Elixir (programming Language)
elixir programming language
Paradigm multi-paradigm: functional, concurrent, distributed, process-oriented
First appeared 2011; 7 years ago (2011)
Stable release
1.6.6 / 19 June 2018; 32 days ago (2018-06-19)[1]
Typing discipline dynamic, strong
Platform Erlang
License Apache License 2.0[2]
Filename extensions .ex, .exs
Website elixir-lang.org
Influenced by
Erlang, Ruby, Clojure

Elixir is a functional, concurrent, general-purpose programming language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine (BEAM).[3] Elixir builds on top of Erlang and shares the same abstractions for building distributed, fault-tolerant applications. Elixir also provides a productive tooling and an extensible design. The latter is supported by compile-time metaprogramming with macros and polymorphism via protocols.[4]

Elixir is used by companies such as E-MetroTel, Pinterest[5] and Moz.[6] Elixir is also used for web development, by companies such as Bleacher Report, Discord, and Inverse,[7] and for building embedded systems.[8][9] The community organizes yearly events in United States[10], Europe[11] and Japan[12] as well as minor local events and conferences.[13][14]

On July 12, 2018, Honeypot released a mini-documentary on Elixir.[15]


José Valim is the creator of the Elixir programming language, an R&D project of Plataformatec. His goals were to enable higher extensibility and productivity in the Erlang VM while keeping compatibility with Erlang's ecosystem.[16][17]



The following examples can be run in an iex shell or saved in a file and run from the command line by typing elixir <filename>.

Classic Hello world example:

iex> IO.puts "Hello World!"
Hello World!


iex> for n <- [1,2,3,4,5], rem(n, 2) == 1, do: n*n
[1, 9, 25]

Pattern Matching (destructuring)

iex> [1, a] = [1, 2]
iex> a

iex> {:ok, [hello: a]} = {:ok, [hello: "world"]}
iex> a

Pattern Matching (multiple clauses)

iex> case File.read("path/to/file") do
iex>   {:ok, contents} -> IO.puts("found file: #{contents}")
iex>   {:error, reason} -> IO.puts("missing file: #{reason}")
iex> end

Pipe Operator

iex> "1" |> String.to_integer |> Kernel.*(2)


defmodule Fun do
  def fib(0), do: 0
  def fib(1), do: 1
  def fib(n), do: fib(n-2) + fib(n-1)  

Sequentially spawning a thousand processes

for num <- 1..1000, do: spawn fn -> IO.puts "#{num * 2}" end

Asynchronously performing a task

task = Task.async fn -> perform_complex_action end
Task.await task

Noteworthy Elixir projects

  • Absinthe is a GraphQL implementation for Elixir
  • Ecto is a database wrapper and language integrated query for Elixir
  • Mix is a build automation tool for Elixir projects
  • Nerves is framework and platform for embedded software
  • Phoenix is a web framework built on Elixir
  • Plug is a specification and conveniences for composable modules between web applications

See also


External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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