Cree Language
Cree
Native toCanada; United States (Montana)
EthnicityCree
Native speakers
96,260, 27% of ethnic population (2016 census)[1]
(including Montagnais-Naskapi and Atikamekw)
Latin, Canadian Aboriginal syllabics (Cree)
Official status
Official language in
 Northwest Territories[2]
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
cr
cre
cre - inclusive code
Individual codes:
crk - Plains Cree
cwd - Woods Cree
csw - Swampy Cree
crm - Moose Cree
crl - Northern East Cree
crj - Southern East Cree
nsk - Naskapi
moe - Montagnais
atj - Atikamekw
Glottologcree1271[3]
Crimapo.png
A rough map of Cree dialect areas
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Cree [4] (also known as Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador.[5] If classified as one language, it is the Aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada.[6] The only region where Cree has any official status is in the Northwest Territories, alongside eight other aboriginal languages.[7] The places that Cree is spoken are mainly in Fort Smith and Hay River.[8]

Names

Endonyms are N?hiyaw?win ? (Plains Cree), N?hithaw?win (Woods Cree), Nehirâmowin (Atikamekw), Nehlueun (Western Montagnais, Piyekwâkamî dialect), Ilnu-Aimûn (Western Montagnais, Betsiamites dialect), Innu-Aimûn (Eastern Montagnais), Iyiniu-Ayamiwin ? (Southern East Cree), Iyiyiu-Ayamiwin ? (Northern East Cree), Ililîmowin (Moose Cree), Ininîmowin (Eastern Swampy Cree), and N?hinaw?win (Western Swampy Cree).

Origin and diffusion

Cree is believed to have begun as a dialect of the Proto-Algonquian language spoken 2,500 to 3,000 years ago in the original Algonquian homeland, an undetermined area thought to be near the Great Lakes. The speakers of the proto-Cree language are thought to have moved north, and diverged rather quickly into two different groups on each side of James Bay, after which time, the eastern group began to diverge into separate dialects, whereas the western grouping probably broke into distinct dialects much later.[9] After this point it is very difficult to make definite statements about how different groups emerged and moved around, because there are no written works in the languages to compare, and descriptions by Europeans are not systematic; as well, Algonquian people have a tradition of bilingualism and even of outright adopting a new language from neighbours.[10]

A traditional view among 20th century anthropologists and historians of the fur trade posits that the Western Woods Cree and the Plains Cree (and therefore their dialects) did not diverge from other Cree peoples before 1670, when the Cree expanded out of their homeland near James Bay because of access to European firearms. By contrast, James Smith of the Museum of the American Indian stated, in 1987, that the weight of archeological and linguistic evidence puts the Cree as far west as the Peace River Region of Alberta before European contact.[11]

Loss of language

Cuthand[12] argues three reasons for the loss of the Cree language. First, residential schools cultivated the prejudice that their language was inferior. While students were still speaking their native language at home, their learning stopped at school. When they left residential schools as adults, they went home and their vocabulary and knowledge of language did not include concepts or forms that an adult speaker who had not been taken to a residential school would have.

Cuthand[12] also argues that the loss of the Cree language can be attributed to the migration of native families away from the reserve, voluntarily or not. Oftentimes, the elders are left on the reserve. This breaks up the traditional intergenerational flow of lingual knowledge from elder to youth.

The third point Cuthand[12] argues is that Cree language loss was adopted by the speakers. Parents stopped teaching their children their native language in the belief that doing so would help their children find economic success or avoid discrimination.

Dialect criteria

The Cree dialect continuum can be divided by many criteria. Dialects spoken in northern Ontario and the southern James Bay, Lanaudière, and Mauricie regions of Quebec differentiate /?/ (sh as in she) and /s/, while those to the west have merged the two phonemes as /s/ and in east the phonemes are merged as either /?/ or /h/. In several dialects, including northern Plains Cree and Woods Cree, the long vowels /e:/ and /i:/ have merged into a single vowel, /i:/. In the Quebec communities of Chisasibi, Whapmagoostui, and Kawawachikamach, the long vowel /e:/ has merged with /a:/.

However, the most transparent phonological variation between different Cree dialects are the reflexes of Proto-Algonquian *l in the modern dialects, as shown below:

Dialect Location Reflex
of *l
Word for "native person"
elenyiwa
Word for "you"
k?la
Plains Cree SK, AB, BC, NT y iyiniw k?ya
Woods Cree MB, SK ð/th iðiniw/ithiniw k?ða/k?tha
Swampy Cree ON, MB, SK n ininiw k?na
Moose Cree ON l ililiw k?la
Atikamekw QC r iriniw k?r
Northern East Cree QC y iyiyiw y
Southern East Cree QC y iyiy?/iyin? y
Kawawachikamach Naskapi QC y iyiy? y
Western Innu QC l ilnu l
Eastern Innu QC, NL n innu n

The Plains Cree, speakers of the y dialect, refer to their language as n?hiyaw?win, whereas Woods Cree speakers say n?hithaw?win, and Swampy Cree speakers say n?hinaw?win.

Another important phonological variation among the Cree dialects involves the palatalisation of Proto-Algonquian *k: East of the Ontario-Quebec border (except for Atikamekw), Proto-Algonquian *k has changed into /t?/ or /ts/ before front vowels. See the table above for examples in the *k?la column.

Very often the Cree dialect continuum is divided into two languages: Cree and Montagnais. Cree includes all dialects which have not undergone the *k > /t?/ sound change (BC-QC) while Montagnais encompasses the territory where this sound change has occurred (QC-NL). These labels are very useful from a linguistic perspective but are confusing as East Cree then qualifies as Montagnais. For practical purposes, Cree usually covers the dialects which use syllabics as their orthography (including Atikamekw but excluding Kawawachikamach Naskapi), the term Montagnais then applies to those dialects using the Latin script (excluding Atikamekw and including Kawawachikamach Naskapi). The term Naskapi typically refers to Kawawachikamach (y-dialect) and Natuashish (n-dialect).

Dialect groups

The Cree dialects can be broadly classified into nine groups. Roughly from west to east:

ISO-639-3
code and name
ISO-639-6
code and name
Linguasphere
code and name[13]
Moseley[14] Glottolog
name (and code)[15]
  dialect type   additional comments
*l *k(i) *? *?
cre Cree (generic) cwd Woods Cree
(N?hithaw?win)
cwd
Woods Cree
62-ADA-a Cree 62-ADA-ab
Woods Cree
Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi Western Cree Wood Cree Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi
cree1271
Woods Cree
wood1236
th k s ? In this dialect ? has merged into ?.
Plains Cree
plai1258
Western York Cree (r)\th k s ? Missinipi Cree (N?hiraw?win). Also known as "Rocky Cree". Historical r have transitioned to th and have merged into Woods Cree. While Woods Cree proper have hk, Missinipi Cree have sk, e.g., Woods Cree mihkosiw v. Missinipi Cree miskosiw : "he/she is red".
crk Plains Cree crk
Plains Cree
62-ADA-aa
Plains Cree
Plains Cree Northern Alberta Cree y k s ? (northern) Divided to Southern Plains Cree (N?hiyaw?win) and Northern Plains Cree (N?hiyaw?win or N?hiyaw?mowin). In the Northern dialect, ? has merged into ?.
Nuclear Plains Cree y k s ? (southern)
csw Swampy Cree
(N?hinaw?win)
csw
Swampy Cree
62-ADA-ac
Swampy Cree, West
(Inin?mowin)
Swampy Cree Swampy Cree
swam1239
Western Swampy Cree n k s ? Eastern Swampy Cree, together with Moose Cree, also known as "West Main Cree," "Central Cree," or "West Shore Cree." In the western dialect, ? has merged with s. Western Swampy Cree also known as "York Cree;" together with Northern Plains Cree and Woods Cree, also known as "Western Woodland Cree."
62-ADA-ad
Swampy Cree, East
(Ininiwi-I?iki?w?win)
Eastern Swampy Cree n k ? ?
crm Moose Cree
(Ilil?mowin)
crm
Moose Cree
62-ADA-ae
Moose Cree
Moose Cree Moose Cree
moos1236
n\l k ? ? (upland) Together with the Eastern Swampy Cree, also known as "West Main Cree," "Central Cree," or "West Shore Cree." In Swampy Cree influenced areas, some speakers use n instead of l, e.g., upland Moose Cree iliniw v. lowland Moose Cree ililiw : "human".
l k ? ? (lowland)
crl Northern East Cree
(?yy? Ayim?n)
crl
Northern East Cree
62-ADA-af
Cree, East
Eastern Cree East Cree Northern East Cree
nort1552
y k\? ? ? Also known as "James Bay Cree" or "East Main Cree". The long vowels ? and ? have merged in the northern dialect but are distinct in the southern. Southern East Cree is divided between coastal (southwestern) and inland (southeastern) varieties. Also, the inland southern dialect has lost the distinction between s and ?. Here, the inland southern dialect falls in line with the rest of the Naskapi groups where both phonemes have become ?. Nonetheless, the people from the two areas easily communicate. In the northern dialect, ki is found in situations were short unaccented vowel a transitioned to i without changing the k to ?.
crj Southern East Cree
(?yn? Ayim?n)
crj
Southern East Cree
62-ADA-ag
Cree, Southeast
Southern East Cree
sout2978
y ? ? ? (coastal)
y\n ? ?~s ? (inland)
nsk Naskapi nsk
Naskapi
kkaa
Koksoak
62-ADA-b
Innu
62-ADA-ba
Mushau Innuts
62-ADA-baa
Koksoak River
Naskapi Naskapi
nask1242
Western Naskapi y ? ?~s ? Western Naskapi (or simply referred to as Naskapi). Spoken in Kawawachikamach, Quebec.
dvsi
Davis Inlet
62-ADA-bab
Davis Inlet
Eastern Naskapi n ? ?~s ? Eastern Naskapi; also known as Mushuau Innu. Spoken in Natuashish, Labrador.
moe Montagnais moe
Montagnais
poit
Pointe-Bleue
62-ADA-bb
Uashau Innuts + Bersimis
62-ADA-bbe
Pointe Bleue
Montagnais Montagnais
mont1268
Western Montagnais l ? ? ? Western Montagnais (Lehlueun); also known as the "Betsiamites dialect"
escu
Escoumains
62-ADA-bbd
Escoumains
berm
Bersimis
62-ADA-bbc
Bersimis
uasi
Uashaui-Innuts
62-ADA-bbb
Uashaui Innuts
n ? ?~h ? Part of Western Montagnais, but more precisely referred to as Central Montagnais. ? is realized as h in intervocalic position, especially amongst middle-aged and young speakers.
miga
Mingan
62-ADA-bba
Mingan
Eastern Montagnais n ? ?~h ? Eastern Montagnais (Innu-aimûn). ? is mostly realized as h.
atj Atikamekw
(Nehirâmowin)
atj
Atikamekw
mana
Manawan
62-ADA-c
Atikamekw
62-ADA-ca
Manawan
Western Cree (cont'd) Attikamek Atikamekw
atik1240
r k ? ?
wemo
Wemotaci
62-ADA-cb
Wemotaci
optc
Opitciwan
62-ADA-cc
Opitciwan

Phonology

This table is made to show all possible consonant phonemes that may be included in a Cree language.

Consonant phonemes
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p [p] t [t] c [t?s~t] ch\? [t] k [k]
Fricative th [ð] s [s~?] sh\? [?] h [h]
Nasal m [m] n\ñ\? [n]
Approximant r [?] y\ý [j] w [w]
Lateral l [l]
Vowels
Front Central Back
Close ii\? [i:] uu\? [o:~u:]
Near-Close i [?] u\o [o~?]
Mid e\? [e:] a [?]
Open aa\? [a:]

In dictionaries focused on Eastern Swampy Cree, Western Swampy Cree may readily substitute with ?s?, while Lowland Moose Cree may readily substitute ?ñ? with their ?l?. In dictionaries focused on Southern Plains Cree, Northern Plains Cree may readily substitute with , while materials accommodating Rocky Cree will indicate the Plains Cree [j] that is [ð] in Rocky Cree as ?ý?. Similarly, in dictionaries focused on Western Swampy Cree, Woods Cree may readily substitute with , while materials accommodating Woods Cree will indicate the Western Swampy Cree [n] that is [ð] in Woods Cree as .

Syntax

Cree features a complex polysynthetic morphosyntax. A common grammatical feature in Cree dialects, in terms of sentence structure, is non-regulated word order. Word order is not governed by a specific set of rules or structure; instead, "subjects and objects are expressed by means of inflection on the verb".[16] Subject, Verb, and Object (SVO) in a sentence can vary in order, for example, SVO, VOS, OVS, and SOV.[16][17]

Obviation is also a key aspect of the Cree language(s). In a sense, the obviative can be defined as any third-person ranked lower on a hierarchy of discourse salience than some other (proximate) discourse-participant. "Obviative animate nouns, [in the Plains Cree dialect for instance], are marked by [a suffix] ending -a, and are used to refer to third persons who are more peripheral in the discourse than the proximate third person".[18] For example:

Sam

Sam

wâpam-ew

see-3SG

Susan-a

Susan-3OBV

Sam wâpam-ew Susan-a

Sam see-3SG Susan-3OBV

"Sam sees Susan."

The suffix -a marks Susan as the obviative, or 'fourth' person, the person furthest away from the discourse.[16]

The Cree language has grammatical gender in a system that classifies nouns as animate or inanimate. The distribution of nouns between animate or inanimate is not phonologically transparent, which means gender must be learned along with the noun.[16] As is common in polysynthetic languages, a Cree word can be very long, and express something that takes a series of words in English. For example, the Plains Cree word for "school" is kiskinoham?towikamikw, "know.CAUS.APPLICATIVE.RECIPROCAL.place" or the "knowing-it-together-by-example place". This means that changing the word order in Cree can place emphasis on different pieces of the sentence.[19] Wolfart and Carroll[19] give the following example by transposing the two Cree words:

kakw?cim?w kis?ýiniwa -> He asked the old man.

kis?ýiniwa kakw?cim?w -> It was the old man he asked.

Writing

Trilingual plaque in English, French and Cree

Systems

Cree dialects, except for those spoken in eastern Quebec and Labrador, are traditionally written using Cree syllabics, a variant of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, but can be written with the Latin script as well. Both writing systems represent the language phonetically. Cree is always written from left to right horizontally.[20] The easternmost dialects are written using the Latin script exclusively. The dialects of Plains Cree, Woods Cree, and Swampy Cree use Western Cree syllabics and the dialects of East Cree, Moose Cree, and Naskapi use Eastern Cree syllabics. In this syllabic system, each symbol, which represents a consonant, can be written four ways, each direction representing its corresponding vowel.[20] Some dialects of Cree have up to seven vowels, so additional diacritics are placed after the syllabic to represent the corresponding vowels. Finals represent stand-alone consonants.[20] The Cree language also has two semivowels. The semivowels may follow other consonants or be on their own in a word.[21]

The following tables show the syllabaries of Eastern and Western Cree dialects, respectively:

Speakers of various Cree dialects have begun creating dictionaries to serve their communities. Some projects, such as the Cree Language Resource Project (CLRP), are developing an online bilingual Cree dictionary for the Cree language.

Punctuation

Cree has not commonly or traditionally used the period (.) at the end of sentences when syllabics are used. Instead, either a full-stop glyph (?) or a double em-width space have been used between words to signal the transition from one sentence to the next. In alphabetic writing, the use of punctuation has been inconsistent. For instance, in the Plains Cree dialect, the interrogative enclitic can be included in the sentence to mark a yes-no question[16] such that this is sometimes considered to be sufficient without including a question mark (?). However, in many modern publications and text collections (cf.[22]) full punctuation is used.

John

John

John

INTER

kî-mîcisow?

kî-mîciso-w

PST-eat-3SG

John cî kî-mîcisow?

John cî kî-mîciso-w

John INTER PST-eat-3SG

"Did John eat?"

Additionally, other interrogatives (where, when, what, why, who) can be used, as in other languages, and questions marks can thus be used for such questions in Cree as well.[23]

Contact languages

Cree is also a component language in two contact languages, Michif and Bungi. Both languages were spoken by members of the Métis, the Voyageurs, and European settlers of Western Canada and parts of the Northern United States.

Michif is a mixed language which combines Cree with French. For the most part, Michif uses Cree verbs, question words, and demonstratives while using French nouns. Michif is unique to the Canadian prairie provinces as well as to North Dakota and Montana in the United States.[24] Michif is still spoken in central Canada and in North Dakota.

Bungi is a creole based on Scottish English, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Cree, and Ojibwe.[25] Some French words have also been incorporated into its lexicon. This language flourished at and around the Red River Settlement (modern day location of Winnipeg, Manitoba) by the mid to late 1800s.[26] Bungi is now virtually extinct, as its features are being abandoned in favor of standard English.[25][27]

Cree has also been incorporated into two other mixed languages within Canada. The Oji-Cree language (also Severn Ojibwe), spoken in parts of Manitoba and western Ontario, is a mixed language of Cree and Ojibwe, and the Nehipwat language, which is a blending of Cree with Assiniboine. Nehipwat is found only in a few southern Saskatchewan reserves and is now nearing extinction. Nothing is known of its structure.[28]

Legal status

A Quebec stop sign in Cree/English/French

The social and legal status of Cree varies across Canada. Cree is one of the eleven official languages of the Northwest Territories, but is only spoken by a small number of people there in the area around the town of Fort Smith.[7] It is also one of two principal languages of the regional government of Eeyou Istchee/Baie-James Territory in Northern Quebec, the other being French.[29]

Support and revitalization

Cree has about 117,000 documented speakers today.[5] They are still a minority language given the dominance of English and French in Canada. There are programs in place to maintain and revitalize the language, though. In the Quebec James Cree Bay community, a resolution was put into action in 1988 that made Cree the language of education in primary schools and eventually elementary schools.[30]

The Mistissini council decided to require their employees to learn Cree syllabics in 1991.[30]

The Cree School Board now has their annual report available in both English and Cree.[30]

There is a push to increase the availability of Cree stations on the radio.[30]

In 2013, free Cree language electronic books for beginners became available for Alberta language teachers.[31]

The Government of the Northwest Territories[8] releases an annual report on First Nations languages. The 2016-2017 report features successes they have had in revitalizing and supporting and projects they are working on. For example, they released a Medicinal Plant Guide that had information in both Cree and English. An important part of making the guide was input from the elders. Another accomplishment was the dubbing of a movie in Cree. They are working on broadcasting a radio station that "will give listeners music and a voice for our languages".

See also

References

  1. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Language Highlight Tables, 2016 Census - Aboriginal mother tongue, Aboriginal language spoken most often at home and Other Aboriginal language(s) spoken regularly at home for the population excluding institutional residents of Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 Census - 100% Data". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Official Languages of the Northwest Territories Archived December 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. (map)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  5. ^ a b "Education, Culture, and Employment". Government of the Northwest Territories. Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ Statistics Canada: 2006 Census Archived October 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ a b Northwest Territories Official Languages Act, 1988 Archived March 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. (as amended 1988, 1991-1992, 2003)
  8. ^ a b Government of the Northwest Territories. 2016-2017 annual report on official languages. Retrieved from https://www.ece.gov.nt.ca/sites/www.ece.gov.nt.ca/files/resources/english_version.2016-2017_ol_ar.pdf
  9. ^ Rhodes and Todd, "Subarctic Algonquian Languages" in Handbook of North American Indians: Subarctic, p. 60
  10. ^ Rhodes and Todd, 60-61
  11. ^ Smith, James G. E. (August 1987). "The Western Woods Cree: Anthropological Myth and Historical Reality". American Ethnologist. 14 (3): 434-48. doi:10.1525/ae.1987.14.3.02a00020. JSTOR 644951. The weight of evidence now indicates that the Cree were as far west as the Peace River long before the advent of the European fur traders, and that post-contact social organization was not drastically affected by the onset of the fur trade.
  12. ^ a b c Cuthand, D. (2007). Askiwina: A Cree world. Regina: Coteau Books.
  13. ^ Linguasphere code 62-ADA is called "Cree+Ojibwa net", listing four divisions of which three are shown here--the fourth division 62-ADA-d representing the Ojibwe dialects, listed as "Ojibwa+ Anissinapek".
  14. ^ Moseley, Christopher. 2007. Encyclopedia of World's Endangered Languages. ISBN 0-203-64565-0
  15. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  16. ^ a b c d e Thunder,Dorothy[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ Dahlstrom, introduction
  18. ^ Dahlstrom pp. 11
  19. ^ a b Wolfart, H. C., & Carroll, J. F. (1981). Meet Cree: A guide to the Cree language (New and completely rev. ed.). Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.
  20. ^ a b c Ager, Simon: Omniglot, Cree Syllabary
  21. ^ Christoph., Wolfart, H. (1981). Meet Cree : a guide to the Cree language. Carroll, Janet F. (New and completely rev. ed.). Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. ISBN 0888640730. OCLC 8925218.
  22. ^ Ahenakew, Freda, and H.C. Wolfart, eds. 1998. ana kâ-pimwêwêhahk okakêskihkêmowina / The Counselling Speeches of Jim Kâ-Nîpitêhtêw. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press. ISBN 0-88755-648-5
  23. ^ Okimâsis, Jean, and Arok Wolvengrey. 2008. How to Spell it in Cree. Regina: miywâsin ink. ISBN 978-0-9784935-0-9
  24. ^ Bakker and Papen p. 295
  25. ^ a b Bakker and Papen p. 304
  26. ^ Carter p. 63
  27. ^ Blain. (1989: 15)
  28. ^ Bakker and Papen p. 305
  29. ^ Agreement on Governance in the Eeyou Istchee James Bay Territory Between the Crees of Eeyou Istchee and the Gouvernement du Québec, 2012
  30. ^ a b c d McAlpine, L., & Herodier, D. (1994). Schooling as a vehicle for aboriginal language maintenance: Implementing cree as the language of instruction in northern quebec. Canadian Journal of Education, 19(2), 128. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/215381294
  31. ^ Betowski, Bev. "E-books show kids the colour of Cree language". University of Alberta News & Events. Archived from the original on 2013-01-30. Retrieved .

Bibliography

External links

Lessons

Dictionaries

E-books


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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