Eski%C5%9Fehir
Eski?ehir
Metropolitan municipality
Top left:Eski?ehir Central railway station, Top right: Tepeba?? Municipality, Bottom left: Museum of Modern Glass Art, Bottom right: Porsuk River.
Eski?ehir is located in Turkey
Eski?ehir
Eski?ehir
Location of Eski?ehir
Coordinates: 39°47?N 30°31?E / 39.783°N 30.517°E / 39.783; 30.517
Country Turkey
Region Central Anatolia
Province Eski?ehir
Government
 o Metropolitan Mayor Y?lmaz Büyüker?en (CHP)
 o Governor Azmi Çelik
Area
 o Metropolitan municipality 2,678.00 km2 (1,033.98 sq mi)
Elevation 788 m (2,585 ft)
Population (2016)[1]
 o Metropolitan municipality 844,842
 o Density 236/km2 (610/sq mi)
 o Metro 734,807
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 o Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 26 xxx
Area code(s) (+90) 222
Registration plate 26
Website http://www.eskisehir-bld.gov.tr/
Estram, the city's tram service.

Eski?ehir (pronounced [es'ci?ehi?]) (Turkish: eski "old", ?ehir "city",[2] in Greek: Dorylaeon, ?????????) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eski?ehir Province. The urban population of the city is 717,135 with a metropolitan population of 826,135.[1] The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is 233 km (145 mi) to the west of Ankara, 330 km (205 mi) to the southeast of Istanbul and 78 km (48 mi) to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eski?ehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eski?ehir. The province covers an area of 2,678 km2 (1,034 sq mi).[3]

History

The name Eski?ehir literally means "Old City" in Turkish; indeed, the city was founded by the Phrygians in at least 1000 BC, although it has been estimated to be older than 4000 years old. Many Phrygian artifacts and sculptures can still be found in the city's archeological museum. There is also a museum of meerschaum stone, whose production remains still notable, used to make high quality meerschaum pipes. In the fourth century AD the city moved about ten km northeast, from Karacahisar to ?ehirhöyük.

Many ancient geographers described the city as one of the most beautiful in Anatolia.

As with many towns in Anatolia, Christianity arrived after Constantine the Great made it the official religion of the Roman Empire. Beginning in the 4th century, records exist of bishops holding office in Eski?ehir. The city was known as Dorylaeum (?????????) in Greek in that period. One of these bishops, Eusebius, was heavily involved in shaping the evolving dogma of the church.

It was called Sultanönü during Sejuk period.[4]

Economy

Traditionally dependent on flour milling and brickyards, the city expanded with the building of railway workshops in 1894 for work on the Berlin-Baghdad Railway.

As of 1920, Eski?ehir was one of the major locations for meerschaum mining. At that time, most of the mining sites were owned by the state.[5]

Devrim, the first Turkish automobile, was produced in 1961 at the TÜLOMSA? factory in Eski?ehir. Devrim never put into mass production and stayed a concept study and can be viewed in TÜLOMSA? factory Eski?ehir. In addition to production, first Turkish steam powered locomotive called Karakurt was produced at the TÜLOMSA? in 1961. Eski?ehir was also the site of Turkey's first aviation industry (Aeronautical Supply Maintenance Centre) and its air base was the command center of Turkey's first Tactical Air Force headquarters on NATO's southern flank during the Cold War.

Eski?ehir produces trucks, home appliances, railway locomotives, fighter aircraft engines, agricultural equipment, textiles, brick, cement, chemicals, processed meerschaum and refined sugar. Eti (tr), one of Turkey's largest food brands (mostly producing biscuit, chocolate and candy varieties) is based in Eski?ehir. Arçelik, a major Turkish home appliances and consumer electronics manufacturer, has one of its production plants in Eski?ehir. Eski?ehir was the first stage of High-speed rail in Turkey from Ankara. This service improved the travel and commerce between Eski?ehir and Ankara, thanks to reduced journey time.

The city is served by the Anadolu Airport.

Education

Library of the Anadolu University

There are two universities in Eski?ehir. These are the Anadolu University and Eski?ehir Osmangazi University. The current Metropolitan Mayor of Eski?ehir, Prof. Dr. Y?lmaz Büyüker?en, was formerly the rector of the Anadolu University.

Culture

The city has a significant population of Turkic Crimean Tatars. It also attracted ethnic Turks emigrating from Balkan countries such as Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia, and the Sand?ak region of Serbia, who contributed to the development of the city's metalworking industries. Eski?ehir also hosted the inaugural Turkvision Song Contest in 2013, which aims to highlight music and artists from various regions of Turkey. The city is also home to the Dünya Müzeleri Müzesi or Museum of World Museums.

Other museums in the city are Eti Archaeology Museum, Aviation Museum, Meerschaum Museum, Museum of Independence, Museum of Modern Glass Art, Tayfun Talipo?lu Typewriter Museum and Y?lmaz Büyüker?en Wax Museum.

Attractions

Most of modern-day Eski?ehir was rebuilt after the Turkish War of Independence (1919-1922), but a number of historic buildings remain, such as the Kur?unlu Mosque. The archaeological site of the ancient Phrygian city of Dorylaeum is close to Eski?ehir. The city is noted for its natural hot sulphur springs.

Climate

Eski?ehir has a humid continental climate with a warm summer subtype (Dsb) under the Köppen climate classification,[6] with cold, snowy winters and warm, dry summers. Due to the low annual precipitation, the climate is near the borderline of a cold semi-arid climate (BSk). Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn. Due to Eski?ehir's high altitude and its dry summers, nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Precipitation levels are low, but precipitation can be observed throughout the year.

Climate data for Eski?ehir (1960-2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.2
(68.4)
22.3
(72.1)
29.1
(84.4)
31.2
(88.2)
33.9
(93)
36.8
(98.2)
40.6
(105.1)
39.0
(102.2)
36.4
(97.5)
33.0
(91.4)
25.4
(77.7)
21.4
(70.5)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) 4.0
(39.2)
6.4
(43.5)
11.4
(52.5)
17.0
(62.6)
21.9
(71.4)
25.9
(78.6)
29.1
(84.4)
29.3
(84.7)
25.4
(77.7)
19.4
(66.9)
12.5
(54.5)
6.1
(43)
17.37
(63.25)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.0
(32)
1.5
(34.7)
5.2
(41.4)
10.3
(50.5)
15.1
(59.2)
19.1
(66.4)
21.8
(71.2)
21.6
(70.9)
17.3
(63.1)
11.9
(53.4)
6.3
(43.3)
2.1
(35.8)
11.02
(51.83)
Average low °C (°F) -3.5
(25.7)
-2.8
(27)
-0.3
(31.5)
3.8
(38.8)
7.9
(46.2)
11.4
(52.5)
14.0
(57.2)
13.7
(56.7)
9.6
(49.3)
5.4
(41.7)
1.1
(34)
-1.3
(29.7)
4.92
(40.86)
Record low °C (°F) -27.8
(-18)
-23.8
(-10.8)
-16.5
(2.3)
-10.4
(13.3)
-2.2
(28)
0.5
(32.9)
5.0
(41)
3.6
(38.5)
-2.0
(28.4)
-7.1
(19.2)
-14.7
(5.5)
-20.3
(-4.5)
-27.8
(-18)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40.6
(1.598)
32.6
(1.283)
37.8
(1.488)
40.6
(1.598)
43.0
(1.693)
32.8
(1.291)
13.0
(0.512)
9.2
(0.362)
15.1
(0.594)
29.8
(1.173)
30.0
(1.181)
45.5
(1.791)
370
(14.564)
Average rainy days 13.8 11.7 12.0 11.0 10.7 7.4 3.5 2.8 4.1 7.7 9.5 13.2 107.4
Average snowy days 10 9 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 34
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77.5 140.6 158.1 183 260.4 309 353.4 331.7 267 186 123 65.1 2,454.8
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji ??leri Genel Müdürlü?ü [7]
Source #2: Weather2 [8]

Sports

Club Sport Established League Venue
Eski?ehirspor Football (European), Soccer (American) 1965 TFF First League Eski?ehir Atatürk Stadium
Eski?ehir Basket Basketball ? Turkish Basketball League 2 Anadolu University Sports Hall

Notable natives

International relations

Twin towns -- Sister cities

Eski?ehir is twinned with:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Turkey: Major cities and provinces". citypopulation.de. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ Lewis Thomas (Apr 1, 1986). Elementary Turkish. Courier Dover Publications. p. 12. ISBN 978-0486250649. 
  3. ^ Statoids. "Statistical information on districts and town centers in Turkey". Retrieved . 
  4. ^ Türkiye ?ller Ansiklopedisi 1.Cilt s.409
  5. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 105. 
  6. ^ Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification - Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
  7. ^ "?l ve ?lçelerimize Ait ?statistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlü?ü". Dmi.gov.tr. 2006-09-21. Retrieved . 
  8. ^ "July Climate History for Eskisehir | Local | Turkey". Myweather2.com. Retrieved . 
  9. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved . 
  10. ^ Vesti.az (in Azerbaijani)

References

External links


Coordinates: 39°46?36?N 30°31?14?E / 39.77667°N 30.52056°E / 39.77667; 30.52056


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


Eski%C5%9Fehir



 
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