First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union
First Deputy Premier of
the Soviet Union
State Emblem of the Soviet Union.svg
ResidenceMoscow Kremlin
PrecursorDeputy Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
Formation14 May 1936
First holderValerian Kuibyshev
Final holderVladimir Velichko and Vitaly Doguzhiev
Abolished26 November 1991

The First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union, also known as First Vice Premier of the Soviet Union, was the deputy head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); despite the title, the office was not necessarily held by a single individual. A total of 26 individuals had held this post; 18 of them held other posts simultaneously with their First Deputy Premiership. The first officeholder was Valerian Kuibyshev, who was inaugurated in 1934 as First Deputy Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (Russian: ?, abbreviated Sovnarkom). Lavrentiy Beria spent the shortest time in office and served for 113 days. At over seventeen years, Vyacheslav Molotov spent the longest time in office, and held his position through most of Joseph Stalin's tenure as Premier, as well as through the tenureships of Georgy Malenkov and Nikolai Bulganin.

A First Deputy Premier was usually given responsibility over one specific area. For example, Kirill Mazurov was responsible for industry, and Dmitry Polyansky was agriculture. However, after Polyansky's departure in 1973 Mazurov was left the sole First Deputy Premier until Tikhonov was appointed in 1976.[1]:34 An officeholder could also be responsible for coordinating the activities of ministries and state committees and other subordinate bodies of the Council of Ministers. To do this the First Deputy Premier had to give these bodies guidance in an expeditious manner to ensure the implementation of plans for economic and social development and to check if the orders and decisions of the Council of Ministers were being followed. If the Premier could not perform his duties one of the First Deputy Premiers would take on the role of acting Premier until the Premier's return.[2] During the late 1970s, when the health of Premier Alexei Kosygin deteriorated, Nikolai Tikhonov, the First Deputy Premier, acted on his behalf during his absence. When Tikhonov took command of the Soviet economy, Kosygin served in a standby role. At a Central Committee plenum in June 1980, the Soviet economic development plan was outlined by Tikhonov, and not Kosygin.[3]

Before the transformation of the Council of People's Commissars to the Council of Ministers (Russian: , abbreviated Sovmin) the post of vice-head of government was given to the Deputy Chairmen of the Sovnarkom;[1]:281 however, there were three exceptions: Nikolai Voznesensky, Kuibyshev and Molotov were elected First Deputy Chairmen in the mid-1930s and the 1940s. There was no First Deputy Premier from 1935 to 1941 because no one was elected to the post. Molotov, one of two First Deputy Premiers under Stalin's tenure, nearly lost his position when Stalin, the Premier, took a vacation; Molotov, in his capacity as First Deputy Premier, committed what Stalin saw as grave policy violations.[4] Stalin's successor, Malenkov, promoted Bulganin, Beria and Lazar Kaganovich to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers. In a Council of Minister resolution it was stated that the Premier, the First Deputy Premiers and the Deputy Premiers made up the Presidium of the Council of Ministers.[1]:30 The Presidium was later expanded to include individuals hand-picked by the Premier.[1]:31 A decree had to be signed by the Premier or a First Deputy Premier, and in the case of the Premier's absence a First Deputy Premier would assume the duties of the Premier.[1]:123 The First Deputy Prime Ministers (Russian: ) were members of the Cabinet of Ministers (Russian: ? ?), the executive and administrative body that replaced the Council of Ministers in 1990.[5]

List of first deputies

Holder Tenure
(length of tenure)
Premier Other offices
held while First Deputy Premier
First Deputy Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1934 – 1935/1941 – 1946)
Valerian Kuybyshev
(1888–1935)[6]
Valerian Kuibushev.jpg 14 May 1934 – 25 January 1935
(256 days)
Vyacheslav Molotov Chairman of the Soviet Control Commission[7]
Nikolai Voznesensky
(1895–1950)[8]
Voznesenskiy NA.jpg 10 March 1941 – 15 March 1946
(5 years, 5 days)
Vyacheslav Molotov Chairman of the State Planning Commission[8]
Joseph Stalin
Vyacheslav Molotov
(1890–1986)[9]
A man in a dark suit, light shirt and dark tie, smiling 16 August 1942 – 15 March 1946
(3 years, 211 days)
Joseph Stalin People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs[10]
First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1946 – 1990)
Vyacheslav Molotov
(1890–1986)[9]
A man in a dark suit, light shirt and dark tie, smiling 19 March 1946 – 29 June 1957
(11 years, 106 days)
Joseph Stalin Minister of Foreign Affairs[11]
Georgy Malenkov
Nikolai Bulganin
Nikolai Bulganin
(1895–1975)[12]
A man in a dark suit, standing in front of a white wall, looking to his right 7 April 1950 – 8 February 1955
(4 years, 307 days)
Joseph Stalin Minister of Defence[13]
Georgy Malenkov
Lavrentiy Beria
(1899–1953)[10]
Lavrenty Beria.jpg 5 March 1953 - 26 June 1953
(113 days)
Georgy Malenkov Minister of Internal Affairs[10]
Lazar Kaganovich
(1893–1991)[14]
Kaganovich LM.jpg 5 March 1953 – 29 June 1957
(4 years, 141 days)
Georgy Malenkov Minister of Building Materials Industry[15]
Chairman of the State Committee of the Council of Ministers for Labour and Wages[16]
Nikolai Bulganin
Nikita Khrushchev
Anastas Mikoyan
(1895–1978)[17]
Mikoyan AI.jpg 28 February 1955 – 15 July 1964
(9 years, 138 days)
Nikolai Bulganin
--
Nikita Khrushchev
Mikhail Pervukhin
(1904–1974)[18]
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-77054-0001, Pervukin AdK der UdSSR (detail).jpg 28 February 1955 – 5 July 1957
(2 years, 127 days)
Nikolai Bulganin Chairman of the State Economic Commission of the Council of Ministers on Current Economic Planning[18]
Minister of Medium Machine Building[18]
Maksim Saburov
(1900–1977)[19]
--
28 February 1955 - 5 July 1957
(2 years, 127 days)
Nikolai Bulganin Chairman of the State Planning Committee[19]
Joseph Kuzmin
(1910–1996)[20]
--
28 February 1955 - 5 July 1957
(2 years, 127 days)
Nikolai Bulganin Chairman of the State Planning Committee[20]
Frol Kozlov
(1908–1965)[21]
--
31 March 1958 - 4 May 1960
(2 years, 34 days)
Nikita Khrushchev Chairman of the State Planning Committee[21]
Alexei Kosygin
(1904–1980)[22]
A man in a dark suit, seated, in discussion with someone to his left 4 May 1960 - 15 October 1964
(4 years, 164 days)
Nikita Khrushchev
--
Dmitriy Ustinov
(1908–1984)[23]
Il ministro della difesa dell'URSS Dmitrij Ustinov.jpg 13 March 1963 - 26 March 1965
(2 years, 13 days)
Nikita Khrushchev
--
Alexei Kosygin
Kirill Mazurov
(1914–1989)[24]
--
26 March 1965 - 28 November 1978
(13 years, 247 days)
Alexei Kosygin First Secretary of the Communist Party of Byelorussia[24]
Dmitry Polyansky
(1917–2001)[25]
--
2 October 1965 – 2 February 1973
(7 years, 123 days)
Alexei Kosygin
--
Nikolai Tikhonov
(1905–1997)[26]
--
2 September 1976 – 23 October 1980
(4 years, 51 days)
Alexei Kosygin
--
Ivan Arkhipov
(1907–1998)[27]
--
27 October 1980 - 4 October 1986
(5 years, 342 days)
Nikolai Tikhonov
--
Nikolai Ryzhkov
Heydar Aliyev
(1923–2003)[28]
A man in a dark suit with a red tie standing in front of the Azerbaijani flag 24 November 1982 - 23 October 1987
(4 years, 333 days)
Nikolai Tikhonov First Secretary of the Azerbaijan Communist Party[29]
Nikolai Ryzhkov
Andrei Gromyko
(1909–1989)[30]
A man in a dark suit, seated, looking to his left 24 March 1983 - 2 July 1985
(2 years, 100 days)
Nikolai Tikhonov Minister of Foreign Affairs[31]
Nikolai Talyzin
(1929–1991)[32]
--
14 October 1985 - 1 October 1988
(2 years, 353 days)
Nikolai Ryzhkov Chairman of the State Planning Committee[32]
Vsevolod Murakhovski
(1926–2017)[33]
--
1 November 1985 - 7 June 1989
(3 years, 218 days)
Nikolai Ryzhkov Chairman of the State Committee of the Council of Ministers for Agriculture[33]
Yuri Maslyukov
(1937–2010)[34]
--
5 February 1988 - 26 December 1990
(2 years, 324 days)
Nikolai Ryzhkov Chairman of the State Planning Committee[35]
Lev Voronin
(1928–2006)[36]
--
17 July 1989 - 26 December 1990
(1 year, 162 days)
Nikolai Ryzhkov
--
Vladilen Nikitin
(born 1936)[37]
--
27 July 1989 - 30 August 1990
(1 year, 34 days)
Nikolai Ryzhkov
--
First Deputy Prime Minister of the Cabinet of Ministers (1991)
Vladimir Velichko
(born 1937)[38]
--
15 January 1991 - 26 November 1991
(315 days)
Valentin Pavlov Minister of Heavy Machine Building[39]
Ivan Silayev
Vitaly Doguzhiev
(born 1935)[39]
--
15 January 1991 - 26 November 1991
(315 days)
Valentin Pavlov
--
Ivan Silayev

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Huskey, Eugene (1992). Executive Power and Soviet Politics: The Rise and Decline of the Soviet State. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-059-9.
  2. ^ ? ?. 5 ? 1978 « ? ?». (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. 5 July 1978 Law of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. ).
  3. ^ Zemtsov, Ilya (1989). Chernenko: The Last Bolshevik: The Soviet Union on the Eve of Perestroika. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers. p. 119. ISBN 0-88738-260-6.
  4. ^ Peerie, Maureen; Lieven, D.C.B.; Suny, Ronald Grigory (2006). The Cambridge History of Russia: The Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 259. ISBN 0-521-81144-9.
  5. ^ ? ?.  No130  26 ? 1990?. « ?». (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Article #130 of 26 December 1990 Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR. ).
  6. ^ Shepilov, Dmitri; Austin, Anthony; Bittner, Stephen (2007). The Kremlin's Scholar: A Memoir of Soviet Politics under Stalin and Khrushchev. Yale University Press. p. 403. ISBN 978-0-300-09206-6.
  7. ^ Hollander, Paul (2006). From the Gulag to the Killing Fields: Personal Accounts of Political Violence and Repression in Communist States. ISI Books. p. 113. ISBN 1-932236-78-3.
  8. ^ a b McCauley, Martin (1997). Who's Who in Russia since 1900. Routledge. pp. 224-225. ISBN 0-415-13898-1.
  9. ^ a b Phillips, Steven (2000). Lenin and the Russian Revolution. Heinemann. p. 89. ISBN 0-435-32719-4.
  10. ^ a b c Service, Robert (2009). History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-first Century. Penguin Books Ltd. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-14-103797-4.
  11. ^ Ulam, Adam (2007). Stalin: The Man and his Era. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 508. ISBN 978-1-84511-422-0.
  12. ^ Trahair, R.C.S. (2004). Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 69. ISBN 0-313-31955-3.
  13. ^ Siddiqi, Asif Azam (2010). The Red Rockets' Glare: Spaceflight and the Soviet Imagination, 1857-1957. Cambridge University Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-521-89760-0.
  14. ^ Rogovin, Vadim Zakharovich (2009). Stalin's Terror of 1937-1938: Political Genocide in the USSR. Mehring Books. p. 332. ISBN 978-1-893638-04-4.
  15. ^ McCauley, Martin (1997). Who's Who in Russia since 1900. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 0-415-13898-1.
  16. ^ McAuley, Alastair (1979). Economic Welfare in the Soviet Union: Poverty, Living standards, and Inequality. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 2000. ISBN 0-04-335038-0.
  17. ^ ? [Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan] (in Russian). War Heroes. Retrieved 2011.
  18. ^ a b c , ? [G. Pervukhin, Mikhail] (in Russian). War Heroes. Retrieved 2011.
  19. ^ a b ?, [Maksim Zakharovich Saburov] (in Russian). hrono. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  20. ^ a b ?: ? ? ? : 1923--1991 [The state power of the USSR: Higher authorities and governments and their leaders: 1923-1991]. Moscow, Russian Federation?- ?./?. ?. ?. . 2004. p. 69. ISBN 978-5-8243-0014-7.
  21. ^ a b Staff writer. ? [Frol Romanovich Kozlov] (in Russian). proekt-wms.narod.ru. Retrieved 2011.
  22. ^ Trahair, R.C.S. (2004). Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 37. ISBN 0-313-31955-3.
  23. ^ Staff writer. ?, ? [Ustinov, Dmitry Fedorovich] (in Russian). warheroes.ru. Retrieved 2011.
  24. ^ a b Staff writer. ? ? [Kirill Trofimovich Mazurov] (in Russian). hrono.ru. Retrieved 2011.
  25. ^ Staff writer. , ? ? [Polyansky, Dmitry Stepanovich] (in Russian). Pseudology. Retrieved 2011.
  26. ^ Ploss, Sidney (2010). The Roots of Perestroika: The Soviet Breakdown in Historical Context. McFarland & Company. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-7864-4486-1.
  27. ^ Ziyang, Zhao; Bao, Pu; Chiang, Renee (1998). Prisoner of the State: The Secret Journal of Zhao Ziyang. Routledge. p. 289. ISBN 1-4391-4938-0.
  28. ^ Staff writer (16 December 2003). "Azerbaijan's Geidar Aliev dies at 80". China Daily. Retrieved 2011.
  29. ^ Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Routledge. 1998. p. 156. ISBN 1-85743-058-1.
  30. ^ Ploss, Sidney (2010). The Roots of Perestroika: The Soviet Breakdown in Historical Context. McFarland & Company. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-7864-4486-1.
  31. ^ Laird, Robin F., Hoffmann, Erik P.; Fleron, Fredrick J. (1991). Soviet Foreign Policy: Classic and Contemporary Issues. Transaction Publishers. pp. 445-46. ISBN 0-202-24171-8.
  32. ^ a b Staff writer (26 January 1991). "Nikolai Talyzin, 62; Assisted Gorbachev in Starting Reforms". The New York Times. Reuters. Retrieved 2011.
  33. ^ a b Staff writer. " " [Vsevolod Seraphimovich Murakhovski]. portrets.ru. Retrieved 2011.
  34. ^ Staff writer (1 April 2010). " ? ? ? ? " [Yuri Maslyukov, a Communist Party State Duma Deputy dies]. Gazeta.ru. Retrieved 2011.
  35. ^ ? ? [Yuri Dmitriyevich Maslyukov] (in Russian). hrono. Retrieved 2011.
  36. ^ Staff writer. ?, ? [Voronin, Lev Alekseyevich] (in Russian). moscow-tombs.narod.ru. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  37. ^ Abrosimov, Igor. ? - ? ? [H - Set of personalities] (in Russian). proza.ru. Retrieved 2011.
  38. ^ Schulz-Torge, Ulrich-Joachim (1992). Who Was Who in the Soviet Union. K. G. Saur Verlag. p. 232. ISBN 978-3-598-10810-5.
  39. ^ a b Shevchenko, Iulia (2004). The Central Government of Russia: From Gorbachev to Putin. Ashgate Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-7546-3982-4.


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