, 2009). "PhoneGap Seeks to Bridge the Gap Between Mobile App Platforms". GigaOM. Retrieved . 
  5. ^ Apache Callback
  6. ^ "Apache Callback Proposal". Wiki.phonegap.com. 2013-08-15. Retrieved . 
  7. ^ "The Last Word on Cordova and PhoneGap". The Official Ionic Blog. 
  8. ^ "Intel XDK". Intel Developer Zone. 
  9. ^ "Apache Cordova". Apache Cordova. 
  10. ^ "Cordova Contributor's Who's Who". apache.org. 2015-11-02. Retrieved . 
  11. ^ Darryl K. Taft (2009-03-13). "PhoneGap Simplifies iPhone, Android, BlackBerry Development". Eweek.com. Retrieved . 
  12. ^ Davis, Lidija (2009-04-02). "PhoneGap: People's Choice Winner at Web 2.0 Expo Launch Pad". Readwriteweb.com. Retrieved . 
  13. ^ "PhoneGap Apps". Phonegap.com. Retrieved . 
  14. ^ "PhoneGap and the Apple developer license agreement. « PhoneGap". Phonegap.com. 2010-04-14. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15. Retrieved . 
  15. ^ "Develop Awesome PhoneGap Apps with Awesome Tools". monaco.mobi. Retrieved . 
  16. ^ "Create Mobile and Web Apps with HTML5 and JavaScript |". appMobi.com. Retrieved . 
  17. ^ "Open Source Mobile Enablement and Enterprise Mashups". Convertigo. Retrieved . 
  18. ^ "Convertigo Mobilizer Uses PhoneGap Build APIs « PhoneGap". Phonegap.com. 2011-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved . 
  19. ^ "Create Mobile and Web Apps with HTML5 and JavaScript". ViziApps.com. Retrieved . 
  20. ^ "Mobile Application Platform and Tools". Worklight. 2012-01-16. Retrieved . 
  21. ^ "How PhoneGap plays an important part in our Enterprise offering PhoneGap". Phonegap.com. 2011-06-27. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15. Retrieved . 
  22. ^ Shankland, Stephen (2011-10-03). "Adobe buys PhoneGap, TypeKit for better Web tools | Deep Tech - CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved . 
  23. ^ "finding a new name that isn't PhoneGap - Brian LeRoux - org.apache.incubator.callback-dev". MarkMail. 2011-10-28. Retrieved . 
  24. ^ "Adobe PhoneGap Build". Adobe Systems Inc. 
  25. ^ Klint Finley. "Adobe Launches Hosted PhoneGap Build Service For Creating Cross-Platform Mobile Apps". 2012.
  26. ^ "The Development of Mobile Applications using HTML5 and PhoneGap on Intel Architecture-Based Platforms". 2012-06-22. Retrieved . However, HTML5 has some limitations. Most prominent, is the lack of API to access device hardware and sensors such as accelerometer, compass, GPS, etc. While native applications can access device hardware, they lack the portability that Web apps provide. Thus, a solution is to code a hybrid application, which cumulatively uses the benefits of native and Web apps. 
  27. ^ Sapan Diwakar (2012-06-21). "Titanium vs Phonegap vs Native application development". Retrieved . 
  28. ^ "PhoneGap advice on dealing with Apple application rejections". Adobe Systems. 2012-10-29. Retrieved . 
  29. ^ "Creating apps with PhoneGap: Lessons learned". Adobe Systems. 2012-09-17. Retrieved . When you add more complex CSS3 elements, heavy transitions, and supporting multiple devices (such as iOS and Android), however, it makes you realize that there are few steps you must iron out to prevent hair loss 
  30. ^ "Building Cordova apps for Firefox OS ? Mozilla Hacks - the Web developer blog". 20 February 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  31. ^ "Using PhoneGap and the Sony Ericsson WebSDK to develop Android apps". Android and Me. Retrieved . 
  32. ^ "Platform Support". Adobe PhoneGap. Retrieved . 
  33. ^ "PhoneGap supported features". Phonegap.com. Retrieved . 
  34. ^ https://cordova.apache.org/docs/en/latest/guide/platforms/android/index.html

Bibliography

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


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