Attempts have been made to develop eugenol derivatives as intravenous anesthetics, as an alternative to propanidid which produces unacceptable side effects around the site of injection in many patients.
It is one of many compounds that is attractive to males of various species of orchid bees, which apparently gather the chemical to synthesize pheromones; it is commonly used as bait to attract and collect these bees for study. It also attracts female cucumber beetle. It was recently discovered that eugenol and isoeugenol, floral volatile scent compounds, are catalyzed by a single type of enzyme in the genus Gymnadenia and the gene encoding for this enzyme is the first functionally characterized gene in these species so far.
Clove oil is growing in popularity as an anaesthetic for use on aquarium fish as well as on wild fish when sampled for research and management purposes. Where readily available, it presents a humane method to euthanise sick and diseased fish either by direct overdose or to induce sleep before an overdose of eugenol.
Eugenol is subject to restrictions on its use in perfumery as some people may become sensitised to it, however, the degree to which eugenol can cause an allergic reaction in humans is disputed.
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