IP Geolocation

In computing, geolocation software is software that is capable of deducing the geolocation of a person or object and perhaps their actual location. Sometimes, the geolocation of an object is used to impute the location of its owner or user. For example, on the Internet, the identification of a device's IP address can be used to determine the country[1] and even the city and post/ZIP code,[2] organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and then to determine an object's actual location. Other methods include examination of a MAC address, image metadata, or credit card information.

Data sources

An IP address is assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.[3] The protocol specifies that each IP packet must have a header which contains, among other things, the IP address of the sender of the packet.

There are a number of free and paid subscription geolocation databases, ranging from country level to state or city--including ZIP/post code level--each with varying claims of accuracy (generally higher at the country level). These databases typically contain IP address data which may be used in firewalls, ad servers, routing, mail systems, web sites, and other automated systems where geolocation may be useful. An alternative to hosting and querying a database is to obtain the country code for a given IP address through a DNSBL-style lookup from a remote server.[4]

Some commercial databases have augmented geolocation software with demographic data to enable demographic-type targeting using IP address data.[5]

The primary source for IP address data is the regional Internet registries which allocate and distribute IP addresses amongst organizations located in their respective service regions:

Secondary sources include:

  • Data mining or user-submitted geographic location data. For example, a weather web site might ask visitors for a city name to find their local forecast. Another example would be to pair a user's IP address with the address information in his/her account profile.
  • Data contributed by internet service providers.
  • Merging databases from different suppliers.
  • Guesstimates from adjacent Class C range[6] and/or gleaned from network hops.
  • Network routing information collected to the end point of IP address.

Accuracy is improved by:

A farmstead northeast of Potwin, Kansas became the default site of 600 million IP addresses (due to their lack of fine granularity) when the Massachusetts-based digital mapping company MaxMind changed the putative geographic center of the contiguous United States from 39.8333333,-98.585522 to 38.0000,-97.0000.[7]

Privacy

A distinction can be made between co-operative and oppositional geolocation. In some cases, it is in the interest of users to be accurately located, for example, so that they can be offered information relevant to their location. In other cases, users prefer to not disclose their location for privacy or other reasons.[8]

Technical measures for ensuring anonymity, such as proxy servers, can be used to circumvent restrictions imposed by geolocation software. Some sites detect the use of proxies and anonymizers, and may either block service or provide non-localized content in response.[9]

In the UK, the application of the Data Protection Act means that geolocation will only yield the physical address of the ISP. Any further tracking (e.g. for criminal tracing) has to be carried out by getting the ISP to check their logs.[]

Applications

Geolocation technology has been under development only since 1999, and the first patents were granted in 2004.[10] The technology is already widely used in multiple industries,[11] including e-retail, banking, media, telecommunications, education, travel,[12] hospitality, entertainment, health care, online gaming and law enforcement, for preventing online fraud, complying with regulations, managing digital rights[13] and serving targeted marketing content and pricing.[14] Additionally, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has proposed that geolocation software might be leveraged to support 9-1-1 location determination.[15]

Criminal investigations

American banks, software vendors and other online enterprises are now subject to strict new "Know your customer" laws imposed by the USA PATRIOT Act, the Bank Secrecy Act, the US Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control and other regulatory entities in the US and Europe. These laws are designed to prevent money laundering, trafficking with terrorist organizations and trading with banned nations. By identifying where online visitors really are, geolocation can protect banks from participating in the transfer of funds for illicit purposes. More and more prosecuting bodies are bringing cases involving cyber-crimes such as cyber-stalking and identity theft. It is imperative that prosecutors provide the background IP data necessary to link a suspect to a particular crime.[16]

Fraud detection

Online retailers and payment processors use geolocation to detect possible credit card fraud by comparing the user's location to the billing address on the account or the shipping address provided. A mismatch - an order placed from USA on an account number from Tokyo, for example - is a strong indicator of potential fraud. IP address geolocation can be also used in fraud detection to match billing address postal code or area code.[17] Banks can prevent "phishing" attacks, money laundering and other security breaches by determining the user's location as part of the authentication process.

Government, law enforcement and corporate security teams use geolocation as an investigatory tool, tracking the Internet routes of online attackers to find the perpetrators and prevent future attacks from the same location.

Geo marketing

Since geolocation software can get the information of user location, companies using geomarketing may provide web content or products that are famous or useful in that location. Advertisements and content on a website may be tailored to provide the information that a certain user wants.[18]

Regional licensing

Internet movie vendors, online broadcasters who serve live streaming video of sporting events, or certain TV and music video sites that are licensed to broadcast their videos of episodes/music videos are permitted to serve viewers only in their licensed territories. By geolocating viewers, they can be certain of obeying licensing regulations.[19] Online gambling websites must also know where their customers violate gambling laws, or risk doing so.

Jim Ramo, chief executive of movie distributor Movielink, said studios were aware of the shortcomings going in and have grown more confident now that the system has been shown to work.[20]

internal static GeoLocation GetLocation(CellTower tower) {

   try
   {
       // Translate cell tower data into http post parameter data
       byte[] formData = GetFormPostData(tower.TowerId,
       tower.MobileCountryCode,
       tower.MobileNetworkCode,
       tower.LocationAreaCode);
       HttpWebRequest request = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(
           new Uri(Google_Mobile_Service_Uri));
       request.Method = "POST";
       request.ContentLength = formData.Length;
       request.ContentType = "application/binary";
       Stream outputStream = request.GetRequestStream;
       // Write the cell data to the http stream
       outputStream.Write(formData, 0, formData.Length);
       outputStream.Close;
       HttpWebResponse response = (HttpWebResponse)request.GetResponse;
       return ReadResponse(response);
   }
   catch{}
   return GeoLocation.Empty;

}

private static GeoLocation ReadResponse(HttpWebResponse response) {

   byte[] responseData = new byte[response.ContentLength];
   int bytesRead = 0;
   // Read the response into the response byte array
   while (bytesRead < responseData.Length)
   {
       bytesRead += response.GetResponseStream
           .Read(responseData, bytesRead, responseData.Length - bytesRead);
   }
   // Check the response
   if (response.StatusCode == HttpStatusCode.OK)
   {
       int successful = Convert.ToInt32(GetCode(responseData, 3));
       if (successful == 0)
       {
           return new GeoLocation
           {
               Latitude = GetCode(responseData, 7) / 1000000,
               Longitude = GetCode(responseData, 11) / 1000000
           };
       }
   }
   return GeoLocation.Empty;

}

/// <summary> /// Gets the latitude or longitude from the byte array. /// </summary> /// <param name="data">The byte array.</param> /// <param name="startIndex">The start index.</param> /// <returns></returns> private static double GetCode(byte[] data, int startIndex) {

   return ((double)((data[startIndex++] << 24) |
       (data[startIndex++] << 16) |
       (data[startIndex++] << 8) |
       (data[startIndex++])));

}

Gaming

A location-based game is a type of pervasive game for smartphones or other mobile devices in which the gameplay evolves and progresses via a player's real-world location which is typically reported via GPS. Examples of such games include Ingress and Pokémon Go.

See also

References

  1. ^ "IP Information". 2013-04-11. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ "NetAcuity Edge Offers Hyper-local IP targeting". 2009-07-28. Retrieved . 
  3. ^ RFC 760, DOD Standard Internet Protocol (January 1980)
  4. ^ "IP geolocation (The NetOp Organization)". 2009-01-28. Retrieved . 
  5. ^ "Digital Element Partners with Semcasting on Location-Based Solution". 2011-09-13. Retrieved . 
  6. ^ An example is the guessed city provided by hostip.info.
  7. ^ Hill, Kashmir (2016-04-10). "How an internet mapping glitch turned a random Kansas farm into a digital hell". Fusion. Retrieved . 
  8. ^ "Nitke vs. Ashcroft - Expert report of Seth Finkelstein". 2003-11-10. Retrieved . 
  9. ^ RealNetworks detects proxies and anonymizers; Google serves non-localized content if location is in doubt. "Geolocation: Don't Fence Web In". Wired. 2004-07-12. Archived from the original on 2006-05-14. 
  10. ^ "Digital Envoy wins Geotargeting Patent". 2004-06-29. Archived from the original on June 17, 2011. Retrieved . 
  11. ^ ClientSideNews, Nov/Dec 2010 issue, Page 6 "You Can Really Do That? - The Power of Geolocation Technology"
  12. ^ Marketing Magazine, February 10, 2011 "Thetrainline brings Digital Element on board for localised ad task"
  13. ^ Music Streaming site we7 Cranks up the Volume for Digital Rights Management and Ad Targeting
  14. ^ "Geolocation and Federalism on the Internet: Cutting Internet Gambling's Gordian Knot". 2009-10-04. SSRN 1433634 Freely accessible. 
  15. ^ "FCC STRENGTHENS ENHANCED 911 LOCATION ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR WIRELESS SERVICES" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 11, 2011. Retrieved 2017. 
  16. ^ Los Angeles Deputy District Attorney, Wendy Segall Hides Evidence.
  17. ^ IPInfoDB (2009-08-25). "E-Commerce fraud detection". IPInfoDB. Retrieved . 
  18. ^ Internet Retailer "Personalized web site content gives retailers an edge', June 25, 2010
  19. ^ "CinemaNow appeases studios by locating Web surfers". CNet. 2001-02-26. Retrieved . 
  20. ^ Associated Press (2004-07-12). "Geolocation: Don't Fence Web In". Wired News. Archived from the original on 2006-09-09. Retrieved . 

External links


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