IMessage logo (Apple Inc.).png
Messages iOS 7 Screenshot.png
A thread of conversation and media in the Messages application on iOS 8
DeveloperApple Inc.
TypeInstant messaging service
Launch dateOctober 12, 2011; 7 years ago (2011-10-12)
Operating systemiOS, macOS, watchOS

iMessage is an instant messaging service developed by Apple Inc. It is supported by the Messages application in iOS 5 and later[1] and OS X Mountain Lion and later.[2]


iMessage was announced by Scott Forstall at the WWDC 2011 keynote on June 6, 2011. A version of the iOS Messages application with support for iMessage was included in the iOS 5 update on October 12, 2011.

On February 16, 2012, Apple announced that a new OS X Messages application with support for iMessage, replacing iChat, would be part of OS X Mountain Lion.[2] Mountain Lion, with Messages, was released on July 25, 2012.

On October 23, 2012, Apple CEO, Tim Cook announced that Apple device users have sent 300 billion messages using iMessage and that Apple delivers an average of 28,000 messages per second.[3] In February 2016, Eddy Cue announced that the number of iMessages sent per second had grown to 200,000.[4]

In May 2014, a lawsuit was filed against Apple over an issue that, if a user switches from an Apple device to a non-Apple device, messages being delivered to them through iMessage would not reach their destination.[5][6] In November 2014 Apple addressed this problem by providing instructions and an online tool to deregister iMessage.[7][8] A federal court dismissed the suit in Apple's favor.[9]

On March 21, 2016, a group of researchers from Johns Hopkins University published a report in which they demonstrated that an attacker in possession of iMessage ciphertexts could potentially decrypt photos and videos that had been sent via the service. The researchers published their findings after the vulnerability had been patched by Apple.[10][11]

On May 3, 2016, an independent open-source project named "PieMessage" was announced by app developer Eric Chee,[12] consisting of code for OS X that communicates with iMessage and connects to an Android client, allowing the Android client to send and receive messages.[13][14]

On June 13, 2016, Apple announced the addition of Apps to iMessage service, accessible via the Messages apps on iOS and macOS. iMessage Apps, the Messages App, iMessage Service, Messages framework and App Store for iMessage are available in iOS 10 and macOS Sierra onwards. Apps can create and share content, add stickers, make payments, and more within iMessage conversations without having to switch to standalone apps. iMessage Apps can be created as standalone iMessage apps or can exist as an extension to existing iOS apps. Publishers can also create standalone stickers apps without writing any code.[15]


A new message created with the Messages application running in iOS 7 on an iPhone. When the sender is sending an iMessage, the "Send" button will appear blue notifying the message that is about to be sent is an iMessage instead of an SMS.

iMessage allows users to send texts, documents, photos, videos, contact information, and group messages over Wi-Fi, mobile phone Internet access, or other forms of Internet access to other iOS or macOS users, thus providing an alternative to standard SMS/MMS messaging for most users with devices running iOS 5 or later.

iMessage is accessible through the Messages app on an iPhone, iPad or iPod touch running iOS 5 or later or on a Mac running OS X Mountain Lion or later. Owners of these devices can register one or more email addresses with Apple, and, additionally, iPhone owners can register their phone numbers with Apple, provided their carrier is supported. When a message is sent to a mobile number, Messages will check with Apple if the mobile number is set up for iMessage. If it is not, the message will seamlessly transition from iMessage to SMS.

In Messages, the user's sent communication is aligned to the right, with replies from other people on the left. A user can see if the other iMessage user is typing a message, pale gray ellipsis appears in the text bubble of the other user when a reply is started. It is also possible to start a conversation on one iOS device and continue it on another. iMessage-specific functions operate only between machines running iOS 5 or later or running Mountain Lion or later, but, on the iPhone, Messages can use SMS to communicate with non-iOS devices, or with other iPhones when iMessage is unavailable.[16] On iPhones, green buttons and text bubbles indicate SMS-based communication; on all iOS devices, blue buttons and text bubbles indicate iMessage communication.

All iMessages are encrypted and can be tracked using delivery receipts.[17] If the recipient enables Read Receipts, the sender will be able to see when the recipient has read the message. iMessage also allows users to set up chats with more than two people--a "group chat".

With the launch of iOS 10, users can send messages accompanied by a range of "bubble" or "screen" effects. By holding down the send button with force, the range of effects is surfaced for users to select an effect to be sent to the receiver.

If the correspondents' iPhones are running iOS 5 or later and have a data connection, iMessage will send the users' messages via the users' data connection instead of via SMS/MMS. This means that if a user sends a text message to another iOS 5 user, there is no SMS/MMS charge associated with the message. It is merely treated as an additional data transfer.

The "Send as SMS" setting under Messages will cause the message to be sent via SMS if the sender does not have a data connection. This option is independent of the receiver's data connection status. If the receiver has no data connection, the message should be stored on a server until a connection is restored.

According to Sensor Tower, as of March 2017 the iMessage App Store features nearly 5,000 Message-enabled apps.[18]


The iMessage protocol is based on the Apple Push Notification Service (APNs)--a proprietary, binary protocol.[19] It sets up a Keep-Alive connection with the Apple servers. Every connection has its own unique code, which acts as an identifier for the route that should be used to send a message to a specific device. The connection is encrypted with TLS using a client-side certificate, that is requested by the device on the activation of iMessage.


On November 12, 2012, Chetan Sharma, a technology and strategy consulting firm, published the US Mobile Data Market Update Q3 2012, noting the decline of text messaging in the United States, and suggested the decline may be attributed to Americans using alternative free messaging services such as iMessage.[20]

On November 4, 2014, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) listed iMessage on its "Secure Messaging Scorecard", giving it a score of 5 out of 7 points. It received points for having communications encrypted in transit, having communications encrypted with keys the provider doesn't have access to (end-to-end encryption), having past communications secure if the keys are stolen (forward secrecy), having their security designs well-documented, and having a recent independent security audit. It missed points because users can not verify contacts' identities and because the source code is not open to independent review (open source).[21] In September 2015, Matthew Green noted that, because iMessage does not display key fingerprints for out-of-band verification, users are unable to verify that a man-in-the-middle attack has not occurred. The post also noted that iMessage uses RSA key exchange. This means that, as opposed to what EFF's scorecard claims, iMessage does not feature forward secrecy.[22]

In 2017, Google announced they would compete with iMessage with their own messaging service, Android Messaging.[23]

See also


  • Garman, Christina; Green, Matthew; Kaptchuk, Gabriel; Miers, Ian; Rushanan, Michael (March 21, 2016). "Dancing on the Lip of the Volcano: Chosen Ciphertext Attacks on Apple iMessage" (PDF). Johns Hopkins Information Security Institute. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 2016.


  1. ^ "iOS 5 - See new features included in iOS 5". Apple. Retrieved 2011.
  2. ^ a b "OS X Mountain Lion - Inspired by iPad. Made for the Mac". Retrieved 2012.
  3. ^ Zach Epstein (October 23, 2012). "Apple Kicks Off iPad Mini Event: 3 Million New iPods Sold, iOS 6 Now On 200 Million Devices". Boy Genius Report. Retrieved 2013.
  4. ^ Leswing, Kif (February 12, 2016). "Apple says people send as many as 200,000 iMessages per second". Business Insider. Retrieved 2016.
  5. ^ Jim Edwards (May 16, 2014). "Apple Lawsuit iPhones Don't Deliver Texts To Android". Business Insider. Retrieved 2014.
  6. ^ Rosenblatt, Joel (May 16, 2014). "Apple Sued Over Vanishing Texts After IPhones Swapped Out". Bloomberg L.P.
  7. ^ "If you can't receive text messages from an iPhone - Apple Support". September 5, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ "Deregister and Turn Off iMessage - Apple Support". January 1, 1970. Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ Slotnick, Stacy (August 12, 2015). "Apple Avoids Class Action Lawsuit Over iMessages". UrbanGeekz. Retrieved 2016.
  10. ^ Garman et al. 2016
  11. ^ Nakashima, Ellen (March 21, 2016). "Johns Hopkins researchers poke a hole in Apple's encryption". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved 2016.
  12. ^ "PieMessage open-source project brings iMessage to Android using your Mac as a server". 9to5Mac. May 3, 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  13. ^ Paul Miller (May 4, 2016). "PieMessage project brings iMessage to Android". The Verge.
  14. ^ PieMessage on GitHub
  15. ^ Inc., Apple. "iMessage - Apple Developer". Retrieved 2016.
  16. ^ MG Siegler (June 6, 2011). "Apple Has Finally Stuck A Dagger Into SMS. I Love It". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013.
  17. ^ Apple. "New Version of iOS Includes Notification Center, iMessage, Newsstand, Twitter Integration Among 200 New Features". Retrieved 2013.
  18. ^ Perez, Sarah. "Six months in, iMessage App Store growth slows as developers lose interest". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2017.
  19. ^ Kumparak, Greg (February 27, 2014). "Apple Explains Exactly How Secure iMessage Really Is". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2016.
  20. ^ Suzanne Choney. "Text messaging is on decline in US, says report". NBC News. Retrieved 2013.
  21. ^ "Secure Messaging Scorecard. Which apps and tools actually keep your messages safe?". Electronic Frontier Foundation. November 4, 2014. Retrieved 2016.
  22. ^ Green, Matthew (September 8, 2015). "Let's talk about iMessage (again)". A Few Thoughts on Cryptographic Engineering (Blog). Retrieved 2016.
  23. ^ "GVA's Garrity on Alphabet Making a Push Into Android Messaging". Retrieved 2017.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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