Chakma Alphabet
Chakma
Chakma Letter-Biplob Rahman.jpg
Type
LanguagesChakma language
Parent systems
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Cakm, 349
Unicode alias
Chakma
U+11100–U+1114F

The Chakma alphabet (Ajh? ph), also called Ojhapath, Ojhopath, Aaojhapath, is an abugida used for the Chakma language.

Origin

The Chakma alphabet is probably descended from Brahmi through Pallava. Proto Chakma developed around the 6th century CE. Old Chakma developed in the 8th century CE. Classical Literary Chakma was used in the 11th to 15th centuries and the current Standard Chakma was developed and revived in the 20th century.[]

Classical Chakma was probably a sister script of Tai Tham and Tai Lue scripts of Northern Thailand also from the 8th century CE.[]

Structure

Chakma is of the Brahmic type: the consonant letters contain an inherent vowel. Unusually for Brahmic scripts, the inherent vowel in Chakma is a long '?' (a:) as opposed to short 'a' (?) which is standard in most other languages of India such as Hindi, Marathi or Tamil. Consonant clusters are written with conjunct characters, and a visible vowel killer shows the deletion of the inherent vowel when there is no conjunct.

Vowels

Four independent vowels exist: ? a, ? i, ? u, and ? e. Other vowels in initial position are formed by adding the vowel sign to ? a, as in ?, ?, ai, oi. Some modern writers are generalizing this spelling in i, u, and e.

Chakma vowel signs with the letter ? ka are given below:

? Ka = ? Ka

Ka = ? K? + ? - a (11127)

Ki = ? K? + ? - i (11128)

K? = ? K? + ? - ? (11129)

Ku = ? K? + ? - u (1112A)

K? = ? K? + ? - ? (1112B)

Ke = ? K? + ? - e (1112C)

K?i = ? K? + ? - ?i (1112D)

Ko = ? K? + ? - o (1112E)

Kau = ? K? + ? - au (1112F)

Koi = ? K? + ? - oi (11130)

Ka? = ? K? + ? - ? (11100)

Ka? = ? K? + ? - ? (11101)

Ka? = ? K? + ? - ? (11102)

K = ? K? + ? - MAAYYAA (11134)

One of the interesting features of Chakma writing is that candrabindu (c?naphud?) can be used together with anusvara (ekaphud?) and visarga (dviphud?):

A = ? ? + ? h +

A = ? ? + ? ? +

U = ? u + ? ? +

Mu? = ? m? + ? u +

Consonants with killed Vowels and Conjunct Consonants

Like other Brahmic scripts, Chakma makes use of the maayyaa (killer) to invoke conjoined consonants. In the past, practice was much more common than it is today. Like the Myanmar script, Chakma is encoded with two vowel-killing characters in order to conform to modern user expectations. As shown above, most letters have their vowels killed with the use of the explicit maayyaa:

k = ? k? + ? MAAYYAA

In 2001 an orthographic reform was recommended in the book Cm? pattham p?t which would limit the standard repertoire of conjuncts to those composed with the five letters ? y?, ? r?, ? l?, ? w?, and ? n?. The four here are the most widely accepted repertoire of conjuncts.

ya: X + ? VIRAMA + ? y?

- -

- -

ra: X + ? VIRAMA + ? r?

- -

- -

la: X + ? VIRAMA + ? l?

- -

- -

wa: X + ? VIRAMA + ? w?

- -

- -

No separate conjunct forms of subjoined full-form -y? or -r? appear to exist. The fifth of these conjuncts, the -na conjunct, is exemplary of the orthographic shift which has taken place in the Chakma language.

na: X + ? VIRAMA + ? n?

- -

- -

While some writers would indeed write kakna (in ligating style) as ? or (in subjoining style) as ?, most now would probably expect it to be written as ?. The ligating style of glyphs is now considered old-fashioned. Thus, taking the letter ? m? as the second element, while the glyph shapes km?, tm?, nm?, bb?, mm?, ll?, sm?, and hm? are attested, most users now prefer the glyph shapes km?, tm?, nm?, bb?, mm?, ll?, sm?, and hm?. Again, this distinction is stylistic and not orthographic.

The 2004 book Phadaga? shows examples of the five conjuncts above together alongside conjuncts formed with ? b?, ? m?, and ? h?. These are all formed by simple subjoining.

ba: X + ? VIRAMA + ? n?

- -

- -

ma: X + ? VIRAMA + ? n?

- -

- -

ha: X + ? VIRAMA + ? n?

- -

- -

In the 1982 book Cm?r ?g pudhi a much wider range of conjunct pairs is shown, some of them with fairly complicated glyphs:

Kk? = ? K? + ? VIRAMA + ? K?

Kt? = ? K? + ? VIRAMA + ? T?

Kt? = ? K? + ? VIRAMA + ? T?

Km? = ? K? + ? VIRAMA + ? M?

Kc? = ? K? + ? VIRAMA + ? C?

?k? = ? + ? VIRAMA + ? K?

?k? = ? + ? VIRAMA + ? G?

cc? = ? c? + ? VIRAMA + ? C?

Cch? = ? C? + ? VIRAMA + ? Ch?

ñc? = ? ñ? + ? VIRAMA + ? C?

ñj? = ? ñ? + ? VIRAMA + ? J?

Ñjh? = ? ñ? + ? VIRAMA + ? Jh?

Tt? = ? T? + ? VIRAMA + ? T?

Tt? = ? T? + ? VIRAMA + ? T?

Tm? = ? T? + ? VIRAMA + ? m?

Tth? = ? T? + ? VIRAMA + ? Th?

Dd? = ? D? + ? VIRAMA + ? D?

Ddh? = ? D? + ? VIRAMA + ? Dh?

nt? = ? n? + ? VIRAMA + ? t?

nth? = ? n? + ? VIRAMA + ? th?

nm? = ? n? + ? VIRAMA + ? m?

pp? = ? p? + ? VIRAMA + ? p?

bb? = ? b? + ? VIRAMA + ? b?

mm? = ? m? + ? VIRAMA + ? m?

jj? = ? j? + ? VIRAMA + ? j?

lk? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? k?

lg? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? g?

ll? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? l?

lt? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? t?

lp? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? p?

lch? = ? l? + ? VIRAMA + ? ch?

st? = ? s? + ? VIRAMA + ? t?

sk? = ? s? + ? VIRAMA + ? k?

sp? = ? s? + ? VIRAMA + ? p?

sm? = ? s? + ? VIRAMA + ? m?

hm? = ? h? + ? VIRAMA + ? hm?

Letter, punctuation and digit names

Chakma letters have a descriptive name followed by a traditional Brahmic consonant. These are given in annotations to the character names. Alongside a single and double danda punctuation, Chakma has a unique question mark, and a section sign, Phulacihna. There is some variation in the glyphs for the Phulacihna,some looking like flowers or leaves. A set of digits exists although Bengali digits are also used.

Unicode

Chakma script was added to the Unicode Standard in January, 2012 with the release of version 6.1.

The Unicode block for Chakma script is U+11100–U+1114F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points:

Chakma[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1110x 𑄀 𑄁 𑄂 𑄃 𑄄 𑄅 𑄆 𑄇 𑄈 𑄉 𑄊 𑄋 𑄌 𑄍 𑄎 𑄏
U+1111x 𑄐 𑄑 𑄒 𑄓 𑄔 𑄕 𑄖 𑄗 𑄘 𑄙 𑄚 𑄛 𑄜 𑄝 𑄞 𑄟
U+1112x 𑄠 𑄡 𑄢 𑄣 𑄤 𑄥 𑄦 𑄧 𑄨 𑄩 𑄪 𑄫 𑄬 𑄭 𑄮 𑄯
U+1113x 𑄰 𑄱 𑄲 𑄳 𑄴 𑄶 𑄷 𑄸 𑄹 𑄺 𑄻 𑄼 𑄽 𑄾 𑄿
U+1114x 𑅀 𑅁 𑅂 𑅃 𑅄 𑅅 𑅆
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

References

Protoype Chakma Keyboard

Further reading

  • Everson, Michael; Hosken, Martin (August 13, 2009). "Proposal for encoding the Chakma script in the UCS" (PDF). The Unicode Consortium.
  • ' ?' ? ? [RibengUni will be written in the Chakma language]. Kaler Kantho. 2012-06-18. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01. Retrieved .

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Chakma_alphabet
 



 

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