JSFuck

JSFuck is an esoteric programming style of JavaScript, where code is written using only six characters: [,], (, ), !, and +. The name is derived from Brainfuck, an esoteric programming language which also uses a minimalistic alphabet of only punctuation. Unlike Brainfuck, which requires its own compiler or interpreter, JSFuck is valid JavaScript code, meaning JSFuck programs can be run in any web browser or engine that interprets JavaScript. JSFuck is able to recreate all JavaScript functionality using such a limited set of characters because JavaScript is a weakly typed programming language, and it allows the evaluation of any expression as any type.[1]

In July 2009, Yosuke Hasegawa created a web application called jjencode which could encode arbitrary JavaScript into an obfuscated form utilizing only the 18 symbols []!+,\"$.:;_{}~=.[2][3] In January 2010, an informal competition was held in the "Obfuscation" forum of the sla.ckers.org web application security site to come up with a way to get the minimum number of characters required down to less than eight: []!+,/. Contributors to the thread managed to eliminate the need for the , and / characters.[4] As of March 2010, an online encoder called JS-NoAlnum was available which utilized only the final set of six characters.[5] By the end of 2010, Hasegawa made a new encoder available named JSF*ck which also used only the minimum six characters.[6][7] In 2012, Martin Kleppe created a "jsfuck" project on GitHub,[8] and a JSFuck.com website with a web app using that implementation of the encoder.[9]

JSFuck can be used to bypass detection of malicious code submitted on websites, e.g. in cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks.[10] Another potential use of JSFuck lies in code obfuscation. An optimized version of JSFuck has been used to encode jQuery, the most-used JavaScript library, into a fully functional version written with just the six characters.[11]

Encoding methods

JSFuck code is extremely "verbose": In JavaScript, the code alert("Hello World!"), which causes a pop-up window to open, is 21 characters long. In JSFuck, the same code has a length of 22948 characters. Certain single characters require far more than 1000 characters when expanded as JSFuck. This section offers an overview of how this expansion works.

Numbers

The number 0 is created by +[], where [] is the empty array and + is the unary plus, used to convert the right side to a numeric value (zero here). The number 1 is formed as +!![] or +!+[], where the boolean value true (expressed as !![] or !+[] in JSFuck) is converted into the numeric value 1 by the prepended plus sign. The digits 2 to 9 are formed by summing true $n$ times. E.g. in JavaScript true + true = 2 and true = !![] = !+[], hence 2 can be written as !![]+!![] or !+[]+!+[]. Other digits follow a similar pattern. Integers consisting of two or more digits are written, as a string, by concatenating 1-digit arrays with the plus operator. For example, the string "10" can be expressed in JavaScript as [1] + [0]. By replacing the digits with the respective JSFuck expansions, this yields [+!+[]]+[+[]]. To get a numeric value instead of a string, one would enclose the previous expression in parentheses or square brackets and prepend a plus, yielding 10 = +([+!+[]]+[+[]]).

Letters

Some letters can be obtained in JSFuck by accessing single characters in the string representations of simple boolean or numeric values like "false", "true", "NaN", "undefined" with an indexer (a number in square brackets). Other tricks are needed to produce other letters - for example by casting the string 1e1000 into a number, which gives Infinity, which in turn makes the letter y accessible.[12] The following is a list of primitive values used as building blocks to produce the most simple letters.

Value JSFuck
false ![]
true !![] or !+[]
NaN +[![]]
undefined [][[]]
Infinity +(+!+[]+(!+[]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+[+!+[]]+[+[]]+[+[]]+[+[]])

Example: Creating the letter "a"

  • "a": Taken from the string "false". The second character of "false" is a, which can be accessed with
  • "false"[1]. "false" can be made from false+[], i.e. the boolean constant false plus an empty array.
  • (false+[])[1]: We write false as ![] (negation applied to an empty array).
  • (![]+[])[1]: 1 is a number, we can write it as +true.
  • (![]+[])[+true]: Since false is ![], true is !![].
  • (![]+[])[+!![]] - which evaluates to "a".

Proof: In JavaScript, alert((![]+[])[+!![]]) does the same as alert("a").[13]

Other constructs

The Function constructor can be used to trigger execution of JavaScript code contained in a string as if it were native JavaScript. So, for example, the statement alert(1) is equivalent to Function("alert(1)"). The Function constructor can be retrieved in JSFuck by accessing the constructor property of a well known function, such as []["filter"] (Array.prototype.filter). And then alert(1) becomes []["filter"]["constructor"]("alert(1)").

Character table

The characters with the shortest JSFuck expansions are listed below. Other characters can be expressed as well but will generate considerably longer code.

Character JSFuck
+ (+(+!+[]+(!+[]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+[+!+[]]+[+[]]+[+[]])+[])[!+[]+!+[]]
. (+(+!+[]+[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+[!+[]+!+[]]+[+[]])+[])[+!+[]]
0 +[]
1 +!![] or +!+[]
2 !![]+!![] or !+[]+!+[]
3 !![]+!![]+!![] or !+[]+!+[]+!+[]
4 !![]+!![]+!![]+!![] or !+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]
5 !![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![] or !+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]
6 !![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![] or !+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]
7 !![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![] or !+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]
8 !![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![] or !+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]
9 !![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![] or !+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]+!+[]
a (![]+[])[+!+[]]
d ([][[]]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]
e (!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]
f (![]+[])[+[]]
i ([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]
I (+(+!+[]+(!+[]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(+!+[])+(+[])+(+[])+(+[]))+[])[+[]]
l (![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]
N (+[![]]+[])[+[]]
n ([][[]]+[])[+!+[]]
r (!+[]+[])[+!+[]]
s (![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]
t (!+[]+[])[+[]]
u ([][[]]+[])[+[]]
y (+[![]]+[+(+!+[]+(!+[]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(+!+[])+(+[])+(+[])+(+[]))])[+!+[]+[+[]]]

Security

Lacking the distinct features of "usual" JavaScript, obfuscation techniques like JSFuck can assist malicious JavaScript code in bypassing intrusion prevention systems[14] or content filters. For instance, the lack of alphanumeric characters in JSFuck on the one hand, and a flawed content filter on the other hand, allowed sellers to embed arbitrary JSFuck scripts in their eBay auction pages.[15]

References

  1. ^ Jane Bailey/The Daily WTF: "Bidding on Security". http://thedailywtf.com/articles/bidding-on-security
  2. ^ Hasegawa, Yosuke (2009-07-10). "jjencode - Encode any JavaScript program using only symbols". utf-8.jp. Archived from the original on 2009-07-15. Retrieved . 
  3. ^ Hasegawa, Yosuke (July 2009). "UTF-8.jp [2009-07-28]". utf-8.jp. Archived from the original on 2009-07-28. Retrieved . 
  4. ^ "Yet Another Useless Contest (but fun!) Less chars needed to run arbitrary JS code". sla.ckers.org. 2010-01-14. Archived from the original on 2011-03-01. Retrieved . 
  5. ^ "js-noalnum_com.php". discogscounter.getfreehosting.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-03-01. Retrieved . 
  6. ^ Hasegawa, Yosuke (November 2010). "JSF*ck - []!+". utf-8.jp. Archived from the original on 2010-12-01. Retrieved . 
  7. ^ Hasegawa, Yosuke (November 2010). "UTF-8.jp [2010-11-30]". utf-8.jp. Archived from the original on 2010-11-30. Retrieved . 
  8. ^ Kleppe, Martin (2012-07-16). "Commits · aemkei/jsfuck". github.com. Retrieved . 
  9. ^ Kleppe, Martin (September 2012). "Site report for www.jsfuck.com". toolbar.netcraft.com. Retrieved . 
  10. ^ https://arstechnica.com/security/2016/02/ebay-has-no-plans-to-fix-severe-bug-that-allows-malware-distribution/ Ars Technica: Ebay has no plans to fix severe bug that allows malware distribution
  11. ^ https://github.com/fasttime/jquery-screwed jQuery JavaScript library made of only six different characters: ! ( ) + [ ]
  12. ^ http://patriciopalladino.com/blog/2012/08/09/non-alphanumeric-javascript.html "Brainfuck Beware: JavaScript is after you!"
  13. ^ Adapted from: https://esolangs.orghttp://www.defaultlogic.com/learn?s=JSFuck
  14. ^ Ré Medina, Matías A. (2012-09). Bypassing WAFs with non-alphanumeric XSS. Retrieved from http://blog.infobytesec.com/2012/09/bypassing-wafs-with-non-alphanumeric-xss.html.
  15. ^ "eBay has no plans to fix "severe" bug that allows malware distribution [Updated]". Ars Technica. 

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


JSFuck
 



 

Connect with defaultLogic
What We've Done
Led Digital Marketing Efforts of Top 500 e-Retailers.
Worked with Top Brands at Leading Agencies.
Successfully Managed Over $50 million in Digital Ad Spend.
Developed Strategies and Processes that Enabled Brands to Grow During an Economic Downturn.
Taught Advanced Internet Marketing Strategies at the graduate level.


Manage research, learning and skills at defaultLogic. Create an account using LinkedIn or facebook to manage and organize your IT knowledge. defaultLogic works like a shopping cart for information -- helping you to save, discuss and share.


  Contact Us