Deleted State Highways in California
California State Route 31 shieldCalifornia State Route 195 shield
Examples of deleted routes in California
Highway names
InterstatesInterstate XX (I-XX)
US HighwaysU.S. Route XX (US XX)
StateState Route XX (SR XX)
System links

Since the current state highway system in California, United States was designated, several routes have been deleted from the system by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and the California State Legislature.

State Route 11 (Original)

State Route 11
LocationSan Pedro - Pasadena
Existed1934-1981

State Route 11 followed the route of current Interstate 110 and State Route 110 along the Harbor Freeway. It initially followed surface streets until the 1940s when the Arroyo Seco Parkway was completed. The Harbor Freeway, which was constructed to interstate standards, opened in phases from the late 1950s to the 1970s and SR 11 was since transferred to that route. In December 1978, the Harbor Freeway was approved as an Interstate Highway by the FHWA. In 1981, SR 11 was deleted and has since been renumbered as Interstate 110 on the Harbor Freeway, and State Route 110 on the Pasadena Freeway (later Arroyo Seco Parkway).

SR 11 would eventually be redesignated in San Diego from SR 905 near SR 125 to the United States/Mexico border in 1994 and the first segment would open in 2016.

State Route 21

State Route 21
LocationSan Jose - Fairfield
ExistedMid 1930s-1976

State Route 21 closely followed the route of current Interstate 680. It began in San Jose heading northeast from I-280 and US 101 and closely paralleling SR 17 (now I-880) until reaching Fremont. From there, SR 21 headed northeast toward Pleasanton and intersected I-580. SR 21 then headed northwest to Concord and Martinez, California, intersecting SR 24 and SR 4 before reaching the Carquinez Strait. In Benicia, SR 21 intersected with SR 141 (now I-780) and ended in Fairfield at I-80.

The route was added to the Interstate Highway System in 1973. This became the new alignment of I-680, and the old route to Vallejo became I-780. SR 21 was then deleted in 1976 once corresponding changes were made by the state legislature.

State Route 30

State Route 30
LocationSan Dimas - Redlands
ExistedMid 1930s-2007

State Route 30 ran from Interstate 210 in San Dimas to Interstate 10 in Redlands through San Bernardino. It was built to freeway standards between Interstate 215 in San Bernardino and Interstate 10 and between the current terminus of State Route 57 in San Dimas to Foothill Blvd. in La Verne. When the freeway section between Foothill Blvd. and Interstate 215 was completed in 2007, the route was decommissioned and renumbered SR 210. It is expected to be included into the interstate highway system at some later date as an extension to Interstate 210.[1]

State Route 31

State Route 31
LocationCorona - Devore
ExistedMid 1930s-1974

State Route 31 ran from State Route 91 near Corona to Interstate 15 in Devore through San Bernardino. The route was deleted in 1974, when it was added to the interstate system. After being signed California 31, It was signed Temporary Interstate 15, and later, after being moved from Main Street in Corona, Hamner Avenue in Riverside County north of Corona, and Milliken Avenue in San Bernardino County to the Ontario Freeway. Became Interstate 15.[1]

State Route 42

State Route 42
LocationInglewood - Norwalk
Length18.82 mi (30.29 km)
Existed1960-2000

State Route 42 ran from State Route 1 west of Inglewood to State Route 91 in Santa Ana Canyon near Norwalk, largely along Manchester Avenue and Firestone Boulevard. It was deleted in 1968. The segment east of Interstate 5 (Santa Ana Freeway) was added to State Route 90. The segment west of Interstate 5 was added to the interstate system as Interstate 105. The freeway would not be opened until 1993, which resulted in the original route continuing to be signed as State Route 42.[2] To this day, Route 42 is still sporadically signed in many places.

State Route 69

State Route 69
LocationExeter - Dunlap
Existed?-1972

State Route 69 began at SR 198 amid Tulare County. It then headed north and intersected SR 216 in Woodlake and CR J27 amid farmland in the county. The route continued to meet SR 201 in Elderwood. After several miles through Tulare County, it crossed into Fresno County, where it met its north end at State Route 180. In 1972, this highway was decommissioned and renumbered SR 245.

State Route 85 (Original)

State Route 85
LocationMountain View-Saratoga
Existed1963-1994

From 1963 to 1965, State Route 85 was a 10-11 mile highway that ran entirely on surface streets from US 101 near SR 237 to I-280 along Mathilda Ave and Saratoga-Sunnyvale Road (later De Anza Blvd) between I-280 and SR 9. The northern segment was rerouted in 1965 once the northern segment of the freeway opened. The southern segment was deleted on October 19, 1994, the same day the remainder of the current freeway opened and was route was immediately transferred over to the cities of Cupertino and Saratoga. Although the route appeared in the California Transportation Commission's agenda in July 2000.

State Route 106

State Route 106
LocationRunning Springs - Redlands
Existed1964-1972

State Route 106 was originally created in 1964, and ran from State Route 38 in Redlands to State Route 18 in Running Springs. Prior to 1964, the highway was a part of Legislative Route 190, which ran from US 66 to State Route 38. After 1964, the route was split in half. The western portion became State Route 30. The eastern portion was combined with Legislative Route 207, and became State Route 106. A year later, its southern terminus was moved to Interstate 10.[3] In 1972, State Route 106 was decommissioned. The northern portion between State Route 30 and State Route 18 was renumbered to State Route 330. The southern portion was added to State Route 30, extending it to Interstate 10.[1] This also reconnected both halves of the original Legislative Route 190.

State Route 157

State Route 157
LocationSan Diego
Existed1964-1994

State Route 157 was planned to run from I-805 near Ocean View Boulevard in San Diego to SR 125 near the Sweetwater Reservoir, passing through the neighborhood of Paradise Hills.[4] What was known as Route 285 became a state highway in 1959,[5] and was redesignated as SR 157 in the 1964 state highway renumbering.[6] By 1974, plans called for constructing the freeway from Nogal Street across Imperial Avenue to end at SR 54. However, the project was cancelled after objections from the community, and because it was not compatible with any long-term plans.[7] Developments near the western half of the route served to discourage construction, and the plans for the eastern half were cancelled that year; the land was sold soon afterward.[4] The mayor of National City, Kile Morgan, opposed the proposal, citing concerns that many projects for the South Bay were being opposed by others.[8] The route was removed from the law by the Legislature in 1994.[9]

State Route 159

State Route 159
LocationPasadena
Existed1964-1992

State Route 159 Between July 1, 1964 and the time it was turned back to local authorities, Route 159 was the segment of Linda Vista Avenue in Pasadena between State Route 134, the Ventura Freeway, and Interstate 210, the Foothill Freeway. From July 1, 1964 to 1965, this was also the segment of Figueroa Boulevard between State Route 134 and Interstate 5. In 1965, this was to be deleted when I-210 was completed. Prior to July 1, 1964 it was a segment of California Legislative Route 165 and signed as California State Route 11.

State Route 171

State Route 171
LocationSan Diego
Existed1964-1994

State Route 171 was planned to run from I-5 near San Diego to I-805 through Switzer Canyon.[6] It was to be called the Switzer Canyon Freeway, and had been suggested by consultant John Nolen in 1926.[4] Originally designated as Route 284 in 1959,[5] the route was renumbered as SR 171 in the 1964 state highway renumbering.[6] However, the community opposed the project; it would have passed through Balboa Park and would have gone through canyons, residential districts, and a golf course. SANDAG endorsed the deletion in 1993,[4] and the Legislature deleted the route in 1994.[9]

State Route 176

State Route 176
LocationSanta Maria - Sisquoc
Existed1964-1964

State Route 176 ran from US 101 in Santa Maria to Sisquoc along Stowell Road, Philbric Road, and Foxen Canyon Road. Prior to July 1, 1964 it was an unsigned segment of California Legislative Route 148.

State Route 195

State Route 195
LocationMecca
Length7.420 mi[10] (11.941 km)
Existed1964-2014

State Route 195 connected SR 86 with SR 111.[11] It served as a connector between the two routes while the SR 86 expressway was constructed. This route was deleted in 2014, when the part that was not deleted in 2009 was transferred to SR 111.[12]

State Route 196

State Route 196
LocationPalmdale
Existed?-1965

State Route 196 ran from Route 2 to Route 249 south of Palmdale. It was deleted in 1965.[13]

State Route 206

State Route 206
LocationSan Bernardino - Verdemont
Existed1964-?

State Route 206 was deleted from the state highway system, with varying reasons. Between July 1, 1964 and the time it was turned back to local authorities, Route 206 ran from Highland Avenue, formerly State Route 30, in San Bernardino along North E Street, Kendall Drive, and Palm Avenue to the Barstow Freeway, Interstate 215, in Verdemont. Prior to July 1, 1964, Route 206 was California Legislative Route 191 and was signed as Business U. S. 66.

State Route 209

State Route 209
LocationSan Diego
Length8.0 mi[14] (13 km)
Existed1964-2003

State Route 209 connected Point Loma with the interchange of I-5 and I-8 in San Diego. The route began at the Cabrillo National Monument and passed through Fort Rosecrans and the neighborhood of Point Loma via Catalina Boulevard, Canon Street, and Rosecrans Street.[15] This route was deleted in 2003.[16]

State Route 214

State Route 214
LocationLong Beach
Existed1964-1998

State Route 214 was deleted in 1998. Between July 1, 1964 and the time it was turned back to local authorities, Route 214 ran between Lakewood Boulevard, then State Route 19, in Long Beach and the Santa Ana Freeway, Interstate 5, in Anaheim. Route 214 traversed Carson Street in Los Angeles County (between Route 19 and the Los Angeles/Orange County Line). It continued into Orange County on Lincoln Avenue (between the Los Angeles/Orange County Line and Route 5). Prior to July 1, 1964, Route 214 was a segment of California Legislative Route 178. Between 1962 and July 1, 1964 it was signed as US 91. Before 1962, it was signed as both US 91 and State Route 18.

State Route 228

State Route 228
LocationBrawley
Existed1964-1998

State Route 228 was to be a short bypass west of Brawley. The road as defined by the California State Legislature in the 1964 state highway renumbering would have begun at SR 86 2.5 miles (4.0 km) southwest of Brawley and ended 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Brawley.[6] However, this was also included in the 1935 definition of Route 26, which continued north to Los Angeles and south to Calexico,[17] along the approximate route of US 99.[18] The route was deleted in 1998;[19] by that time, no highway had been constructed along this route.[20]

State Route 231

State Route 231
LocationMecca
Existed1963-1972

State Route 231 was a designation for a state highway from SR 86 to SR 195 near Mecca. In 1935, the route was added to the state highway system.[17] Two years later, the route was given the designation of Route 204.[21] In the 1964 state highway renumbering, the route was renumbered as SR 231.[6] The Division of Highways proposed deleting this state highway in 1971,[22] The routing was removed from the state highway system in 1972.[23]

SR 231 was later used for what is now SR 261 and SR 241.[24][25]

State Route 252

State Route 252
LocationSan Diego
Existed1964-1994

State Route 252 was to connect I-5 to I-805, and provide almost direct access from I-805 to I-5, near the southern terminus of SR 15. The route would have run parallel to, and approximately halfway between, the current alignment of SR 94 and SR 54.[26][27]

SR 252 was defined as Route 283 in 1959,[5] and was redesignated as Route 252 in the 1964 state highway renumbering.[6] The California Highway Commission reviewed a 1.8-mile (2.9 km) proposal for the route in 1965.[28] It was known as the El Toyon Freeway, and plans were to use it to balance the congestion between I-5 and I-805. By 1973, there was opposition based on concerns that it would split the community; according to an engineer from Caltrans, it was "a white man's freeway vs. a black community." If the freeway was not constructed, the federal government would stand to lose $10 million.[29] The Comprehensive Planning Organization in 1974 proposed widening arterial streets nearby as an alternative, even though the construction would affect 240 buildings.[30] Meanwhile, relocation of 280 households and the start of demolition had taken place.[31]

In 1977, a local vote took place to determine what to construct or if SR 252 should be constructed; however, $4.4 million had already been spent to construct the 43rd street interchange with I-805. Alternate plans included a city street and constructing a below-grade freeway.[32] By 1980, the California Transportation Commission had canceled plans to construct SR 252, due to the residential opposition.[4] The city of National City made attempts to have the plans reinstated in 1986 to reduce congestion within city limits.[33] The city of San Diego opposed the idea of constructing an additional freeway, while the county supported it.[34] The state told Caltrans to sell the land to the city of San Diego, though National City expressed interest in purchasing it, even though there would be San Diego city permits needed to construct a freeway on it.[35] National City then sued the state, but agreed to drop the suit in exchange for $10 million in traffic improvements on behalf of the city of San Diego.[36]

In 1993, the San Diego Association of Governments and Caltrans planned to have SR 252, along with SR 157 and SR 171, officially removed; the abandoned land was to be used for residential purposes.[4] The state legislature removed from the state highway system in 1994.[9] The only portion constructed is the ramps to and from I-805 at 43rd Street, in southern San Diego, approximately zero point five miles (0.80 km) long;[27] the ramps were completed in 1975.[33]

State Route 256

State Route 256
LocationRoseville
Existed1965-1994

State Route 256 ran from I-80 to State Route 65 north of Roseville, and was deleted in 1994. This was originally signed as part of Route 65, and of US 99E through Roseville.[37]

State Route 274

State Route 274
LocationSan Diego
Existed1965-1999

State Route 274 ran along Balboa Avenue, entirely within the city of San Diego. The highway started at I-5 in Pacific Beach before continuing east into Kearny Mesa and intersecting I-805 and SR 163. Balboa Avenue continued east to I-15.[38] As of 2014, Balboa Avenue still exists as a road between I-5 and I-15.[39]

Balboa Avenue was constructed in Pacific Beach by 1956,[40] and east into Clairemont by 1961.[41] The Legislature designated the route as from I-5 to SR 103 in 1965,[42] changing SR 103 to SR 15 in 1969.[43] Between 1969 and 1970, Balboa Avenue was completed from I-5 to SR 163 and signed as SR 274.[44][45] Completion of the route to I-15 was in place by 1982.[38] A sinkhole 700-foot (210 m) long and 65 feet (20 m) deep opened at the I-15 interchange in 1998 after a storm across the region.[46] The route was deleted from state laws in 1999,[47] and given to the city of San Diego in 2001.[48]

State Route 285

State Route 285
LocationPortola
Existed1964-1998

State Route 285 was defined in 1970 as Route 70 on West Street in Portola northwesterly to the north city limits, then to Lake Davis via Humbug Canyon, and then easterly to Grizzly Reservoir via the south shore of the lake. This was deleted in 1998 because of problems with the right of way and drainage. The route was never constructed. According to the Caltrans photolog, the old alignment for Route 285 essentially is exactly the same as existing West Street (in Portola) and Lake Davis Road northeast to Grizzly Road just northeast of the Big Grizzly Creek.[49]

State Route 480

State Route 480
LocationSan Francisco
Existed1968-1991

State Route 480 was a state highway in San Francisco consisting of the elevated double-decker Embarcadero Freeway (also known as the Embarcadero Skyway), the partly elevated Doyle Drive approach to the Golden Gate Bridge and the proposed and unbuilt section in between. The unbuilt section from Doyle Drive to Van Ness Avenue was to have been called the Golden Gate Freeway and the Embarcadero Freeway as originally planned would have extended from Van Ness along the north side of Bay Street and then along the Embarcadero to the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge.

The Embarcadero Freeway, which had only been constructed from Broadway along the Embarcadero to the Bay Bridge, was universally panned with many locals comparing it to the Alaskan Way Viaduct in Seattle. Demands to demolish the freeway were proposed as early as 1963 with the San Francisco Board of Supervisors supporting the proposal. The freeway was eventually demolished after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and Doyle Drive is now part of U.S. Route 101. SR 480 was Interstate 480, an auxiliary route of the Interstate Highway System, from 1955 to 1965.[50][51] The entire route was deleted in 1991, approximately two years after the earthquake.[50]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Faigin, Daniel. "Routes 25 through 32". Retrieved .
  2. ^ Faigin, Daniel. "Routes 41 through 48". Retrieved .
  3. ^ Faigin, Daniel. "Routes 105 through 112". Retrieved .
  4. ^ a b c d e f Showley, Roger (October 3, 1993). "Forget the Switzer Canyon Freeway (proposed in 1926)". San Diego Union-Tribune. p. H8.
  5. ^ a b c California State Assembly. "An act to amend Sections 306, 320, 332, 351, 362, 365, 369, 374, 382, 388, 397, 407, 408, 409, 410, 415, 422, 435, 440, 446, 453, 456, 460, 467, 470, 476, 487, 492, 493, 494, 506, 521, 528, and 529..." Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 1062 p. 3121.
  6. ^ a b c d e f California State Assembly. "An act to add Section 253 and Article 3 (commencing with Section 300) to Chapter 2 of Division 1 of, and to repeal Section 253 and Article 3 (commencing with Section 300) of Chapter 2 of Division 1 of, the..." Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 385 p. 1182.
  7. ^ Staff (June 23, 1974). "Highway Unit Will Drop State 157 Freeway Plans". The San Diego Union. p. B1.
  8. ^ Staff (July 24, 1974). "Morgan Irate Over Projects". The San Diego Union. p. B3.
  9. ^ a b c California State Assembly. "An act to amend Section 2982.2 of, and to add Section 3068.2 to, the Civil Code, to amend Sections 40084.5, 40088, and 40089 of the Education Code, to amend Section 29601 of, to amend and renumber Section 14035.6 of, to..." Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 1220.
  10. ^ California Department of Transportation. "State Truck Route List". Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (XLS file) on June 30, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  11. ^ Riverside County Road Atlas (Map). Thomas Brothers. 2009.
  12. ^ Craggs, Timothy (December 10, 2014). "Route Adoption - State Highway, 08-RIV-111 PM R18.5/R19.4 Resolution HRA-14-02" (PDF).
    "Minutes" (PDF). California Transportation Commission. December 10, 2014. Retrieved 2015.
  13. ^ Faigin, Daniel. "Routes 193 through 200". Retrieved .
  14. ^ "All Traffic Volumes on CSHS". California Department of Transportation. 1996. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved 2008.
  15. ^ San Diego County Road Atlas (Map). Thomas Brothers. 1998. pp. 1268, 1287-1288, 1308.
  16. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to amend Sections 8879.1, 14070.4, 14076.4, 14524.2, and 65082 of, and to repeal Sections 8879.17 and 14524.15 of, the Government Code, to amend Sections 21602, 21702, 21704, 21707, and 102015 of, and to repeal Section 21604 of, and..." Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 525.
  17. ^ a b California State Assembly. "An act to establish a Streets and Highways Code, thereby consolidating and revising the law relating to public ways and all appurtenances thereto, and to repeal certain acts and parts of acts specified herein". Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 29 p. 287.
  18. ^ United States System of Highways Adopted for Uniform Marking by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). 1:7,000,000. Cartography by U.S. Geological Survey. Bureau of Public Roads. November 11, 1926. OCLC 32889555. Retrieved 2013.
  19. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to amend Sections 21644.5, 21670.4, 21681, 99155.1, 99238.5, and 99401.5 of the Public Utilities Code, to amend Section 8352.3 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, to amend Sections 73, 163, 164.11, 164.16, 164.17, 164.18, 253.1, 253.3, 302, 319..." Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 877.
  20. ^ San Diego County Road Atlas (Map). Thomas Brothers. 1998.
  21. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to amend sections 251, 308, 340, 344, 351, 352, 361, 368, 369, 374, 377, 404 and 425 of, to add four two sections to be numbered 503, 504, 505 and 506 to, and to repeal sections 603, 611..." Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 841.
  22. ^ Long, Ken (September 17, 1971). "State Officials Unveil Their Proposal For Classifying Roads By Function". San Bernardino County Sun. p. 16. Retrieved 2015 – via Newspapers.com.open access publication - free to read
  23. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to amend Sections 263.3, 263.8, and 415 of, and to add Section 486 to, the Streets and Highways Code, relating to state highways". Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 1216 p. 2351.
  24. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to add Sections 188.4 and 531 to the Streets and Highways Code, relating to transportation". Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 1364.
  25. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to amend Section 564 of the Code of Civil Procedure, to amend Section 19993.7 of, and to add Section 65088.5 to, the Government Code, and to amend Sections 11474, 44013.5, and 44521 of, and to repeal Sections 39047.4..." Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 1154.
  26. ^ Staff (December 18, 1974). "Highway 252: Will Extension Help Flow Of Traffic?". The San Diego Union. p. B11.
  27. ^ a b Google (September 23, 2013). "SR 252" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 2013.
  28. ^ Staff (April 20, 1965). "County Freeway Routes OK'd". The San Diego Union. p. B14.
  29. ^ Staff (December 5, 1973). "Engineer Says Coast Guard Delays Interstate 5 Project". The San Diego Union. p. B3.
  30. ^ Harrison, Donald (December 29, 1974). "CPO Lists Alternatives To State 252". The San Diego Union. p. B1.
  31. ^ Staff (December 29, 1974). "New Uses Proposed For Site Of Freeway". The San Diego Union. p. B1.
  32. ^ Williamson, Jennifer (December 21, 1977). "Voting Starts On Freeway issue". The San Diego Union. p. B3.
  33. ^ a b Preble, Laura (April 4, 1986). "San Diego, National City renew battle for Route 252". Evening Tribune. San Diego. p. B8.
  34. ^ Krikorian, Greg (April 10, 1986). "Keep Rte. 252 as an option, supervisors say". The San Diego Union. p. II-14.
  35. ^ Baranger, Walt (April 25, 1986). "Rte. 252 corridor sale given state's tentative approval". The San Diego Union. p. B1.
  36. ^ Abrams, Michael (February 11, 1987). "S.D., National City agree to settlement of State 252 feud". The San Diego Union. p. B1.
  37. ^ Faigin, Daniel. "Routes 249 through 256". Retrieved .
  38. ^ a b San Diego County (Map). Automobile Club of Southern California. 1982.
  39. ^ Google (July 10, 2014). "State Route 274" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 2014.
  40. ^ California (Map). California Division of Highways. 1956.
  41. ^ California (Map). California Division of Highways. 1961.
  42. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to add Section 574 to the Streets and Highways Code, relating to state highways". Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 2068.
  43. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to amend Sections 253.1, 253.4, 253.5, 253.8, 263.3, 263.4, 263.8, 315, 360, 371, 374, 378, 379, 381, 391, 574 and 610 of, to add Sections 463 and 608 to, and to repeal Sections 403 and 486 of..." Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 294.
  44. ^ California Division of Highways (1969). State Highway Map: California (Map). Scale not given. Sacramento: California Division of Highways. San Diego inset.
  45. ^ California Division of Highways (1970). State Highway Map: California (Map). Scale not given. Sacramento: California Division of Highways. San Diego inset.
  46. ^ Staff (February 25, 1998). "Rescuers search for victims of storms". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved 2014.
  47. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to amend Sections 14076.2 and 103113 of, and to repeal Section 14451 of, the Government Code, to amend Section 20300 of, and to amend the heading of Article 16 (commencing with Section 20300) of Chapter 1 of Part 3..." Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 724.
  48. ^ Staff (April 14, 2009). "Minutes for Regular Council Meeting of April 14, 2009" (PDF). San Diego City Council. Retrieved 2014.
  49. ^ Faigin, Daniel. "Routes 281 through 288". Retrieved .
  50. ^ a b "Former State Route 480". California Highways. Retrieved .
  51. ^ "Interstate 480". kurumi.com. Retrieved .

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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