Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) or consumer packaged goods (CPG) are products that are sold quickly and at relatively low cost. Examples include non-durable goods such as packaged foods, beverages, toiletries, over-the-counter drugs and many other consumables. In contrast, durable goods or major appliances such as kitchen appliances are generally replaced over a period of several years.
Many fast moving consumer goods have a short shelf life, either as a result of high consumer demand or because the product deteriorates rapidly. Some FMCGs, such as meat, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and baked goods, are highly perishable. Other goods, such as pre-packaged foods, soft drinks, chocolate, candies, toiletries, and cleaning products, have high turnover rates. The sales are sometimes influenced by holidays and seasons.
Packaging is critical for FMCGs. The logistics and distribution systems often require secondary and tertiary packaging to maximize efficiency. The unit pack or primary package is critical for product protection and shelf life and also provides information and sales incentives to consumers.
Though the profit margin made on FMCG products is relatively small (more so for retailers than the producers/suppliers), they are generally sold in large quantities; thus, the cumulative profit on such products can be substantial. FMCG is a classic case of low margin and high volume business.
The following are the main characteristics of FMCGs:
Supplier industries for FMCGs include:
Fast-moving consumer electronics are typically low-priced generic or easily substitutable consumer electronics, including mobile phones, MP3 players, game players, earphones, headphones, OTG cables, and digital disposable cameras.
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