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The word generalissimo (Italian: Generalissimo), an Italian term, is the absolute superlative of generale ('general') thus meaning "the highest-ranking of all generals". The superlative suffix -issimo itself derives from Latin -issimus, meaning "utmost, to the highest grade". Similar cognates in other languages include generalísimo in Spanish, generalíssimo in Portuguese, généralissime in French, and generalissimus in Latin.
Historically this rank was given to a military officer leading an entire army or the entire armed forces of a nation, usually only subordinate to the sovereign. Other usage of the rank has been for the commander of the united armies of several allied powers and if a senior military officer becomes the head of state or head of government of a nation like Chiang Kai-Shek in China and later in Taiwan, and Francisco Franco in Spain.
|Chiang Kai-shek||National Revolutionary Army||Republic of China||1926||Appointed commander in chief of the Nationalist Army for the Northern Expedition. In 1935 was appointed "general special class" (? Tèjí shàng jiàng).|
|Joseph Joffre||French Army||France||1914||His rank was Marshal of France, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Army was généralissime.|
|Alexander Suvorov||Russian Imperial Army||Russian Empire||1799|
|Alexander Danilovich Menshikov||Russian Imperial Army||Russian Empire||1727-1728|||
|Ferdinand Foch||French Army||France||1918||Généralissime was the title used to describe Ferdinand Foch's Allied Command, starting 26 March 1918. He actually held the rank of général de division, Marshal of France and later the ranks of British Field Marshal and Marshal of Poland.|
|Maurice Gamelin||French Army||France||1939||His rank was général d'armée, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces was généralissime.|
|Maxime Weygand||French Army||France||1939||His rank was général d'armée, but his title as commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces was généralissime.|
|Francisco de Miranda||Venezuelan Army||Venezuela||1812|
|Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla||Revolutionary Army of Mexico||América Mexicana||1810 September - 1811 February|||
|José de San Martín||Peruvian Army||Perú||1821-1822||Generalísimo de las Armas del Perú|
|Francisco Franco||Spanish Armed Forces||Spain||1936-1975||generalísimo|
|Emilio Aguinaldo||Philippine Revolutionary Army||Philippines||1898-1901||Heneralismo|
|Ihsan Nuri||Ararat Forces||Kurdish Republic of Ararat||1927-1930|||
|Crown Prince Charles John||Royal Swedish Army||Sweden||1810-1818||[Note 1]|
|Joseph Stalin||Soviet Armed Forces||Soviet Union||1945||Generalissimus of the Soviet Union (declined)|
|Kim Il-sung||Korean People's Army||North Korea||1992||Taewonsu|
|Kim Jong-il||Korean People's Army||North Korea||2012||Taewonsu (Promoted posthumously)|
|Rafael Trujillo||Dominican Army||Dominican Republic||1930|||
|Sun Yat-sen||National Revolutionary Army - Warlord Era (Northern Expedition)||Republic of China||1921||Technically as da yuan shuai or "grand marshal of the army and navy"|
|Albrecht von Wallenstein||30 Year's War||Holy Roman Empire via the "Principal Decree of the Imperial Deputation"||1625|||
|John J. Pershing||United States Army||United States of America||1919||Promoted to General of the Armies of the United States on September 3, 1919.|
|John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough||War of the Spanish Succession||Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain||1702||Commanded all English and Dutch Armies and German mercenaries|
|Prince George of Denmark||War of the Spanish Succession||Kingdom of Great Britain||1708||Commanded all English Army and Navy|
|Louis Dauphin of France||War of the Spanish Succession||France||1708||Commanded French Army|
|William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel||Swedish Army||Sweden||1720|||
|George Washington||Continental Army
United States Army
|United States of America||1776||Promoted posthumously to General of the Armies of the United States on January 19, 1976 with date of rank of July 4, 1976.|
|Deodoro da Fonseca||Brazilian Army||Brazil||1890|
|Kal?kaua||Hawaiian Army||Kingdom of Hawaii||1886-1891||King of Hawaii, was given titles of "Supreme Commander and Generalissimo of the Hawaiian Army".|
The Earl of Athlone [Godard van Reede] was set on by the other Dutch Generals, to insist on his quality of Velt-Marshal, and to have the command with the Earl of Marlborough by turns. But, though he was now in high reputation by his late conduct, the States obliged him to yield this point to the Earl of Marlborough, whom they declared Generalissimo of all their forces, and sent orders to all their Generals and other Officers to obey him.
The Prince was Duke of Cumberland, Lord High-Admiral of Great-Britain and Ireland, Generalissimo of all her Majesty's forces both by sea and land, and Warden of the Cinque-ports.
But an unexpected alteration was suddenly made, and the French King declared the Duke of Burgundy Generalissimo of his forces, appointing the Duke de Vendosme [sic: Vendôme] to serve under him; and he was to be accompanied by the Duke of Berry.
wurde 1720. von dem König in Schweden [...] zum Generalissimo der sämmtlichen Schwedischen Trouppen ernennet
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