Chancellor of the Exchequer

Chancellor of the Exchequer
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
Official portrait of Mr Philip Hammond.jpg
Incumbent
Philip Hammond

since 13 July 2016 (2016-07-13)
Her Majesty's Treasury
StyleChancellor
(informal)
The Right Honourable
(within the UK and the Commonwealth)
Member ofCabinet
Privy Council
National Security Council
Reports toPrime Minister of the United Kingdom
Residence11 Downing Street
SeatWestminster
AppointerThe Monarch
on advice of the Prime Minister
Term lengthAt Her Majesty's pleasure
Formation22 June 1316
First holderHervey de Stanton
in the Kingdom of England only
DeputyChief Secretary to the Treasury
Salary£69,552 (excluding salary as MP)
Websitewww.gov.uk

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer,[a] or simply the Chancellor,[1] is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury. The office is a British Cabinet-level position.

The chancellor is responsible for all economic and financial matters, equivalent to the role of finance minister in other nations. The position is considered one of the four Great Offices of State, and in recent times has come to be the most powerful office in British politics after the prime minister.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer is now always Second Lord of the Treasury as one of the Lords Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Treasurer. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, it was common for the prime minister also to serve as Chancellor of the Exchequer if he sat in the Commons; the last chancellor who was simultaneously prime minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer was Stanley Baldwin in 1923. Formerly, in cases when the chancellorship was vacant, the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench would act as Chancellor pro tempore.[2] The last Lord Chief Justice to serve in this way was Lord Denman in 1834.

The chancellor is the third-oldest major state office in English and British history; it originally carried responsibility for the Exchequer, the medieval English institution for the collection and auditing of royal revenues which dates from the Anglo-Saxon period[3] and survived the Norman conquest of England.[4]:149 The earliest surviving records which are the results of the exchequer's audit, date from 1129-30 under King Henry I and show continuity from previous years.[5] The chancellor controlled monetary policy as well as fiscal policy until 1997, when the Bank of England was granted independent control of its interest rates. The chancellor also has oversight of public spending across Government departments.

Second Lord of the Treasury

The holder of the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer is ex officio Second Lord of the Treasury as a member of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer.[6] As the Second Lord, his official residence is 11 Downing Street in London, next door to the residence of the First Lord of the Treasury (a title that has for many years been held by the prime minister), who resides in 10 Downing Street. While in the past both houses were private residences, today they serve as interlinked offices, with the occupant living in an apartment made from attic rooms previously resided in by servants.

Since 1827, the chancellor has always simultaneously held the office of Second Lord of the Treasury when that person has not also been the prime minister.

Roles and responsibilities

A previous chancellor, Robert Lowe, described the office in the following terms in the House of Commons, on 11 April 1870: "The Chancellor of the Exchequer is a man whose duties make him more or less of a taxing machine. He is entrusted with a certain amount of misery which it is his duty to distribute as fairly as he can."

Fiscal policy

The chancellor has considerable control over other departments as it is the Treasury which sets Departmental Expenditure Limits. The amount of power this gives to an individual chancellor depends on his personal forcefulness, his status within his party and his relationship with the prime minister. Gordon Brown, who became chancellor when Labour came into Government in 1997, had a large personal power base in the party. Perhaps as a result, Tony Blair chose to keep him in the same position throughout his ten years as prime minister; making Brown an unusually dominant figure and the longest-serving chancellor since the Reform Act of 1832.[7] This has strengthened a pre-existing trend towards the Chancellor occupying a clear second position among government ministers, elevated above his traditional peers, the Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary.

One part of the Chancellor's key roles involves the framing of the annual year budget. As of 2017, the first is the Autumn Budget, also known as Budget Day which forecasts government spending in the next financial year and also announces new financial measures. The second is a Spring Statement, also known as a "mini-Budget". Britain's tax year has retained the old Julian end of year: 24 March (Old Style) / 5 April (New Style, i.e. Gregorian). From 1993, the Budget was in spring, preceded by an annual autumn statement. This was then called Pre-Budget Report. The Autumn Statement usually took place in November or December. The 1997, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012 and 2016 budgets were all delivered on a Wednesday, summarised in a speech to the House of Commons.

The budget is a state secret until the chancellor reveals it in his speech to Parliament. Hugh Dalton, on his way to giving the budget speech in 1947, inadvertently blurted out key details to a newspaper reporter, and they appeared in print before he made his speech. Dalton was forced to resign.[8]

Monetary policy

Although the Bank of England is responsible for setting interest rates, the chancellor also plays an important part in the monetary policy structure. He sets the inflation target which the Bank must set interest rates to meet. Under the Bank of England Act 1998 the chancellor has the power of appointment of four out of nine members of the Bank's Monetary Policy Committee - the so-called 'external' members. He also has a high level of influence over the appointment of the Bank's Governor and Deputy Governors, and has the right of consultation over the appointment of the two remaining MPC members from within the Bank.[9] The Act also provides that the Government has the power to give instructions to the Bank on interest rates for a limited period in extreme circumstances. This power has never been officially used.

Ministerial arrangements

At HM Treasury the chancellor is supported by a political team of four junior ministers and by permanent civil servants. The most important junior minister is the Chief Secretary to the Treasury, a member of the Cabinet, to whom the negotiations with other government departments on the details of government spending are delegated, followed by the Paymaster General, the Financial Secretary to the Treasury and the Economic Secretary to the Treasury. Whilst not continuously in use, there can also be appointed a Commercial Secretary to the Treasury and an Exchequer Secretary to the Treasury. Two other officials are given the title of a Secretary to the Treasury, although neither is a government minister in the Treasury: the Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury is the Government Chief Whip in the House of Commons; the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury is not a minister but the senior civil servant in the Treasury.

The chancellor is obliged to be a member of the Privy Council, and thus is styled the Right Honourable (Rt. Hon.). Because the House of Lords is excluded from Finance Bills under the Parliament Acts, the office has since the early 20th century been effectively limited to members of the House of Commons. The chancellor holds the formerly independent office of Master of the Mint as a subsidiary office.[10]

Perquisites of the office

Official residence

The Chancellor's official residence, since 1828, is No. 11 Downing Street.[11] In 1997, the then First and Second Lords, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown respectively, swapped apartments, as the Chancellor's apartment in No. 11 was bigger and thus better suited to the needs of Blair (who had children living with him, including one born during his tenure) than Brown who was at that stage unmarried.

Dorneywood

Dorneywood is the summer residence that is traditionally made available to the chancellor, though it is the prime minister who ultimately decides who may use it. Gordon Brown, on becoming chancellor in 1997, refused to use it and the house, which is set in 215 acres (87 ha)[12] of parkland, was allocated to Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott. It reverted to the chancellor in 2007, then Alistair Darling.[13]

Budget box

Budget box or Gladstone box, c. 1860

The chancellor traditionally carries his Budget speech to the House of Commons in a particular red Despatch Box. The Chancellor's red briefcase is identical to the briefcases used by all other government ministers (known as ministerial boxes or "Despatch Boxes") to transport their official papers but is better known because the chancellor traditionally displays the briefcase, containing the Budget speech, to the press in the morning before delivering the speech.

The original Budget briefcase was first used by William Ewart Gladstone in 1853 and continued in use until 1965 when James Callaghan was the first chancellor to break with tradition when he used a newer box. Prior to Gladstone, a generic red Despatch Box of varying design and specification was used. The practice is said to have begun in the late 16th century, when Queen Elizabeth I's representative Francis Throckmorton presented the Spanish Ambassador, Bernardino de Mendoza, with a specially constructed red briefcase filled with black puddings.[]

In July 1997, Gordon Brown became the second chancellor to use a new box for the Budget. Made by industrial trainees at Babcock Rosyth Defence Ltd ship and submarine dockyard in Fife, the new box is made of yellow pine, with a brass handle and lock, covered in scarlet leather and embossed with the Royal cypher and crest and the Chancellor's title. In his first Budget, in March 2008, Alistair Darling reverted to using the original budget briefcase and his successor, George Osborne, continued this tradition for his first budget, before announcing that it would be retired due to its fragile condition.[14] The key to the original budget box has been lost.[15]

Budget tipple

By tradition, the chancellor has been allowed to drink whatever he or she wishes while making the annual Budget Speech to parliament. This includes alcohol, which is otherwise banned under parliamentary rules.

Previous chancellors have opted for whisky (Kenneth Clarke), gin and tonic (Geoffrey Howe), brandy and water (Benjamin Disraeli and John Major), spritzer (Nigel Lawson) and sherry and beaten egg (William Gladstone).[16]

The recent chancellors, George Osborne, Alistair Darling and Gordon Brown,[17] opted for water. In fact Darling drank what was named "Standard Water" in reference to, and support of, the London Evening Standard newspaper's campaign to have plain tap water available in restaurants at no charge to customers.[18]

Robe of office

The chancellor has a robe of office,[19] similar to that of the Lord Chancellor (as seen in several of the portraits depicted below). In recent times, it has only regularly been worn at Coronations, but some chancellors (at least until the 1990s) have also worn it when attending the Trial of the Pyx as Master of the Mint. According to George Osborne, the robe (dating from Gladstone's time in office, and worn by the likes of Lloyd George and Churchill)[20] 'went missing' during Gordon Brown's time as chancellor.[21]

List of Chancellors of the Exchequer

Chancellors of the Exchequer of England (c. 1221 - c. 1558)

Chancellor of the Exchequer of England
Portrait Name Term of office Monarch
(Reign)
No image.svg Eustace of Fauconberg
Bishop of London
(died 1228)
c. 1221 N/A Henry III
Coat of Arms of England (-1340).svg
(1216-1272)
No image.svg John Maunsell
Secretary of State
(1190/95-1265)
c. 1234 N/A
Ralph de Leicester before 1248
Edward of Westminster 1248 N/A
Albric de Fiscamp before 1263
No image.svg John Chishull
Lord Chancellor[1221 1]
(died 1280)
1263 1265
No image.svg Walter Giffard
Bishop of Bath and Wells
(c. 1225 – 1279)
1265 1266
No image.svg Godfrey Giffard
Lord Chancellor
(c. 1235 – 1302)
1266 1268
No image.svg John Chishull
Lord Chancellor
(died 1280)
1268 1269
No image.svg Richard of Middleton
Archdeacon of Northumberland
(died 1272)
1269 1272+
Roger de la Leye before 1283
Geoffrey de Neuband Edward I
Coat of Arms of England (-1340).svg
(1272-1307)
Philip de Willoughby 1283 1305
No image.svg Sir John Benstead
KB

Secretary of State
(c. 1275 – 1323/24)
1305 1306
No image.svg John Sandale
Bishop of Winchester
(died 1319)
1308 Edward II
Coat of Arms of England (-1340).svg
(1307-1327)
John of Markenfield 1309 1312
No image.svg John Hotham
Bishop of Ely
(died 1337)
1312 1316
No image.svg Hervey de Stanton
(1260-1327)
1316 c. 1323
No image.svg Walter de Stapledon
Lord High Treasurer
(1261-1326)
1323 c. 1324
No image.svg Hervey de Stanton
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas
(1260-1327)
1324
No image.svg Adam de Harvington
(c. 1270 - c. 1345)
1330 Edward III
Coat of Arms of Edward III of England (1327-1377) (Attributed).svg
(1327-1377)
[1221 2]
No image.svg Robert Wodehouse
(died 1346)
1330 1331
No image.svg Robert de Stratford
Bishop of Chichester
(c. 1292 – 1362)
1331 1334
John Hildesle c. 1338 N/A
William de Everdon 1341 N/A
William Askeby
Archdeacon of Northampton
1363 N/A
No image.svg Sir Robert de Ashton
(died 1385)
1375
Sir Walter Barnham Richard II
Coat of Arms of Richard II of England (1377-1399).svg
(1377-1399)
No image.svg Henry Somer
MP for Middlesex
(c. 1370 – 1450)
1410 1437 Henry IV
Coat of Arms of Henry IV of England (1399-1413).svg
(1399-1413)
Henry V
Coat of Arms of Henry IV & V of England (1413-1422).svg
(1413-1422)
Henry VI
Coat of Arms of Henry VI of England (1422-1471).svg
(1422-1461)
[1221 3]
No image.svg John Somerset
(died 1454)
1441 1447
No image.svg Sir Thomas Browne
MP for Dover
(1402-1460)
1440? 1450?
No image.svg Thomas Witham
(c. 1420 – 1489)
1454 N/A
No image.svg Thomas Thwaites
(c. 1435-1503)
N/A Edward IV
Coat of Arms of Edward IV of England (1461-1483).svg
(1461-1470)
No image.svg Thomas Witham
(c. 1420 – 1489)
1465 1469
Sir Richard Fowler
(c. 1425 – 1477)
1469
Henry VI
Coat of Arms of Henry VI of England (1422-1471).svg
(1470-1471)
No image.svg Thomas Thwaites
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
(c. 1435-1503)
Edward IV
Coat of Arms of Edward IV of England (1461-1483).svg
(1471-1483)
No image.svg Sir William Catesby
Speaker of the House of Commons
(1450-1485)
c. 1484 Edward V
Coat of Arms of Edward V of England (1483).svg
(1483)
[1221 4]
Richard III
Coat of Arms of Richard III of England (1483-1485).svg
(1483-1485)
No image.svg Sir Thomas Lovell
Speaker of the House of Commons[1221 5]
(died 1524)
1524 Henry VII
Coat of Arms of Henry VII of England (1485-1509).svg
(1485-1509)
Henry VIII
Coat of Arms of England (1509-1554).svg
(1509-1547)
[1221 6]
John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners by Ambrosius Benson.jpg John Bourchier
2nd Baron Berners
PC

(1467-1533)
1524 1533?
Cromwell,Thomas(1EEssex)01.jpg Thomas Cromwell
1st Earl of Essex
KGPC

Secretary of State
(c. 1485 – 1540)
Sir John Baker
MP for Kent
(1488-1558)
1545
SirJohnBaker.jpg
Edward VI
Coat of Arms of England (1509-1554).svg
(1547-1553)
[1221 7]
Mary I
Coat of Arms of England (1554-1558).svg
(1553-1558)
^+ Died in office.
  1. ^ Served until 1264.
  2. ^ Lord Lancaster served as Regent of England during the minority of Edward III.
  3. ^ The Regency government led by the Regency Council governed England during the minority of Henry VI.
  4. ^ The Duke of Gloucester served as Regent of England during the reign of Edward V.
  5. ^ Served until 1488.
  6. ^ Margaret Beaufort served as Regent of England during the minority of Henry VIII.
  7. ^ The Duke of Somerset and Duke of Northumberland served as Regent of England respectively during the reign of Edward VI.

Chancellor of the Exchequer of England (c. 1558 - 1708)

Chancellor of the Exchequer of England[22]
Portrait Name[b]
(Birth-Death)
Term of office Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
No image.svg Sir Richard Sackville
MP for Sussex
(c. 1507 – 1566)
Elizabeth I
Coat of Arms of England (1558-1603).svg
(1558-1603)
[22]
Walter Mildmay.jpg Sir Walter Mildmay
MP for Northamptonshire
(c. 1523 – 1589)
[22]
Sir John Fortescue by Sidney Hunt.jpg Sir John Fortescue
(c. 1531 – 1607)
[22]
James I
Coat of Arms of England (1603-1649).svg
(1603-1625)
George Home 1st Earl of Dunbar.jpg The Right Honourable
George Home
1st Earl of Dunbar
PC

(c. 1556 – 1611)
[22]
Unknown man, formerly known as Sir Julius Caesar from NPG.jpg Sir Julius Caesar
MP for Middlesex
(1557/1558-1636)
[22]
Fulkegrevillee.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Fulke Greville
KB

MP for Warwickshire[1558 3]
(1554-1628)
[22]
RichardWeston.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Richard Weston
KG

MP for 4 constituencies respectively
(1577 – c. 1634)
29 January
1621
15 July
1628
[22]
Charles I
Coat of Arms of England (1603-1649).svg
(1625-1649)
No image.svg The Right Honourable
Edward Barrett
1st Lord Barrett of Newburgh
PC

(1581 – c. 1645)
[22]
Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington from NPG.jpg The Right Honourable
Francis Cottington
1st Baron Cottington
PC

(c. 1579 – 1652)
[22]
1stLordColepeper.jpg Sir John Colepeper
MP for Kent
(c. 1600 – 1660)
[22]
WH 1st Earl of Clarendon.png The Right Honourable
Sir Edward Hyde

(1609-1674)
[22]
Vacancy during the Interregnum (1649-1660)
Portrait Name[b]
(Birth-Death)
Term of office Ministry Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
WH 1st Earl of Clarendon.png The Right Honourable
Edward Hyde
1st Baron Hyde
KtPC

(1609-1674)
Clarendon Charles II
Coat of Arms of England (1660-1689).svg
(1660-1685)
[22]
Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury.jpg The Right Honourable
Anthony Ashley Cooper
1st Baron Ashley
PC

(1621-1683)
[22]
Cabal
No image.svg Sir John Duncombe
MP for Bury St Edmunds
(1622-1687)
[22]
Danby I
Sir John Ernle
MP for 4 constituencies respectively
(1620-1697)
[22]
Privy Council
Chits
James II
Coat of Arms of England (1660-1689).svg
(1685-1688)
William III
&
Mary II
Coat of Arms of England (1689-1694).svg
(1689-1694)
Henrybooth.jpg The Right Honourable
Henry Booth
2nd Baron Delamer
PC

(1652-1694)
Carmarthen-Halifax [22]
No image.svg Richard Hampden
MP for Buckinghamshire
(c. 1631 – 1695)
Carmarthen [22]
Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg The Right Honourable
Charles Montagu
FRS

(1661-1715)
Whig Junto I [22]
William III
Coat of Arms of England (1694-1702).svg
(1694-1702)
JohnSmithSpeaker.jpg Sir John Smith
MP for Andover
(1655/56-1723)
Pembroke [22]
Henry Boyle
[22]
Henry Boyle Lord Carleton by Godfrey Kneller.jpg Godolphin-Marlborough
(Tory-Whig)
Anne
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg
(1702-1714)
  1. ^ Served until 1589 during the 9th Parliament of Queen Elizabeth I.
  2. ^ Served from 1601 prior to the Golden Speech.
  3. ^ Served during the 3rd Parliament of King James I in 1621.
  4. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1695 general election.
  5. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1705 general election.

Chancellors of the Exchequer of Great Britain (1708-1817)

Chancellor of the Exchequer of Great Britain[22]
Portrait Name[b]
(Birth-Death)
Term of office Party Ministry Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
JohnSmithSpeaker.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir John Smith

MP for Andover
(1655/56-1723)
Whig Godolphin-Marlborough
(Tory-Whig)
Anne
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg
(1702-1714)
[22]
Robert Harley Chancellor of the Exchequer by Kneller.jpg The Right Honourable
Robert Harley

MP for Radnor
(1661-1724)
Tory Oxford-Bolingbroke [22]
Bingley.jpg The Right Honourable
Robert Benson

MP for York
(c. 1676 – 1731)
Tory [22]
Sir William Wyndham, 3rd Bt by Jonathan Richardson.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir William Wyndham
Bt

MP for Somerset
(c. 1688 – 1740)
Tory [22]
George I
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
(1714-1727)
[1708 1]
1stLordOnslow.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Richard Onslow
Bt

MP for Surrey
(1654-1717)
Whig Townshend I [22]
Robertwalpole cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
Robert Walpole

MP for King's Lynn
(1676-1745)
Whig [22]
James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg The Right Honourable
James Stanhope
1st Earl Stanhope
PC

(c. 1673 – 1721)
Whig Stanhope-Sunderland I [22]
JohnAislabie.jpg The Right Honourable
John Aislabie

MP for Ripon
(1670-1742)
Whig Stanhope-Sunderland II [22]
Sir John Pratt by Michael Dahl.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir John Pratt

Lord Chief Justice
(1657-1725) (interim)
Whig [22]
Robertwalpole cropped.jpg Whig Walpole-Townshend [22]
George II
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
(1727-1760)
Walpole
1stLordSandys.jpg The Right Honourable
Samuel Sandys

MP for Worcester
(1695-1770)
Whig Carteret [22]
Henry Pelham by William Hoare.jpg The Right Honourable
Henry Pelham
FRS

MP for Sussex
(1694-1754)
Whig [22]
Broad Bottom
(I & II)
Sir William Lee by C.F. Barker cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir William Lee

Lord Chief Justice
(1688-1754) (interim)
Whig Newcastle I [22]
HenryBilsonLegge.jpg The Right Honourable
Henry Bilson-Legge
FRS

MP for Orford
(1708-1764)
Whig [22]
Lyttlelton.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir George Lyttelton
Bt

MP for Okehampton
(1709-1773)
Whig [22]
HenryBilsonLegge.jpg The Right Honourable
Henry Bilson-Legge

MP for Orford
(1708-1764)
Whig Pitt-Devonshire [22]
William Murray, Earl of Mansfield LCJ.jpg The Right Honourable
William Murray
1st Earl of Mansfield
PCSL

Lord Chief Justice
(1705-1793) (interim)
2 July
1757
Whig [22]
1757 Caretaker
HenryBilsonLegge.jpg The Right Honourable
Henry Bilson-Legge

(1708-1764)
Whig Pitt-Newcastle [22]
George III
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg
(1760-1820)
[1708 4]
2ndViscountBarrington.jpg The Right Honourable
William Barrington
2nd Viscount Barrington
PC

MP for Plymouth
(1717-1793)
Whig [22]
Francis Baron le Despencer by Nathaniel Dance-Holland.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Francis Dashwood
BtFRS

MP for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis
(1708-1781)
Tory Bute
(Tory-Whig)
[22]
George Grenville (1712-1770) by William Hoare (1707-1792) Cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
George Grenville

MP for Buckingham
(1712-1770)
Whig Grenville
(Whig-Tory)
[22]
No image.svg The Right Honourable
William Dowdeswell

MP for Worcestershire
(1721-1775)
Whig Rockingham I [22]
Charles Townshend after Reynolds.jpg The Right Honourable
Charles Townshend

MP for Harwich
(1725-1767)
Whig Chatham
(Whig-Tory)
[22]
Nathaniel Dance Lord North cropped cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
Frederick North
Lord North
KG

MP for Banbury
(1732-1792)
Tory [22]
Grafton
North
Lord John Cavendish by GD Tomlinson.jpg The Right Honourable
Lord John Cavendish

MP for York
(1732-1796)
Whig Rockingham II [22]
William Pitt the Younger.jpg The Right Honourable
William Pitt the Younger

MP for Appleby
(1759-1806)
Whig Shelburne
(Whig-Tory)
[22]
Lord John Cavendish by GD Tomlinson.jpg The Right Honourable
Lord John Cavendish

MP for York
(1732-1796)
Whig Fox-North [22]
William Pitt the Younger.jpg The Right Honourable
William Pitt the Younger

Tory Pitt I [22]
Henry Addington by Beechey.jpg The Right Honourable
Henry Addington

MP for Devizes
(1757-1844)
Tory Addington [22]
William Pitt the Younger.jpg The Right Honourable
William Pitt the Younger

MP for Cambridge University
(1759-1806)
Tory Pitt II [22]
Lord-ellenborough.jpg The Right Honourable
Edward Law
1st Baron Ellenborough
PCKCFSA

Lord Chief Justice
(1750-1818) (interim)
Tory All the Talents
(Whig-Tory)
[22]
Lord Henry Petty.jpg The Right Honourable
Lord Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice

MP for Cambridge University
(1780-1863)
Whig [22]
Spencerperceval.jpg The Right Honourable
Spencer Perceval
KC

MP for Northampton
(1762-1812)
Tory Portland II [22]
Perceval
Nicholas Vansittart by William Owen.jpg The Right Honourable
Nicholas Vansittart

(1766-1851)
Tory Liverpool [23]
  1. ^ Lord Parker served as Regent of Great Britain from 1 August to 18 September 1714.
  2. ^ Elevated to the Peerage of Great Britain on 6 February 1742.
  3. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the Hampshire by-election.
  4. ^ The Prince of Wales served as Prince Regent from 5 February 1811.
  5. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1784 general election.
  6. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1812 general election.

Chancellors of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom (1817-present)

Although the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland had been united by the Acts of Union 1800 (39 & 40 Geo. III c. 67), the Exchequers of the two Kingdoms were not consolidated until 1817 under 56 Geo. III c. 98.[24][25] For the holders of the Irish office before this date, see Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland.

Chancellor of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom[22]
Portrait Name[b]
(Birth-Death)
Term of office Party Ministry Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
Nicholas Vansittart by William Owen.jpg The Right Honourable
Nicholas Vansittart
FRS

MP for Harwich
(1766-1851)
Tory Liverpool George III
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg
(1760-1820)
[1817 1]
[22]
George IV
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
(1820-1830)
Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon by Sir Thomas Lawrence cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
Frederick John Robinson

MP for Ripon
(1782-1859)
Tory [26]
George Canning by Richard Evans - detail.jpg The Right Honourable
George Canning
FRS

MP for Seaford
(1770-1827)
Tory Canning
(Canningite-Whig)
[27]
Lord Tenterden LCJ by William Owen.jpg The Right Honourable
Charles Abbott
1st Baron Tenterden
PCSL

Lord Chief Justice
(1762-1832) (interim)
Tory Goderich N/A
John Charles Herries.jpg The Right Honourable
John Charles Herries

MP for Harwich
(1778-1855)
Tory [28]
HenryGoulburn.jpg The Right Honourable
Henry Goulburn
FRS

MP for Armagh
(1784-1856)
Tory Wellington-Peel [22]
William IV
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
(1830-1837)
JC Spencer, Viscount Althorp by HP Bone cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
John Spencer
Viscount Althorp
DLFRS

(1782-1845)
Whig Grey [22]
Melbourne I
Thomas Denman, 1st Baron Denman by Sir Martin Archer Shee crop.jpg The Right Honourable
Thomas Denman
1st Baron Denman
PC

Lord Chief Justice
(1779-1854) (interim)
Whig Wellington Caretaker N/A
Robert Peel by RR Scanlan detail.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Robert Peel
BtFRS

MP for Tamworth
(1788-1850)
Conservative Peel I [22]
1stBaronMonteagle.jpg The Right Honourable
Thomas Spring Rice

MP for Cambridge
(1790-1866)
Whig Melbourne II [22]
Victoria
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1837-1901)
Francis Baring, 1st Baron Northbrook by Sir George Hayter.jpg The Right Honourable
Francis Baring

MP for Portsmouth
(1796-1866)
Whig [22]
HenryGoulburn.jpg The Right Honourable
Henry Goulburn
FRS

MP for Cambridge University
(1784-1856)
Conservative Peel II [22]
1stViscountHalifax.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Charles Wood
Bt

MP for Halifax
(1800-1885)
Whig Russell I [22]
Disraeli.jpg The Right Honourable
Benjamin Disraeli

MP for Buckinghamshire
(1804-1881)
Conservative Who? Who? [22]
WE Gladstone robed NPG.jpg The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone

MP for Oxford University
(1809-1898)
Peelite Aberdeen
(Peelite-Whig)
[22]
Sir George Cornewall Lewis, 2nd Bt.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir George Cornewall Lewis
Bt

MP for Radnor
(1806-1863)
Whig Palmerston I [22]
Disraeli.jpg The Right Honourable
Benjamin Disraeli

MP for Buckinghamshire
(1804-1881)
Conservative Derby-Disraeli II [22]
WE Gladstone robed NPG.jpg The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone

Liberal Palmerston II [22]
Russell II
Disraeli.jpg The Right Honourable
Benjamin Disraeli

MP for Buckinghamshire
(1804-1881)
Conservative Derby-Disraeli III [22]
George Ward Hunt (30 July 1825 - 29 July 1877) .jpg The Right Honourable
George Ward Hunt

MP for North Northamptonshire
(1825-1877)
Conservative [22]
Robert Lowe, 1st Viscount Sherbrooke by George Frederic Watts.jpg The Right Honourable
Robert Lowe

MP for London University
(1811-1892)
Liberal Gladstone I [22]
WE Gladstone robed NPG.jpg The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone

MP for Greenwich
(1809-1898)
Liberal [22]
Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Stafford Northcote
BtGCBFRS

MP for North Devonshire
(1818-1887)
Conservative Disraeli II [22]
WE Gladstone robed NPG.jpg The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone

MP for Midlothian
(1809-1898)
Liberal Gladstone II [22]
Hugh Childers, Lock & Whitfield woodburytype, 1876-83 crop.jpg The Right Honourable
Hugh Childers

MP for Pontefract
(1827-1896)
Liberal [22]
St Aldwyn Michael Edward Hicks-Beach (1st Earl).jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Michael Hicks Beach
BtDL

MP for Bristol West
(1837-1916)
Conservative Salisbury I [22]
Sir William Harcourt.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir William Harcourt
QC

MP for Derby
(1827-1904)
Liberal Gladstone III [22]
Randolph churchill.jpg The Right Honourable
Lord Randolph Churchill

MP for Paddington South
(1849-1895)
Conservative Salisbury II [22]
George Goschen by Bassano.jpg The Right Honourable
George Goschen
DL

MP for St George Hanover Square
(1831-1907)
Liberal Unionist [22]
Sir William Harcourt.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir William Harcourt
QC

MP for Derby
(1827-1904)
Liberal Gladstone IV [22]
Rosebery
St Aldwyn Michael Edward Hicks-Beach (1st Earl).jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Michael Hicks Beach
BtDL

MP for Bristol West
(1837-1916)
Conservative Salisbury
(III & IV)

(Con.-Lib.U.)
[22]
Edward VII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1901-1910)
Charles Thomson Ritchie headshot.jpg The Right Honourable
Charles Ritchie

MP for Croydon
(1838-1906)
Conservative Balfour [22]
Laszlo - The Rt. Hon. Sir Austen Chamberlain.jpg The Right Honourable
Austen Chamberlain

MP for East Worcestershire
(1863-1937)
Liberal Unionist [22]
H H Asquith 1908.jpg The Right Honourable
H. H. Asquith
KC

MP for East Fife
(1852-1928)
Liberal Campbell-Bannerman [22]
David Lloyd George 1911.jpg The Right Honourable
David Lloyd George

MP for Caernarvon Boroughs
(1863-1945)
Liberal Asquith
(I–III)
[29]
George V
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1910-1936)
Reginald McKenna photo.jpg The Right Honourable
Reginald McKenna

MP for North Monmouthshire
(1863-1943)
Liberal Asquith Coalition
(Lib.-Con.-et al.)
[22]
Andrew Bonar Law 02.jpg The Right Honourable
Bonar Law

(1858-1923)
Conservative Lloyd George
(I & II)
[22]
Laszlo - The Rt. Hon. Sir Austen Chamberlain.jpg The Right Honourable
Austen Chamberlain

MP for Birmingham West
(1863-1937)
Conservative [22]
Robert Horne cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Robert Horne
GBEKC

MP for Glasgow Hillhead
(1871-1940)
Conservative [22]
Stanley Baldwin ggbain.35233.jpg The Right Honourable
Stanley Baldwin
JP

MP for Bewdley
(1867-1947)
Conservative Law [22]
Baldwin I
Neville-Chamberlain.jpg The Right Honourable
Neville Chamberlain

MP for Birmingham Ladywood
(1869-1940)
Conservative [22]
Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden.jpg The Right Honourable
Philip Snowden

MP for Colne Valley
(1864-1937)
Labour MacDonald I [22]
Winston Churchill cph.3a49758.jpg The Right Honourable
Winston Churchill
CHTD

MP for Epping
(1874-1965)
Conservative Baldwin II [22]
Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden.jpg The Right Honourable
Philip Snowden

MP for Colne Valley
(1864-1937)
Labour MacDonald II [22]
National Labour National I
(N.Lab.-Con.-et al.)
Neville-Chamberlain.jpg The Right Honourable
Neville Chamberlain
FRS

MP for Birmingham Edgbaston
(1869-1940)
Conservative National II [22]
National III
(Con.-N.Lab.-et al.)
Edward VIII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1936)
George VI
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1936-1952)
Portrait of John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir John Simon
GCSIGCVOOBE

MP for Spen Valley
(1873-1954)
Liberal National National IV [22]
Chamberlain War
Kingsley Wood cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Kingsley Wood

MP for Woolwich West
(1881-1943)
Conservative Churchill War
(All parties)
[22]
John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley 1947.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir John Anderson
GCBGCSIGCIEPC (Ire)

MP for Combined Scottish Universities
(1882-1958)
Independent
(National)
[22]
Churchill Caretaker
(Con.-Lib.N.)
Hugh Dalton HU 059487 crop.jpg The Right Honourable
Hugh Dalton

MP for Bishop Auckland
(1887-1962)
Labour Attlee
(I & II)
[22]
Stafford Cripps 1947.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Stafford Cripps
FRS

Labour [22]
GaitskellMP.jpg The Right Honourable
Hugh Gaitskell
CBE

MP for Leeds South
(1906-1963)
Labour [22]
Rab Butler.png The Right Honourable
Richard Austen Butler
CH

MP for Saffron Walden
(1902-1982)
Conservative Churchill III [22]
Elizabeth II
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
(1952-present)
Eden
Harold Macmillan in 1942.jpg The Right Honourable
Harold Macmillan

MP for Bromley
(1894-1986)
Conservative [22]
Peter Thornycroft.jpg The Right Honourable
Peter Thorneycroft

MP for Monmouth
(1909-1994)
Conservative Macmillan
(I & II)
[22]
Derick Heathcoat-Amory cropped.png The Right Honourable
Derick Heathcoat-Amory
TD

MP for Tiverton
(1899-1981)
Conservative [22]
Selwyn Lloyd cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
Selwyn Lloyd
CBEQC

MP for Wirral
(1904-1978)
Conservative [22]
Reginald Maudling.jpg The Right Honourable
Reginald Maudling

MP for Barnet
(1917-1979)
Conservative [30]
Douglas-Home
James Callaghan and James Chichester-Clark 1970 (cropped).jpg The Right Honourable
James Callaghan

MP for Cardiff South East
(1912-2005)
Labour Wilson
(I & II)
[31]
Roy Jenkins 1977b.jpg The Right Honourable
Roy Jenkins

MP for Birmingham Stechford
(1920-2003)
Labour [32]
Iain Macleod crop.jpg The Right Honourable
Iain Macleod

MP for Enfield West
(1913-1970)
Conservative Heath [22]
No image.svg The Right Honourable
Anthony Barber
TD

MP for Altrincham and Sale
(1920-2005)
Conservative [22]
Denis Healey.jpg The Right Honourable
Denis Healey
MBE

MP for Leeds East
(1917-2015)
Labour Wilson
(III & IV)
[22]
Callaghan
Geoffrey Howe.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Geoffrey Howe
QC

MP for East Surrey
(1926-2015)
Conservative Thatcher I [22]
Official portrait of Lord Lawson of Blaby crop 2.jpg The Right Honourable
Nigel Lawson

MP for Blaby
(born 1932)
Conservative Thatcher II [22]
Thatcher III
Major PM full.jpg The Right Honourable
John Major

MP for Huntingdon
(born 1943)
Conservative [22]
Official portrait of Lord Lamont of Lerwick crop 2.jpg The Right Honourable
Norman Lamont

MP for Kingston-upon-Thames
(born 1942)
Conservative Major I [22]
Major II
Ken Clarke 2010.jpg The Right Honourable
Kenneth Clarke
QC

MP for Rushcliffe
(born 1940)
Conservative [22]
Gordon Brown official.jpg The Right Honourable
Gordon Brown

Labour Blair
(I-III)
[22]
AlistairDarlingABr cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
Alistair Darling

MP for Edinburgh South West
(born 1953)
Labour Brown [33]
Osborne 2015.jpg The Right Honourable
George Osborne

MP for Tatton
(born 1971)
Conservative Cameron-Clegg
(Con.-L.D.)
[34]
Cameron II
Official portrait of Mr Philip Hammond crop 2.jpg The Right Honourable
Philip Hammond

MP for Runnymede and Weybridge
(born 1955)
Conservative May I [35]
May II
  1. ^ The Prince of Wales served as Prince Regent from 5 February 1811.
  2. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1832 general election.
  3. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1865 general election.
  4. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1918 general election.
  5. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 1950 general election.
  6. ^ Elected to a new constituency in the 2005 general election.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This is used in almost all cases, including formal uses, for example in Parliament where it is common to refer to the position as 'Mr Chancellor of the Exchequer'. An example use of the full title is on writs appointing people to offices in the Manor of Northstead or the Chiltern Hundreds.
  2. ^ a b c d Including honorifics and constituencies for elected MPs.

References

  1. ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/07/13/who-is-philip-hammond-britains-new-chancellor-and-what-are-like/
  2. ^ Joseph Haydn, Horace Ockerby (ed.): The Book of Dignities, 3rd edition, Part III (Political and Official), p. 164. W.H. Allen & Co., London 1894, reprinted by Firecrest Publishing Ltd, Pancakes, 1969.
  3. ^ Loyn, Henry (1984). The Governance of Anglo-Saxon England, 500-1087. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1217-4.
  4. ^ Stafford, Pauline (1989). Unification and Conquest: A Political and Social History of England in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. London: Edward Arnold. ISBN 0-7131-6532-4.
  5. ^ Chrimes Administrative History pp. 62-63
  6. ^ "Great Offices of State". The Cabinet Papers. The National Archives. Retrieved 2010.
  7. ^ "Gordon Brown: Chancellor of the Exchequer". Encyclopedia II. Experiencefestival.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 2010.
  8. ^ Ben Pimlott, Hugh Dalton (1985) pp 524-48.
  9. ^ "Monetary Policy | Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) | Framework". Bank of England. 6 May 1997. Archived from the original on 8 May 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  10. ^ Owen, James (19 December 2012). "Sir Isaac Newton - did you know?". The Royal Mint. Retrieved 2017.
  11. ^ "History of Number 11 Downing Street". UK Government. Retrieved 2014.
  12. ^ "Local History". Burnham Parish Council. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011.
  13. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article2532776.ece Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ The Guardian, 11 March 2011
  15. ^ Alistair Darling, Back from the Brink(2011)
  16. ^ "The Budget and Parliament". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 2015.
  17. ^ Lydall, Ross (6 March 2008). "Chancellor names his preferred Budget tipple - a glass of plain London tap water". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2010.
  18. ^ Murphy, Joe (5 March 2008). "Darling chooses tap water for Budget Day to support Standard campaign". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 2012.
  19. ^ "Photographb".
  20. ^ "Portrait".
  21. ^ Vina, Gonzalo (10 December 2010). "www.bloomberg.com". Bloomberg.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk "Past Chancellors of the Exchequer". gov.uk. Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 2017.
  23. ^ "No. 16611". The London Gazette. 9 June 1812. p. 1111.
  24. ^ "Consolidated Fund Act 1816". section 2,ActNo. 98 of 1816. Retrieved 2016.
  25. ^ Haydn, Joseph; Ockerby, Horace, eds. (1890). "X (Ireland)". The Book of Dignities. London: W. H. Allen & Co. p. 562. OL 13505280M.
  26. ^ "No. 17893". The London Gazette. 4 February 1823. p. 193.
  27. ^ "No. 18356". The London Gazette. 27 April 1827. p. 937.
  28. ^ "No. 18394". The London Gazette. 7 September 1827. p. 1892.
  29. ^ "No. 28129". The London Gazette. 17 April 1908. p. 2937.
  30. ^ "No. 42733". The London Gazette. 17 July 1962. p. 5731.
  31. ^ "No. 43470". The London Gazette. 23 October 1964. p. 9014.
  32. ^ "No. 44469". The London Gazette. 5 December 1967. p. 13287.
  33. ^ "No. 58389". The London Gazette. 11 July 2007. p. 9979.
  34. ^ "No. 59425". The London Gazette. 21 May 2010. p. 9405.
  35. ^ "Philip Hammond appointed chancellor". BBC News. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 2017.

Further reading

  • Barber, Stephen. "'Westminster's wingman'? Shadow chancellor as a strategic and coveted political role." British Politics 11.2 (2016): 184-204.
  • Baxter, Stephen B. The Development of the Treasury, 1660-1702 (1957) online
  • Browning, Peter. The Treasury and Economic Policy: 1964-1985 (Longman, 1986).
  • Dell, Edmund. The Chancellors: A History of the Chancellors of the Exchequer, 1945-90 (HarperCollins, 1997) 619pp; 17 chapters covering the terms of each chancellor.
  • Holt, Richard. Second Amongst Equals: Chancellors of the Exchequer and the British Economy (Profile Books, 2001).
  • Jenkins, Roy. The Chancellors (1998); 497pp; covers entire career as well as term in office of 19 chancellors from 1886 to 1947.
  • Kynaston, David. The chancellor of the exchequer (T. Dalton, 1980).
  • Peden, G. CThe Treasury and British Public Policy, 1906-1959 (Oxford UP, 2000). online
  • Vincent, Nicholas C. "The Origins of the Chancellorship of the Exchequer." English Historical Review 108.426 (1993): 105-121. in JSTOR
  • Woodward, Nicholas. The management of the British economy, 1945-2001 (Manchester University Press, 2004).

External links


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