Burmese numerals (Burmese: , [mjà?mà ?a?ná?]) are a set of numerals traditionally used in the Burmese language, although Arabic numerals are also used. Burmese numerals follow the Hindu-Arabic numeral system commonly used in the rest of the world.
Number | Burmese | ||
---|---|---|---|
Numeral | Written (MLCTS) |
IPA | |
0 | ? | ^{1} (su.nya.) |
IPA: [?òa?] |
1 | ? | (tac) |
IPA: [t] |
2 | ? | ? (hnac) |
IPA: [n] |
3 | ? | ? (sum:) |
IPA: [?ó] |
4 | ? | (le:) |
IPA: [lé] |
5 | ? | (nga:) |
IPA: [?á] |
6 | ? | (hkrauk) |
IPA: [ta] |
7 | ? | (hku. nac) |
IPA: [k? n]^{2} |
8 | ? | ? (hrac) |
IPA: [] |
9 | ? | ? (kui:) |
IPA: [kó] |
10 | (ta. hcai) |
IPA: [s] |
^{1} Burmese for zero comes from Sanskrit nya.
^{2} Can be abbreviated to IPA: [k?] in list contexts, such as telephone numbers.
Spoken Burmese has innate pronunciation rules that govern numbers when they are combined with another word, be it a numerical place (e.g. tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.) or a measure word.^{[1]}
These pronunciation shifts are exclusively confined to spoken Burmese and are not spelt any differently.
Number | Burmese | ||
---|---|---|---|
Numeral | Written | IPA | |
10 | IPA: [t?s]^{1} | ||
11 | IPA: [t?s t] or [s t] | ||
12 | ? | IPA: [t?s n] or [s n] | |
20 | ? | IPA: [ns] | |
21 | IPA: [ns t] or [ns t] | ||
22 | IPA: [ns n] or [ns n] | ||
100 | IPA: [jà] | ||
1 000 | ? | IPA: [t?à]^{1} | |
10 000 | IPA: [?á]^{1} | ||
100 000 | IPA: [?é]^{1} | ||
1 000 000 | ? | ? | IPA: [?á?]^{1} |
10 000 000 | ? | IPA: [dè] | |
1 × 10^{14} | . | IPA: [kd?] | |
1 × 10^{21} | . | IPA: [p?kd?] | |
1 × 10^{28} | . | IPA: [kd?p?kd?] | |
1 × 10^{35} | . | IPA: [n?hotà?] | |
1 × 10^{42} | . | IPA: [nen?hotà?] | |
1 × 10^{49} | . | IPA: [k?àbènì] | |
1 × 10^{56} | . | IPA: [bedu?] | |
1 × 10^{63} | . | IPA: [à?bu?da?] | |
1 × 10^{70} | . | IPA: [ni?rà?bu?da?] | |
1 × 10^{77} | . | IPA: [b?ba?] | |
1 × 10^{84} | . | IPA: [t?ta?] | |
1 × 10^{91} | . | IPA: [kà?di?ka?] | |
1 × 10^{98} | . | IPA: [?op?la?] | |
1 × 10^{105} | . | IPA: [ku?mùda?] | |
1 × 10^{112} | . | ? | IPA: [p?dùma?] |
1 × 10^{119} | . | IPA: [pòd?ri?ka?] | |
1 × 10^{126} | . | ? | IPA: [k?tàna?] |
1 × 10^{133} | . | ? | IPA: [m?hàk?tàna?] |
1 × 10^{140} | . | IPA: [ì? tèi] |
^{1} Shifts to voiced consonant following three, four, five, and nine.
Ten to nineteen are almost always expressed without including (one).
Another pronunciation rule shifts numerical place name (the tens, hundreds and thousands place) from the low tone to the creaky tone.^{[1]}
Hence, a number like 301 is pronounced [?ó ja? t] (?), while 300 is pronounced [?ó jà] ().
The digits of a number are expressed in order of decreasing digits place. For example, 1,234,567 is expressed as follows (where the highlighted portions represent numbers whose tone has shifted from low -> creaky:
Numeral | 1,000,000 | 200,000 | 30,000 | 4,000 | 500 | 60 | 7 | |
Burmese | ||||||||
IPA | [tá?]^{1} | [ne]^{1} | [?ó ðá] | [lé da] | [?á ja?] | [ta s] | [k? n] | |
Written | ? | ? | ? |
^{1} When combined with the numeral place, the pronunciations for 1 and 2 shift from a checked tone (glottal stop) to an open vowel ([?]).
When a number is used as an adjective, the standard word order is: number + measure word (e.g. ? ? for "5 cups"). However, for round numbers (numbers ending in zeroes), the word order is flipped to: measure word + number (e.g. , not , for "20 bottles").^{[2]} The exception to this rule is the number 10, which follows the standard word order.^{[1]}
Ordinal numbers, from first to tenth, are Burmese pronunciations of their Pali equivalents.^{[1]} They are prefixed to the noun. Beyond that, cardinal numbers can be raised to the ordinal by suffixing the particle ([mja], lit. "to raise") to the number in the following order: number + measure word + .
Ordinal | Burmese | Pali equivalent | |
---|---|---|---|
Burmese | IPA | ||
First | IPA: [p?tma?] | pa?hama^{[1]} | |
Second | IPA: [d?t?ja?] | dutiya^{[1]} | |
Third | ? | IPA: [ta?t?ja?] | tatiya^{[1]} |
Fourth | IPA: [z?dot?a?] | catuttha^{[1]} | |
Fifth | IPA: [pjs?ma?] | pañcama^{[1]} | |
Sixth | IPA: [s?a?t?a?ma?] | chahama^{[1]} | |
Seventh | IPA: [?a?t?ma?] | sattama^{[1]} | |
Eighth | IPA: [?a?t?ama?] | ahama^{[1]} | |
Ninth | IPA: [n?w?ma?] | navama^{[1]} | |
Tenth | IPA: [dama?] | dasama^{[1]} |
Colloquially, decimal numbers are formed by saying ([dama?], Pali for 'tenth') where the decimal separator is located. For example, 10.1 is ([s?è da? (da?) ma? t]).
Half (1/2) is expressed primarily by ([t?w]), although , ? and are also used. Quarter (1/4) is expressed with ([se]) or ?.
Other fractional numbers are verbally expressed as follows: denominator + ([pò]) + numerator + . literally translates as "portion." For example, 3/4 would be expressed as ?, literally "of four portions, three portions.
Other numbers, not of Tibeto-Burman origin, are also found in the Burmese language, usually from Pali or Sanskrit.^{[3]} They are exceedingly rare in modern usage.
Number | Pali derivatives | Sanskrit derivatives | Hindi derivatives |
---|---|---|---|
1 | ^{[4]} ([?èka?], from Pali ?ka) | ||
2 | ^{[4]} ([dw?], from Pali dvi) | ||
3 | (from Pali ti) | ^{[4]} ([t], from Sanskrit tri) | |
4 | ^{[4]} ([z?t?], from Pali catu) | ^{[4]} (from Hindi ) |
Media related to Burmese numbers at Wikimedia Commons
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