This article needs to be updated.(March 2017)
Bharat stage emission standards (BSES) are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engines and Spark-ignition engines equipment, including motor vehicles. The standards and the timeline for implementation are set by the Central Pollution Control Board under the Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate change.
The standards, based on European regulations were first introduced in 2000. Progressively stringent norms have been rolled out since then. All new vehicles manufactured after the implementation of the norms have to be compliant with the regulations. Since October 2010, Bharat Stage (BS) III norms have been enforced across the country. In 13 major cities, Bharat Stage IV emission norms have been in place since April 2010 and it has been enforced for entire country since April 2017. In 2016, the Indian government announced that the country would skip the BS-V norms altogether and adopt BS-VI norms by 2020. In its recent judgment, the Supreme Court has banned the sale and registration of motor vehicles conforming to the emission standard Bharat Stage-IV in the entire country from April 1, 2020.
On November 15, 2017 The Petroleum Ministry of India in consultation with Public Oil Marketing Companies decided to bring forward the date of BS-VI grade auto fuels in NCT of Delhi with effect from April 1, 2018 instead of April 1, 2020. In fact, Petroleum Ministry OMCs were asked to examine the possibility of introduction of BS-VI auto fuels in the whole of NCR area from April 1, 2019. This huge step was taken due the heavy problem of air pollution faced by Delhi which became worse around this year. The decision was met with disarray by the automobile companies as they had planned the development according to roadmap for 2020.
The phasing out of 2-stroke engine for two wheelers, the cessation of production of Maruti 800 & introduction of electronic controls have been due to the regulations related to vehicular emissions.
While the norms help in bringing down pollution levels, it invariably results in increased vehicle cost due to the improved technology & higher fuel prices. However, this increase in private cost is offset by savings in health costs for the public, as there is lesser amount of disease causing particulate matter and pollution in the air. Exposure to air pollution can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, which is estimated to be the cause for 6.2 lakh early deaths in 2010, and the health cost of air pollution in India has been assessed at 3% of its GDP.
The first emission norms were introduced in India in 1991 for petrol and 1992 for diesel vehicles. These were followed by making the Catalytic converter mandatory for petrol vehicles and the introduction of unleaded petrol in the market.
On 29 April 1999 the Supreme Court of India ruled that all vehicles in India have to meet Euro I or India 2000 norms by 1 June 1999 and Euro II will be mandatory in the NCR by April 2000. Car makers were not prepared for this transition and in a subsequent judgement the implementation date for Euro II was not enforced.
In 2002, the Indian government accepted the report submitted by the Mashelkar committee. The committee proposed a road map for the roll out of Euro based emission norms for India. It also recommended a phased implementation of future norms with the regulations being implemented in major cities first and extended to the rest of the country after a few years.
Based on the recommendations of the committee, the National Auto Fuel policy was announced officially in 2003. The roadmap for implementation of the Bharat Stage norms were laid out till 2010. The policy also created guidelines for auto fuels, reduction of pollution from older vehicles and R&D for air quality data creation and health administration.
|India 2000||Euro 1||2000||Nationwide|
|Bharat Stage II||Euro 2||2001||NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai|
|2003.04||NCR*, 13 Cities+|
|Bharat Stage III||Euro 3||2005.04||NCR*, 13 Cities+|
|Bharat Stage IV||Euro 4||2010.04||NCR*, 13 Cities+|
|Bharat Stage V||Euro 5||(to be skipped)|
|Bharat Stage VI||Euro 6||2018.04||Delhi |
|* National Capital Region (Delhi)
+ Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Lucknow, Sholapur, Jamshedpur and Agra
The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities.
Progress of emission standards for 2-and 3-wheelers:
|Bharat Stage II||Euro 2||1 April 2005|
|Bharat Stage III||Euro 3||1 April 2010|
|Bharat Stage IV||Euro 4||1 April 2017|
|Bharat Stage VI||Euro 6||April 2020 with mandate (proposed)|
In order to comply with the BSIV norms, 2- and 3-wheeler manufacturers will have to fit an evaporative emission control unit, which should lower the amount of fuel that is evaporated when the motorcycle is parked.
Emission standards for new heavy-duty diesel engines--applicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kg--are listed in Table 3.
|2000||Euro I||ECE R49||4.5||1.1||8.0||0.36*|
|2005+||Euro II||ECE R49||4.0||1.1||7.0||0.15|
|* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
+ earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ? only in selected regions, see Table 1
More details on Euro I-III regulations can be found in the section on EU heavy-duty engine standards.
Emission standards for light-duty diesel vehicles (GVW EU light-duty vehicle emission standards for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW
|+ earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1
? only in selected regions, see Table 1
The test cycle has been the ECE + EUDC for low power vehicles (with maximum speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle.
Engines for use in light-duty vehicles can be also emission tested using an engine dynamo-meter. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 5.
|* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW
+ earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1
Emissions standards for petrol vehicles (GVW EU light-duty vehicle emission standards). The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW
|* for catalytic converter fitted vehicles|
+ earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ? only in selected regions, see Table 1
Petrol vehicles must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test (effective 2000).
Emission standards for 3- and 2-wheel petrol vehicles are listed in the following tables.
|2005 (BS II)||2.25||-||2.00|
|2010.04 (BS III)||1.25||-||1.25|
|2005 (BS II)||1.5||-||1.5|
|2010.04 (BS III)||1.0||-||1.0|
India's auto sector accounts for about 18% of the total CO2 emissions in the country. Relative CO2 emissions from transport have risen rapidly in recent years, but like the EU, currently there are no standards for CO2 emission limits for pollution from vehicles.
There is also no provision to make the CO2 emissions labelling mandatory on cars in the country. A system exists in the EU to ensure that information relating to the fuel economy and CO2 emissions of new passenger cars offered for sale or lease in the Community is made available to consumers to enable consumers to make an informed choice.
Emission standards for diesel construction machinery were adopted on 21 September 2006. The standards are structured into two tiers:
The standards are summarised in the following table:
|Bharat (CEV) Stage II|
|P < 8||2008.10||8.0||1.3||-||9.2||1.00|
|Bharat (CEV) Stage III|
|P < 8||2011.04||8.0||-||7.5||-||0.80|
The limit values apply for both type approval (TA) and conformity of production (COP) testing. Testing is performed on an engine dynamo-meter over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) and D2 (5-mode) test cycles. The Bharat Stage III standards must be met over the useful life periods shown in Table 11. Alternatively, manufacturers may use fixed emission deterioration factors of 1.1 for CO, 1.05 for HC, 1.05 for NOx, and 1.1 for PM.
|Power Rating||Useful Life Period|
|< 19 kW||3,000|
|19-37 kW||constant speed||3,000|
|> 37 kW||8,000|
Emission standards for diesel agricultural tractors are summarised in Table 12.
|Bharat (Trem) Stage I|
|Bharat (Trem) Stage II|
|Bharat (Trem) Stage III|
|Bharat (Trem) Stage III A|
|P < 8||2010.04||5.5||-||8.5||-||0.80|
Emissions are tested over the ISO 8178 C1 (8-mode) cycle. For Bharat (Trem) Stage III A, the useful life periods and deterioration factors are the same as for Bharat (CEV) Stage III, Table 11.
Emissions from new diesel engines used in generator sets have been regulated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India [GSR 371 (E), 17 May 2002]. The regulations impose type approval certification, production conformity testing and labelling requirements. Certification agencies include the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) and the Vehicle Research and Development Establishment (VRDE). The emission standards are listed below.
|Engine Power (P)||Date||CO||HC||NOx||PM||Smoke|
|19 kW < P||2004.01||5.0||1.3||9.2||0.5||0.7|
|50 kW < P||2004.01||3.5||1.3||9.2||0.3||0.7|
|176 kW < P||2004.11||3.5||1.3||9.2||0.3||0.7|
Engines are tested over the 5-mode ISO 8178 D2 test cycle. Smoke opacity is measured at full load.
|2003.07 - 2005.06||150||100||970||75|
Concentrations are corrected to dry exhaust conditions with 15% residual O2.
The emission standards for thermal power plants in India are being enforced based on Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 of Government of India and it's amendments from time to time. A summary of emission norms for coal- and gas-based thermal power plants is given in Tables 15 and 16.
|Coal based thermal plants|
|Below 210 MW||Particulate matter (PM)||350 mg/N·m3|
|210 MW & above||150 mg/N·m3|
|500 MW & above||50 mg/N·m3|
|Gas based thermal plants|
|400 MW & above||NOX(V/V at 15% excess oxygen)||50 PPM for natural gas; 100 PPM for naphtha|
|Below 400 MW & up to 100 MW||75 PPM for natural gas; 100 PPM for naphtha|
|Below 100 MW||100 PPM for naphtha/natural gas|
|For conventional boilers||100 PPM|
|Power Generation Capacity||Stack Height (Metre)|
|Less than 200/210 MWe||H = 14 (Q)0.3 where Q is emission rate of SO2 in kg/h,|
H = Stack height in metres
|200/210 MWe or less than 500 MWe 200||200|
|500 MWe and above||275 (+ Space provision for FGD systems in future)|
The norm for 500 MW and above coal-based power plant being practised is 40 to 50 mg/N·m and space is provided in the plant layout for super thermal power stations for installation of flue gas desulfurisation (FGD) system. But FGD is not installed, as it is not required for low sulphur Indian coals while considering SOx emission from individual chimney.
In addition to the above emission standards, the selection of a site for a new power plant has to maintain the local ambient air quality as given in Table 17.
|Industrial and mixed-use||500||120||5,000||120|
|Residential and rural||200||80||2,000||80|
|Existing Air Quality||Recommendation|
|SOx > 100 ?g/m3||No project|
|SOx = 100 ?g/m3||Polluted area, max from a project 100 t/day|
|SOx < 50 ?g/m3||Unpolluted area, max from a project 500 t/day|
However the norms for SOx are even stricter for selection of sites for World Bank funded projects (refer Table 18). For example, if SOx level is higher than 100 ?g/m3, no project with further SOx emission can be set up; if SOx level is 100 ?g/m3, it is called polluted area and maximum emission from a project should not exceed 100 t/day; and if SOx is less than 50 ?g/m3, it is called unpolluted area, but the SOx emission from a project should not exceed 500 t/day. The stipulation for NOx emission is that its emission should not exceed 260 g of NOx/GJ of heat input.
In view of the above, it may be seen that improved environment norms are linked to financing and are being enforced by international financial institutions and not by the policies/laws of land.
Fuel quality plays a very important role in meeting the stringent emission regulation.
The fuel specifications of petrol and diesel have been aligned with the Corresponding European Fuel Specifications for meeting the Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV emission norms.
The BS IV grade fuel was introduced in 2010 and is available in 39 cities, as reported in 2016. The rest of the country has to make do with BS III fuel.
The use of alternative fuels has been promoted in India both for energy security and emission reduction. Delhi and Mumbai have more than 1 lakh commercial vehicles running on CNG fuel. Delhi has the largest number of CNG commercial vehicles running anywhere in the World. India is planning to introduce Bio-diesel, ethanol petrol blends in a phased manner and has drawn up a road map for the same. The Indian auto industry is working with the authorities to facilitate for introduction of the alternative fuels. India has also set up a task force for preparing the Hydrogen road map. The use of LPG has also been introduced as an auto fuel and the oil industry has drawn up plans for setting up of auto LPG dispensing stations in major cities.
|Serial No.||Characteristics||Unit||Bharat Stage II||Bharat Stage III||Bharat Stage IV||Bharat Stage V||Bharat Stage VI|
|1||Density 15 °C||kg/m3||710-770||720-775||720-775|
|3||a) Recovery up to 70 °C (E70)
b) Recovery up to 100 °C (E100)
c) Recovery up to 180 °C (E180)
d) Recovery up to 150 °C (E150)
e) Final Boiling Point (FBP), Max
f) Residue Max
|4||Research Octane Number (RON), Min||88||91||91|
|5||Anti Knock Index (AKI)/ MON, Min||84 (AKI)||81 (MON)||81 (MON)|
|6||Sulphur, Total, Max||% mass||0.05||150 mg/kg||50 mg/kg||10 mg/kg||10 mg/kg|
|7||Lead Content (as Pb), Max||g/l||0.013||0.005||0.005|
|8||Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP), Max||Kpa||35-60||60||60|
|9||Benzene, Content, Max
a) For Metros
b) For the rest
|10||Olefin content, Max||% Volume||-||21||21|
|11||Aromatic Content, Max||% Volume||-||42||35<|
|1||Density kg/m3 15 °C||820-800||820-845||820-845|
|2||Sulphur Content mg/kg max||500||350||50||10||10|
|Cetane Number minimum and / or
|4||Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon||-||11||11|
Reco Min At 350 °C
Reco Min At 370 °C
95% Vol Reco at 0 °C
|1995||Cetane number: 45; Sulfur: 1%|
|1996||Sulfur: 0.5% (Delhi + selected cities)|
|1998||Sulfur: 0.25% (Delhi)|
|1999||Sulfur: 0.05% (Delhi, limited supply)|
|2000||Cetane number: 48; Sulfur: 0.25% (Nationwide)|
|2001||Sulfur: 0.05% (Delhi + selected cities)|
|2005||Sulfur: 350 ppm (Euro 3; selected areas)|
|2010||Sulfur: 350 ppm (Euro 3; nationwide)|
|2016||Sulfur: 50 ppm (Euro 4; major cities)|
|2017||Sulfur: 50 ppm (Euro 4; nationwide)|
|2020 (proposed)||Sulfur: 10ppm (Euro 6; entire country)|
|S No||Characteristics||Requirement||Method of Test, ref to|
|Other Methods||[P:] of IS 1448|
|i.||Density at 15 °C, kg/m3||860-900||ISO 3675||P:16/|
|ii.||Kinematic Viscosity at 40 °C, cSt||2.5-6.0||ISO 3104||P:25|
|iii.||Flash point (PMCC) °C, min||120||P:21|
|iv.||Sulphur, mg/kg max||50.0||ASTM D 5453||P:83|
|v||Carbon residue (Ramsbottom)*, % by mass, max||0.05||ASTM D 4530ISO 10370||-|
|vi.||Sulfated ash, % by mass, max||0.02||ISO 6245||P:4|
|vii.||Water content, mg/kg, max||500||ASTM D 2709||P:40|
|viii||Total contamination, mg/kg, max||24||EN 12662||-|
|ix||Cu corrosion, 3 h at 50 °C, max||1||ISO 2160||P:15|
|x||Cetane No, min||51||ISO 5156||P:9|
|xi||Acid value, mg KOH/g, max||0.50||-||P:1 / Sec 1|
|xii||Methanol @, % by mass, max||0.20||EN 14110||-|
|xiii||Ethanol, @@ % by mass, max||0.20||-|
|xiv||Ester content, % by mass, min||96.5||EN 14103||-|
|xv||Free Glycerol, % by mass, max||0.02||ASTM D 6584||-|
|xvi||Total Glycerol, % by mass, max||0.25||ASTM D 6584||-|
|xvii||Phosphorus, mg/kg, max||10.0||ASTMD 4951||-|
|xviii||Sodium & Potassium, mg/kg, max||To report||EN 14108 &||-|
|xix||Calcium and Magnesium, mg/kg, max||To report||**||-|
|xx||Iodine value||To report||EN 14104||-|
|xxi||Oxidation stability, at 110 °C h, min||6||EN 14112||-|
|* Carbon residue shall be run on 100% sample
** European method is under development
Presently, all vehicles need to undergo a periodic emission check (3 months/ 6 months) at PUC Centres at Fuel Stations and Private Garages which are authorised to check the vehicles. In addition, transport vehicles need to undergo an annual fitness check carried out by RTOs for emissions, safety and road-worthiness.
The objective of reducing pollution not achieved to a large extent by the present system. Some reasons for this are: - Independent centres do not follow rigorous procedures due to inadequate training - Equipment not subjected to periodic calibration by independent authority - Lack of professionalism has led to malpractice - Tracking system of vehicles failing to meet norms non-existent
The Bharat Stage norms have been styled to suit specific needs and demands of Indian conditions. The differences lie essentially in environmental and geographical needs, even though the emission standards are exactly the same.
For instance, Euro-III is tested at sub-zero temperatures in European countries. In India, where the average annual temperature ranges between 24 and 28 °C, the test is done away with.
Another major distinction is in the maximum speed at which the vehicle is tested. A speed of 90 km/h is stipulated for BS-III, whereas it is 120 km/h for Euro-III, keeping emission limits the same in both cases
In addition to limits, test procedure has certain finer points too. For instance, the mass emission test measurements done in g/km on a chassis dynamometer requires a loading of 100 kg weight in addition to unloaded car weight in Europe. In India, BS-III norms require an extra loading of 150 kg weight to achieve the desired inertia weight mainly due to road conditions here.
Various groups and agencies have criticised the government and urged the government of India to draft mandatory fuel efficiency standards for cars in the country, or at least to make the CO2 emissions labelling mandatory on all new cars in the country. The auto companies should inform the customers about a vehicle's emissions.
This section needs to be updated.(March 2017)
There has been criticism of the fact that the Indian norms lag the Euro norms. As of 2014, only a few cities meet Euro IV or Bharat Stage IV standards that are nine years behind Europe. The rest of India gets Bharat Stage III standard fuel and vehicles, which are 14 years behind Europe. Also, there was a suggestion from some bodies to implement Euro IV norms after Euro II norms, skipping the Euro III norms totally. This is because the Euro III norms are only a small improvement over Euro II, whereas Euro IV norms mark a big leap over Euro II. According to a study conducted by the Desert Research Institute and the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, the only way to stabilise fine particulates (PM2.5) at the 2011 levels despite the five-fold rise in vehicular density is nationwide implementation of Bharat V standards by 2015.
For the emission standards to deliver real emission reductions it is crucial that the test cycles under which the emissions have to comply as much as possible reflect normal driving situations. It was discovered that manufacturers of engine would engage in what was called 'cycle beating' to optimise emission performance to the test cycle, while emissions from typical driving conditions would be much higher than expected, undermining the standards and public health. In one particular instance, research from two German technology institutes found that for diesel cars no 'real' NOx reductions have been achieved after 13 years of stricter standards.
In India the Rules and Regulations related to driving licence, registration of motor vehicles, control of traffic, construction & maintenance of motor vehicles etc. are governed by the Motor Vehicles Act 1988 (MVA) and the Central Motor Vehicles rules 1989 (CMVR). The Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways (MoSRT&H) acts as a nodal agency for formulation and implementation of various provisions of the Motor Vehicle Act and CMVR.
To involve all stake holders in regulation formulation, MoSRT&H has constituted two Committees to deliberate and advise Ministry on issues relating to Safety and Emission Regulations, namely -
This Committee advises MoSRT&H on various technical aspects related to CMVR. This Committee has representatives from various organisations namely; Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises (MoHI&PE)), MoSRT&H, Bureau Indian Standards (BIS), Testing Agencies such as Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI),International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT - www.icat.in), Vehicle Research Development & Establishment (VRDE), Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT), industry representatives from Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), Automotive Component Manufacturers Association (ACMA) and Tractor Manufacturers Association (TMA) and representatives from State Transport Departments. Major functions the Committee are:
CMVR-TSC is assisted by another Committee called the Automobile Industry Standards Committee (AISC) having members from various stakeholders in drafting the technical standards related to Safety. The major functions of the committee are as follows:
The National Standards for Automotive Industry are prepared by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The standards formulated by AISC are also converted into Indian Standards by BIS. The standards formulated by both BIS and AISC are considered by CMVR-TSC for implementation.
This Committee deliberates the issues related to implementation of emission regulation. Major functions of this Committee are -
Based on the recommendations from CMVR-TSC and SCOE, MoSRT&H issues notification for necessary amendments / modifications to the Central Motor Vehicle Rules.
In addition, the other Ministries like Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF), Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoPNG) and Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources are also involved in formulation of regulations relating to Emissions, Noise, Fuels and Alternative Fuel vehicles.
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