Health Technology

Health technology is defined by the World Health Organization as the "application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem and improve quality of lives".[1] This includes the pharmaceuticals, devices, procedures and organizational systems used in health care.[2]

Medical technology

Medical technology, or "medtech," encompasses a wide range of healthcare products and is used to treat diseases and medical conditions affecting humans. Such technologies (applications of medical science) are intended to improve the quality of healthcare delivered through earlier diagnosis, less invasive treatment options and reduction in hospital stays and rehabilitation times.[3] Recent advances in medical technology have also focused on cost reduction. Medical technology may broadly include medical devices, information technology, biotech, and healthcare services.

The impacts of medical technology involve social and ethical issues. For example, physicians can seek objective information from technology rather than read subjective patient reports.[4]

A major driver of the sector's growth is the consumerization of medtech. Supported by the widespread availability of smartphones and tablets, providers are able to reach a large audience at low cost, a trend that stands to be consolidated as wearable technologies spread throughout the market.[5]

In the past 5 years running up to the end of 2015, venture funding has grown 200%, allowing US$11.7 billion to flow into health tech businesses from over 30,000 investors in the space.[6]

The over-dependence on the use of technology in every step of the treatment process can result in severe economic burdens to families and individuals.[7]

There has been an unprecedented rise in the utilization of automated clinical laboratories and CT scanners without any proof that they are necessary and beneficial to the individuals and families.[7]

Education

Virtual reality headset

Companies such as Surgical Theater, provide new technology capable of capturing 3D virtual images of patients' brains to use as practice for operations. 3D printing allows medical companies to produce prototypes to practice on before an operation created with artificial tissue.[8]

Medical virtual reality provides doctors multiple surgical scenarios that could happen and allows them to practice and prepare themselves for these situations. It also permits medical students a hands on experience of different procedures without the consequences of making potential mistakes.[9]ORamaVR is one of the leading companies that employs such medical virtual reality technologies to transform medical education (knowledge) and training (skills) in order to improve patient outcomes, reduce surgical errors and training time and democratise medical education and training.

Privacy of health data

Phones that can track one's whereabouts, steps and more can serve as medical devices, and medical devices have much the same effect as these phones. In the research article, Privacy Attitudes among Early Adopters of Emerging Health Technologies by Cynthia Cheung, Matthew Bietz, Kevin Patrick and Cinnamon Bloss discovered people were willing to share personal data for scientific advancements, although they still expressed uncertainty about who would have access to their data. People are naturally cautious about giving out sensitive personal information.[10]

In 2015 the Medical Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) was passed which will be put into play in 2018 pushing towards electronic health records. Health Information Technology: Integration, Patient Empowerment, and Security by K. Marvin provided multiple different polls based on people's views on different types of technology entering the medical field most answers where responded with somewhat likely and very few completely disagreed on technology being used in medicine. Marvin discusses the maintenance required to protect medical data and technology against cyber attacks as well as providing a proper data backup system for the information.[11]

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) also known as Obamacare and health information technology health care is entering the digital era. Although with this development it needs to be protected. Both health information and financial information now made digital within the health industry might become a larger target for cybercrime. Even with multiple different types of safeguards hackers some how still find their way in so the security that is in place needs to constantly be updated to prevent these breaches.[12]

Allied professions

The term medical technology may also refer to the duties performed by clinical laboratory professionals in various settings within the public and private sectors. The work of these professionals encompass clinical applications of chemistry, genetics, hematology, immunohematology (blood banking), immunology, microbiology, serology, urinalysis and miscellaneous body fluid analysis. Depending on location, educational level and certifying body, these professionals may be referred to as biomedical scientists, medical laboratory scientists (MLS), medical technologists (MT), medical laboratory technologists and medical laboratory technicians.[13]

Technology testing

All medical equipment introduced commercially must meet both United States and international regulations. The devices are tested on their material, effects on the human body, all components including devices that have other devices included with them, and the mechanical aspects.[14]

Medical device user fee and modernization act of 2002 was created to make the FDA hurry up on their approval process of medical technology. By introducing sponsor user fees for a faster review time with predetermined performance target for review time.[15]

Types of technology

Medical technology has evolved into smaller portable devices, for instance smartphones, touchscreens, tablets, laptops, digital ink, voice and face recognition and more. With this technology, innovations like electronic health records (EHR), health information exchange (HIE), Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN), personal health records (PHRs), patient portals, nanomedicine, genome-based personalized medicine, Geographical Positioning System (GPS), radio frequency identification (RFID), telemedicine, clinical decision support (CDS), mobile home health care and cloud computing came to exist.[16]

3D printing can be used to produce specialized splints, prostheses, parts for medical devices and inert implants. The end goal of 3D printing is being able to print out customized replaceable body parts.[8]

Monitoring one's health

Smartphones have allowed people to monitor their own health. With these smartphones there comes apps that are related to health and how to monitor it. An example of this is Fitbit, which is an app that connects to the Fitbit watch. This watch allows people to track their steps, heart rate, floors climbed, miles walked, active minutes, and sleep patterns. With these advancement in these types of technologies this has allowed people to keep track of their own health. There is already the internet that many use to "self-diagnose" instead of going to their doctor, and now there are these apps and fitness watches to add to that "self diagnose/monitor" category. These advance may eventually have some effect on doctor visits from patients.[17]

Careers

There are numerous careers to choose from in health technology. Listed below are some job titles and average salaries.

  • Athletic Trainer, Salary: $41,340. Athletic trainers treat athletes and other individuals who have sustained injuries. They also teach people how to prevent injuries. They perform their job under the supervision of physicians.[18]
  • Dental Hygienist, Salary: $67,340. Dental hygienists provide preventative dental care and teach patients how to maintain good oral health. They usually work under dentists' supervision.[18]
  • Lab Technician, Salary: $36,030. Lab technicians perform laboratory tests and procedures. They work under the supervision of a laboratory technologist or a laboratory manager.[18]
  • Nuclear Medicine Technologist, Salary: $67,910. Nuclear medicine technologists prepare and administer radiopharmaceuticals, radioactive drugs, to patients in order to treat or diagnose diseases.[18]
  • Pharmacy Technician, Salary: $28,070. Pharmacy technicians assist pharmacists with the preparation of prescription medications for customers.[18]

Companies

The following is a list of some health technology companies and what they sell:

  1. ReWalk: This is a company that makes ReWalk skeletons. ReWalk is a battery-powered set of legs. Users strap it on and then use crutches to balance as they walk. It allows people who have been bound to wheelchairs to "walk" again. The ReWalk skeleton is retailing at $69,500.[19]
  2. TotallyPregnant: This is a pregnancy app that allows users to have personal photo albums, informational videos, expert advice forums, baby gear shopping and a weekly pregnancy tracker. It is currently free.[19]
  3. iCouch: This product uses videoconferencing to connect mental health professionals to patients. The entire interaction is online and the service is completely digital from making appointments to payments, which means that mental health professionals can reach patients anywhere in the world.[20] This development might help in combating stigma in mental health.[19]
  4. uMoove: Allows users to use facial movements to analyze attention and level of interest. Yitzi Kempinski, the founder, plans on expanding the uses of their service to also diagnose neurological diseases that can be identified with eye movement.[20]
  5. Surgical Theater: Two former air force R&D officers teamed up with a neurosurgeon to create a surgical rehearsal platform, SRP, to create 3D images of a patient's brain to practice operations on.[20]
  6. HelpAround: Connects diabetic patients with resources around them if they forget, lose or run out of glucose by pointing the user to areas that might be able to supply them with the supplies they need, such as blood tests or injections. This software allows users to discuss issues or ask for advice from other diabetic patients.[20]
  7. Hayaat.pk: Provides a single-click solution for appointments with the doctors[21]. A repository to reach thousands of hospitals, doctors, blood donors, emergency centers, pharmacies and labs. Hayaat.pk is working its way towards making healthcare sector simple, convenient and easy for both, practitioners and patients.[22][23]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Technology, Health". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2015. 
  2. ^ INAHTA (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment). (June 8, 2009). "HTA glossary". INAHTA. Archived from the original on May 26, 2009. 
  3. ^ ADVAMED (Advanced Medical Technology Association). (January 7, 2009). "What is Medical Technology?". ADVAMED. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. 
  4. ^ Richard S. Mathis (30 April 2010). "The Impacts of Innovation". Science. 
  5. ^ "What is driving the growth of medtech in the UK?". Hot Topics. Retrieved . 
  6. ^ "What is Health Tech and how will it evolve?". Hot Topics. 2016-06-30. Retrieved . 
  7. ^ a b Tan, LTH; Ong, KL (1 October 2002). "The Impact of Medical Technology on Healthcare Today". Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine. 9 (4): 231-236. 
  8. ^ a b Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; et al. (2014). "Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing". Acta Radiologica. SAGE Publications. 55 (1): 78-85. doi:10.1177/0284185113494198. ISSN 0284-1851. 
  9. ^ Reportlinker. "Virtual Patient Simulation Market Analysis and Trends- Technology (Haptic Technology,3 Dimensional Technology and Virtual Reality Technology), Product - Forecast to 2025". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved . 
  10. ^ Cheung, Cynthia; Bietz, Matthew J.; Patrick, Kevin; Bloss, Cinnamon S. (2016-11-10). "Privacy Attitudes among Early Adopters of Emerging Health Technologies". PLOS ONE. 11 (11): e0166389. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166389. ISSN 1932-6203 – via EBSChost. 
  11. ^ Marvin, Kevin (2017). "Health Information Technology: Integration, Patient Empowerment, and Security". American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 74 (2): 36-38. ISSN 1079-2082. 
  12. ^ Kruse, Clemens Scott; Frederick, Benjamin; Jacobson, Taylor; Monticone, D. Kyle (2017-01-01). "Cybersecurity in healthcare: A systematic review of modern threats and trends". Technology and Health Care. 25 (1): 1-10. doi:10.3233/thc-161263. ISSN 0928-7329. 
  13. ^ "Medical Technology". 
  14. ^ Dooley, J.; Kopia, G. (2014). "27". Role of the Study Director in Nonclinical Studies: Pharmaceutical, Chemicals, Medical Devices, and Pesticides. 
  15. ^ "Effects of the Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act on FDA Review Times for Medical Devices". Mercatus Center. 2016-04-04. Retrieved . 
  16. ^ Bajwa, Mohammad (2014-05-31). "Emerging 21st Century Medical Technologies". Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. pp. 649-655. doi:10.12669/pjms.303.5211. Retrieved . 
  17. ^ "A revolution in health care is coming". The Economist. Retrieved . 
  18. ^ a b c d e "What Health Technologist and Technician Careers Are There?". The Balance. Retrieved . 
  19. ^ a b c Pozin, Ilya. "10 Health Tech Companies Changing The World". Forbes. Retrieved . 
  20. ^ a b c d Pozin, Ilya. "10 Health Tech Companies Changing The World". Forbes. Retrieved . 
  21. ^ "Find doctor, Blood donor & Nearest Emergency Center - Hayaat.pk". hayaat.pk. Retrieved . 
  22. ^ "Hayaat.pk Helps You Find Blood Donors, Expert Medical Help & More in Pakistan". propakistani.pk. Retrieved . 
  23. ^ "Hayaat.pk - bridging the gap between patients and health care facilities". The Nation. 2018-07-10. Retrieved . 

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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