Ileana Ros-Lehtinen

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen official photo.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida's 27th district
18th (1989-2013)

August 29, 1989
Claude Pepper
Donna Shalala (Elect)
Chair of the House Foreign Affairs Committee

January 3, 2011 - January 3, 2013
Howard Berman
Ed Royce
Member of the Florida Senate
from the 34th district

November 4, 1986 - August 29, 1989
Joe Gersten
Lincoln Díaz-Balart
Member of the Florida House of Representatives
from the 110th district

November 2, 1982 - November 4, 1986
Redistricted
Lincoln Díaz-Balart
Personal details
BornIleana Carmen Ros y Adato
(1952-07-15) July 15, 1952 (age 66)
Havana, Cuba
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)
Dexter Lehtinen (m. 1984)
Children2, including Rodrigo
RelativesEnrique Ros (Father)
EducationMiami Dade College
(BA, MA)
University of Miami (EdD)

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (; born Ileana Carmen Ros y Adato, July 15, 1952) is the most senior U.S. Representative from Florida, representing Florida's 27th congressional district. She was Chairwoman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee from 2011-2013. In 1989, Ros-Lehtinen won a special election and became the first Cuban American and Latina elected to Congress. She was also the first Republican woman elected to the House from Florida, and is currently the most senior Republican woman in the U.S. House and in Congress.[1] Ros-Lehtinen gave the first Republican response to the State of the Union address in Spanish in 2011, and gave the third in 2014.[2]

In September 2011, Ros-Lehtinen became the first Republican member of the U.S. Congress to co-sponsor the Respect for Marriage Act, which would repeal the Defense of Marriage Act.[3] In July 2012, Ros-Lehtinen became the first Republican in the House to support same-sex marriage.[4]

On April 30, 2017, Ros-Lehtinen announced that she would not be running for re-election in 2018.[5]

Early life, education, and early career

Ileana Ros y Adato was born in Havana, Cuba, one of two children born to Enrique Ros (1924-2013), who later became a businessman and anti-Fidel Castro activist, and his wife, Amanda Adato. The family immigrated to the United States when Ileana was seven years old. She received her Bachelor of Arts in education and her Master of Arts in educational leadership from Florida International University. She attended the University of Miami where she earned an Ed.D in higher education.[6]

Ros-Lehtinen was raised Catholic and is now an Episcopalian.[6][7] Ros-Lehtinen's maternal grandparents were Sephardic Jews, originally from the Ottoman Empire, who had been active in Cuba's Jewish community.[8] Her maternal grandfather left the city of K?rklareli for Cuba in 1913, fleeing the devastation and economic collapse caused by the First Balkan War.[9] Her mother later converted to Catholicism to marry her father.[8][10]

Ros-Lehtinen was an educator and the owner/operator of a private school in Miami-Dade County.[11] She was elected to the Florida House of Representatives in 1982, where she met State Representative Dexter Lehtinen (D-Miami). They married on June 9, 1984, after Dexter switched parties. They both served in the State House until 1986. That year, they were both elected to the Florida Senate, where he was elected to District 40 and she was elected in District 34.[12][13] In 1988, Dexter Lehtinen resigned his seat to become U.S. Attorney of South Florida. In 1989, Ros-Lehtinen resigned her seat to become a U.S. Representative.

Personal life

Ros-Lehtinen has two children, Rodrigo, a transgender LGBT rights activist, and Patricia Marie.[14] She is also step-mother to Katherine and Douglas Lehtinen.

U.S. House of Representatives

Ros-Lehtinen (right) being sworn in as a member of Congress by Chief Judge Kevin Michael Moore (left), along with Florida colleagues Carlos Curbelo, Frederica Wilson and Mario Díaz-Balart. (February 2015)

Tenure

After incumbent Democrat U.S. Congressman Claude Pepper died on May 30, 1989, there was a special election scheduled for August 29, 1989. State Senator Ros-Lehtinen defeated Democrat Gerald Richman 53%-47%.[15] She was the first Cuban American elected to the United States Congress and the first Republican woman elected from Florida. Ros-Lehtinen was unaware that she was also the first Latina elected to Congress until after she was elected.[1] In 1990, she won re-election to a full term with 60% of the vote.[16] In total, she has been elected to fourteen full terms (1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014, and what will turn out to have been the election for her final full term, 2016, scheduled to be serving through January 3, 2019), never winning with less than 58%.[17]

Ros-Lehtinen joined Majority Leader Steny Hoyer (D-Maryland) on a congressional delegation to the United Nations in order to encourage international support for an end to the genocide in Darfur. In addition, when Ros-Lehtinen returned from a trip to Darfur in April 2007 where she visited Sudanese refugee camps, she strongly encouraged the United States and the international community to find a solution to this humanitarian crisis.[18][19]

Following the 2008 elections, then President-elect Barack Obama rang Ros-Lehtinen to congratulate her on her re-election. She hung up on him, believing that it was a prank call from a radio station. She did the same to Obama's chief of staff Rahm Emanuel when he rang to confirm the original call was genuine, and only accepted the call after Congressman Howard Berman managed to speak to her.[20][21]

Ros-Lehtinen played a key role in keeping the International Protecting Girls by Preventing Child Marriage Act of 2010 from being passed into law.[22] Although the bill had unanimously passed the Senate with bipartisan support, she persuaded enough Republicans in the House to vote against the bill so that it did not receive the required two-thirds majority. She reportedly invoked concerns about the legislation's cost and that funds could be used to promote abortion.[23]

Ros-Lehtinen was Chairwoman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee from 2011-2013. During the 2011 Libyan civil war, she expressed support of the Libyan opposition; on February 26, 2011, she released a press release which stated, "stronger penalties must be imposed in order to hold the regime accountable for its heinous crimes, and to prevent further violence against the Libyan people". But on March 20, 2011, the day after the NATO strikes to enforce the no-fly-zone began, she expressed a different view in a press release: "I am concerned that the President has yet to clearly define for the American people what vital United States security interests he believes are currently at stake in Libya."[24] The congresswoman has also been a forerunner in cutting U.S. aid to foreign lands, including the State Department, The Peace Corps, the Asia Foundation, the U.S. Institute of Peace and the East-West Center. She also advocates cutting funding to Lebanese Armed Forces and the West Bank and Gaza.[25]

After comments by State Department over Israeli settlements, she demanded that the Obama administration halt its "condemnations" of "an indispensable ally and friend of the United States." In September 2011, she introduced a bill to cut off US funding to any UN organization that recognises Palestinian statehood.[26]

Ros-Lehtinen has been an opponent of funding for the Peace Corps. In 2011, she led a hearing about the perils that volunteers faced and the lack of concern for victims of sexual abuse while serving.[27] Ros-Lehtinen pressured the State Department to accelerate its processing of passports, something that had hindered American citizens' travel during the crucial summer travel season. Calling the delay "outrageous, incomprehensible, unconscionable" at a hearing of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, where she is Chairwoman, Ros-Lehtinen brought the pressure of committee Republicans to bear on the State Department's Bureau of Consular Affairs and spur them to action.[28]

On May 7, 2014, Ros-Lehtinen introduced the Venezuelan Human Rights and Democracy Protection Act (H.R. 4587; 113th Congress) in the House. The bill would impose sanctions against Venezuela and authorize appropriations to support civil society in that country.[29] The sanctions would be directed at any government official who was involved in the mistreatment of protestors.[30] Ros-Lehtinen said that the bill was to "condemn the ongoing human rights abuses being committed in Venezuela, and to answer the cries of the people of Venezuela."[30] Ros-Lehtinen also said that she was "pleased that the House of Representatives has acted to punish the thugs of the Maduro regime for brutally repressing and violating the human rights of those seeking to exercise their basic freedoms of speech and assembly in Venezuela."[31]

She is a member of the Republican Main Street Partnership.[32]

Committee assignments

Caucus membership

Notable staff members

Notable campaign contributors

A major individual campaign contributor to Ros-Lehtinen is Irving Moskowitz, a funder of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.[37] The lobby group J Street has called on Ros-Lehtinen to return campaign contributions from Moskowitz, saying he "actively undermines the two-state solution and the foreign policy of the United States by funding illegal settlements in the occupied territories".[38][39] American Council on World Jewry president Jack Rosen has "great concern"[40] about this demand.

Political positions

A leading Republican moderate, Ros-Lehtinen opposed Donald Trump's 2016 presidential candidacy.[41] In April 2017, she called on President Trump to remove Steve Bannon from his position as chief strategist in the Trump administration.[42] As of May 2018, Ros-Lehtinen had voted with her party in 85.7% of votes in the 115th United States Congress and voted in line with President Trump's position in 68.7% of the votes.[43][44] The National Journal, as cited in the Almanac of American Politics 2016, gave Ros-Lehtinen a composite score of 54% conservative and 46% liberal.[45] Ros-Lehtinen was ranked as the sixth most bipartisan member of the U.S. House of Representatives during the 114th United States Congress in the Bipartisan Index, created by The Lugar Center and the McCourt School of Public Policy to assess congressional bipartisanship.[46] During the first session of the 115th United States Congress, Ros-Lehtinen's ranking improved to second.[47][48]

Economic issues

She signed the Taxpayer Protection Pledge.[49]

Ros-Lehtinen voted against the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 in its initial September 29, 2008 vote, which failed,[50] but voted in favor of the revised bill in its October 3, 2008 vote, which passed.[51]

In February 2017, she voted against a resolution that would have directed the House to request 10 years of Trump's tax returns, which would then have been reviewed by the House Ways and Means Committee in a closed session.[52]

Ros-Lehtinen voted in favor of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.[53] According to one estimate, 39,900 of Ros-Lehtinen's constituents could lose their health insurance in 2019 due to the bill's passage.[54]

Foreign policy

Ros-Lehtinen was rated 57% conservative and 43% liberal on foreign policy issues by the National Journal.[45] Ros-Lehtinen supported President George W. Bush's surge policy in Iraq, supports Israel, and supports continued sanctions against Cuba. She also supported the de facto government in Honduras, headed by Roberto Micheletti, that emerged after the military coup against President Manuel Zelaya. She has said of the decision to invade Iraq: "Whether or not there is a direct link to the World Trade Center does not mean that Iraq is not meritorious of shedding blood. The common link is that they hate America." [55]

On November 23, 2010, she called on the Obama administration to "announce publicly, right now, that we will stay away from Durban III, deny it US taxpayer dollars, and oppose all measures that seek to facilitate it. And we should encourage other responsible nations to do the same."[56]

Ros-Lehtinen opposes US support to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East[26] and the Palestinian Authority. She describes herself as a "strong supporter of Israel" and regards the U.S. relationship with Israel as "critical to the national security interests of both nations".[57]

Cuba

Dexter Lehtinen, Celia Cruz, Alonso R. del Portillo, Rep. Ros-Lehtinen, and Pedro Knight in May 1992.

Ros-Lehtinen played a prominent role in the Cuban-American lobby, which puts pressure on the Cuban government to bring about political change in Cuba. She was a member of the Congressional Cuba Democracy Caucus. Ros-Lehtinen also advanced strongly held views on Cuba, and lobbied against ending the United States embargo against that country. In 2004 she formed the Cuba Democracy Group aimed at curtailing U.S. agriculture exports and preventing U.S. banks from doing business with the Cuban government.[58]

Ros-Lehtinen has defended former fugitive Velentin Hernández, convicted of murdering Luciano Nieves, a fellow Cuban exile who supported negotiations with the Cuban government,[59] In the 1980s, Ros-Lehtinen lobbied for the release and pardon of Cuban exile Orlando Bosch, who had been convicted of terrorist acts and has also been accused of involvement in the 1976 bombing of Cubana Flight 455, which killed 73 people, helping organize an "Orlando Bosch day" to gain support for his release.[60][61][62] Ros-Lehtinen played a prominent role in the unsuccessful attempt by relatives of Elian Gonzalez to gain custody of six-year-old from the Castro regime, describing Cuba as "that system of godless communism".[63] She also attempted to block Jimmy Carter's visit to the island in 2002.[64][65]

Ros-Lehtinen stirred controversy by calling for the assassination of Cuban Leader Fidel Castro. She appeared in a British documentary, which was entitled 638 Ways to Kill Castro, saying: "I welcome the opportunity of having anyone assassinate Fidel Castro and any leader who is oppressing the people." After a 28-second clip began circulating on the Internet, she claimed the filmmakers spliced clips together to get the sound bite. Twenty-four hours after the controversy erupted, director Dollan Cannell sent unedited tapes of his interview with Ros-Lehtinen to reporters.[66] The uncut version contradicted her response, showing she had twice welcomed an attempt on Castro's life. Although she attempted to distance herself from her denial, filmmaker Cannell requested an apology.[67]

Immigration and refugees

Ros-Lehtinen opposed President Donald Trump's 2017 executive order to temporarily curtail Muslim immigration until better screening methods are devised. She stated that "I object to the suspension of visas from the seven named countries because we could have accomplished our objective of keeping our homeland safe by immediate implementation of more thorough screening procedures."[68]

Abortion

In 2003, she received a 0% rating from NARAL Pro-Choice America. In 2006, she received a 100% rating from the National Right to Life Committee for her abortion-related voting record. She is against allowing federal funds and federal health coverage for abortions. She wants to stop embryonic stem cell research. She has voted to make it a crime to harm a fetus while committing a crime. She is against partial-birth abortions unless it is necessary to save the mother's life. She has voted to ban minors from being transported to receive an abortion and wants to prohibit minors from traveling over state lines for abortions.[69]

Drug policy

Ros-Lehtinen has a "B" rating from NORML for her voting history regarding cannabis-related causes. Ros-Lehtinen supports veterans having access to medical marijuana if recommended by their Veterans Health Administration doctor and if it is legal for medicinal purposes in their state of residence.[70]

LGBT issues

Ros-Lehtinen has been a notable Republican voice in favor of LGBT rights. In a Winter 2013 interview with the Human Rights Campaign, she stated that her support for same-sex marriage was based on "coming from Cuba, losing my homeland to communism, seeing the state control everything--I'm a person that believes in individual liberties and not having the government control everything." When asked about her support for her son Rodrigo, a transgender LGBT rights advocate, Ros-Lehtinen commented that:

It's important for families to support their children and to support their children's choices. It's important to listen to your children, accept your children and have your children know that you love them unconditionally. It's not "I love you, but ..."--there's no "but." "It's just "I love you."... To do otherwise is--you're hurting yourself, you're going to shun your child or grandchild. You're going to say, "No, I have my views and my views are the perfect views and no one can have a different point of view. I'm right and everything else is wrong." And that's a lonely way to live. It just means you'll be out of that person's life, and who wants to be cut out of their child's life?[1]

Although Ros-Lehtinen voted for the Defense of Marriage Act in 1996,[71] she began to support LGBT issues over the following decade (due in part to her district, which includes large LGBT populations in South Beach in Miami Beach and in the Florida Keys, as well as Rodrigo coming out). She was one of three Republican members of the LGBT Equality Caucus, of which she is a founding member and a vice-chairwoman. While she is not a co-sponsor of the Uniting American Families Act, she supports anti-hate crime laws, anti-discrimination bills, believes gays and lesbians should be allowed to serve openly in the armed forces, is a sponsor of the Domestic Partnership Benefits and Obligations Act, and voted against the Federal Marriage Amendment.[72] Ros-Lehtinen was one of fifteen Republican House members to vote in favor of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010, and was the first Republican cosponsor of the bill.[1][73][74] In September 2011, Ros-Lehtinen became the first Republican member of the U.S. Congress to co-sponsor the Respect for Marriage Act, and signed on to a letter to IRS Commissioner Schulman requesting that the IRS provide clear guidance for LGBT taxpayers.[3][75] The letter asks the IRS to ensure that tax law is being applied fairly to all individuals. In July 2012, she became the first Republican in the House to fully support same-sex marriage.[76] In 2013, Ros-Lehtinen was a signatory to an amicus curiae brief submitted to the Supreme Court in support of same-sex marriage during the Hollingsworth v. Perry case.[77]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "I Vote My Conscience". Human Rights Campaign. Winter 2013. pp. 17-19. Retrieved 2014.
  2. ^ "Ros-Lehtinen to deliver Spanish SOTU response". The Hill. January 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  3. ^ a b Reilly, Ryan J. (September 23, 2011). "Ros-Lehtinen First GOPer To Sponsor Bill Repealing DOMA". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved 2011.
  4. ^ "A First: GOP Congresswoman Supports Marriage Equality". Advocate=date=July 13, 2012.
  5. ^ Mattezi, Patricia. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen to Retire from Congress, Miami Herald, April 30, 2017.
  6. ^ a b "Project Vote Smart - Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen". Vote-smart.org. 1952-07-15. Archived from the original on 2007-12-24. Retrieved .
  7. ^ "Gay-rights advocate U.S. Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen to head House Foreign Affairs Committee". Retrieved 2014.
  8. ^ a b Nir, Ori (2005-10-14). "Miami Pol Closes In on Key Foreign Policy Post - The Jewish Daily Forward". Forward.com. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Chairwoman Ros-Lehtinen Meets Turkish Relatives in Istanbul Jan 31, 2012
  10. ^ Hilary Leila Kreiger (2010-12-23). "Ileana Ros-Lehtinen: Ready to play hardball". Jerusalem Post.
  11. ^ "Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-Fla.)". The Washington Post. April 15, 2007. Retrieved 2010.
  12. ^ "86-88 Senate Handbook" (PDF). Retrieved 2012.
  13. ^ "Senator called A Brainy Tough Guy". The Miami Herald. June 11, 1988, p. 1A
  14. ^ "Ileana Ros-Lehtinen Opens Up About Her Son, The First Trans Child Of A Member Of Congress". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ "FL District 18 - Special Election Race". Our Campaigns. August 29, 1989. Retrieved 2012.
  16. ^ "FL District 18 Race". Our Campaigns. November 6, 1990. Retrieved 2012.
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  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-29. Retrieved .
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-29. Retrieved .
  20. ^ Press Release from the Office of Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, R-Florida Archived 2008-12-07 at the Wayback Machine., ABC News
  21. ^ Congresswoman hangs up on Obama, BBC, December 4, 2008
  22. ^ "Ros-Lehtinen and other Republicans oppose child marriage prevention bill". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2014.
  23. ^ "Who killed the bill to prevent forced child marriages". The Cable Foreign Policy Magazine. The Washington Post. 2010-12-22. Retrieved .
  24. ^ "Gingrich Not Alone In No-fly Zone Contradiction". ABC News. March 24, 2011. Archived from the original on March 26, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
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  26. ^ a b "Palestinian Statehood: A Bad Bill for Everyone". The Economist. September 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  27. ^ Graves, Lucia (July 11, 2011). "Peace Corps Volunteers Speak Out About Rape, Violence". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012.
  28. ^ "Ros-Lehtinen To Support Legislation To Ease Passport Delays". Committee on Foreign Affairs. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 June 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  29. ^ "H.R. 4587 - CBO". Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved 2014.
  30. ^ a b Marcos, Cristina (28 May 2014). "House passes Venezuela sanctions bill". The Hill. Retrieved 2014.
  31. ^ Adams, Chris (28 May 2014). "House passes bill pushing sanctions against Venezuelan regime". The Bellingham Herald. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  32. ^ "Members". Republican Mains Street Partnership. Retrieved 2017.
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  34. ^ "Our Members". U.S. House of Representatives International Conservation Caucus. Retrieved 2018.
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  39. ^ "The political home for pro-Israel, pro-peace Americans Chairwoman Ros-Lehtinen: Return Irving Moskowitz's Money (J Street)". Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 2017.
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  41. ^ Kane, Paul (April 30, 2017). "Ros-Lehtinen, leading Republican moderate, says she will not seek reelection". Washington Post. Retrieved 2018.
  42. ^ "GOP Rep. Says Trump Should Boot Bannon From The White House". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved .
  43. ^ "Represent". ProPublica. Retrieved .
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  45. ^ a b (Journalist), Barnes, James A.; Keating, Holland; Charlie, Cook; Michael, Barone; Louis, Jacobson; Louis, Peck. The almanac of American politics 2016 : members of Congress and governors: their profiles and election results, their states and districts. ISBN 9781938518317. OCLC 927103599.
  46. ^ The Lugar Center - McCourt School Bipartisan Index (PDF), The Lugar Center, March 7, 2016, retrieved 2017
  47. ^ "The Lugar Center - McCourt School Bipartisan Index" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: The Lugar Center. April 24, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  48. ^ "Curbelo, Ros-Lehtinen rank among the most bipartisan members of Congress". Miami, Florida: The Miami Herald. April 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  49. ^ "Current Taxpayer Protection Pledge Signers". Americans for Tax Reform. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  50. ^ "Bailout Roll Call" (PDF). 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2008.
  51. ^ "Final vote results for roll call 681". 2008-10-03. Retrieved October 3, 2008
  52. ^ "These are all the Republicans who don't want you to see Donald Trump's tax returns". indy100. 2017-02-28. Retrieved .
  53. ^ Iannelli, Jerry (22 December 2017). "Hurricanes' Early Signing Results Show Local Recruits Want to Play at Miami Again". Miami New Times. Retrieved 2017.
  54. ^ Iannelli, Jerry (20 December 2017). "GOP Tax Bill Could Make 873,000 Floridians Drop or Lose Health Insurance". Miami New Times. Retrieved 2017.
  55. ^ Kaplan, Jonathan (June 17, 2004). "House GOP disputes the 9-11 finding". The Hill. Archived from the original on June 19, 2004. Retrieved 2012.
  56. ^ U.N. Pours Salt in America's Wounds, FOX News 24-11-2010
  57. ^ "Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen on Foreign Affairs". U.S. House of Representatives.
  58. ^ "Election galvanizes Cuba embargo backers" Archived 2007-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. www.cubacentral.com
  59. ^ "Our Man's in Miami. Patriot or Terrorist?" The Washington Post. April 17, 2005.
  60. ^ "The ghost of terror past" Archived 2007-05-15 at the Wayback Machine.. Salon.com
  61. ^ Who is a terrorist? South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Wayne S. Smith. May 31, 2002
  62. ^ Congressman Diaz-Balart Says U.S. Should Consider Assassination of Fidel Castro Archived 2006-10-12 at the Wayback Machine.. Wayne Smith. CIP senior fellow. March 31, 2004
  63. ^ Who Should Decide the Destiny of Elian Gonzalez. CNN transcripts.
  64. ^ Ann Louise Bardach. Cuba confidential. p. 351. "Ignoring the growls of the Reich team and attempts by Ileana Ros-Lehtinen and Lincoln Diaz-Balart to block the visit, the Bush administration reluctantly granted approval"
  65. ^ "Will Jimmy Carter Become First President to Visit Castro in Cuba?" CNN transcripts.
  66. ^ "Rep. Ros-Lehtinen Admits 'Kill Castro' remark" Newsmax
  67. ^ Tape contradicts Ros-Lehtinen Archived 2006-12-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Miami Herald.
  68. ^ Timmons, Heather. "The short (but growing) list of Republican lawmakers who are publicly condemning Trump's "Muslim ban"". Quartz. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  69. ^ "Ileana Ros-Lehtinen on the Issues". On The Issues. Retrieved 2017.
  70. ^ "Florida Scorecard - NORML.org - Working to Reform Marijuana Laws". NORML. Retrieved 2017.
  71. ^ "Defense of Marriage Act: Final Vote Results For Roll Call 316". July 12, 1996. Retrieved 2013.
  72. ^ "LGBT Equality Caucus". Lgbt.tammybaldwin.house.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-08-03. Retrieved .
  73. ^ Chris Geidner, House Passes DADT Repeal Bill Archived 2013-10-21 at the Wayback Machine., Metro Weekly (December 15, 2010).
  74. ^ House Vote 638 - Repeals 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Archived 2016-01-18 at the Wayback Machine., New York Times (December 15, 2010).
  75. ^ "Ros-Lehtinen Joins Congressional Letter to the IRS Asking for Clear Guidelines for LGBT Taxpayers". Talking Points Memo. September 26, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  76. ^ "GOP Congresswoman Is First in House from Her Party to Support Marriage Equality". Advocate.com. Retrieved 2014.
  77. ^ "The Pro-Freedom Republicans Are Coming: 131 Sign Gay Marriage Brief". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2014.

External links


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