This is a list of linear transformations of functions related to Fourier analysis. Such transformations map a function to a set of coefficients of basis functions, where the basis functions are sinusoidal and are therefore strongly localized in the frequency spectrum. (These transforms are generally designed to be invertible.) In the case of the Fourier transform, each basis function corresponds to a single frequency component.
Applied to functions of continuous arguments, Fourier-related transforms include:
For usage on computers, number theory and algebra, discrete arguments (e.g. functions of a series of discrete samples) are often more appropriate, and are handled by the transforms (analogous to the continuous cases above):
The use of all of these transforms is greatly facilitated by the existence of efficient algorithms based on a fast Fourier transform (FFT). The Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem is critical for understanding the output of such discrete transforms.
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