Katrina Karkazis

Katrina Alicia Karkazis (born 1970)[1] is an anthropologist and bioethicist. She is the Carol Zicklin Endowed Chair in the Honors Academy at Brooklyn College, City University of New York and a Senior Research Fellow with the Global Health Justice Partnership at Yale University.[2] She has written widely on testosterone, intersex issues, sex verification in sports, treatment practices, policy and lived experiences, and the interface between medicine and society.[3][4] In 2016, she was jointly awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship with Rebecca Jordan-Young.[5]


Katrina Karkazis received her PhD in medical and cultural anthropology, and a Masters in Public Health in maternal and child health, from Columbia University.[6] She has an undergraduate degree in Public Policy from Occidental College. Karkazis has since completed postdoctoral training in empirical bioethics at Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics.[3][7] She is the Carol Zicklin Endowed Chair in the Honors Academy at Brooklyn College, City University of New York, and a Senior Visiting Fellow with the Global Health Justice Partnership at Yale University.[8]

In 2008, Karkazis published her first book, Fixing Sex, on the medical treatment and lived experience of intersex people. Since publication of Fixing Sex and co-authoring a 2012 journal article on sex testing in sport, Out of Bounds, Karkazis has widely written and been quoted as an expert on issues of informed consent, bodily diversity, testosterone, and access to sport. Media coverage of sport issues includes American Association for the Advancement of Science, The Guardian, Los Angeles Times, New Scientist, New York Times and Time, often in collaboration with Rebecca Jordan-Young.[9]

In 2015, Karkazis testified before the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) in the case of Dutee Chand v. Athletics Federation of India (AFI) & The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), and in July 2015 the CAS issued a decision to suspend its sex verification policy on excluding women athletes with hyperandrogenism (high levels of testosterone) due to insufficient evidence of a link between high androgen levels and improved athletic performance.[10][11] The court allowed two further years for convincing evidence to be submitted by the IAAF, after which the regulation will be automatically revoked if evidence has not been provided.[12]

In 2016, Karkazis was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to work on a book on testosterone, T: The Unauthorized Biography, with co-author Rebecca Jordan-Young.[5] In 2018, Karkazis wrote in The New York Review of Books that "T has become a powerful technology for the production of subjectivity, the most consequential of which is gender."[13]



Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, published by Duke University Press in 2008 presents a history of the medical treatment and lived experience of intersex people and their families. The book has been well received by both clinicians and intersex groups. Gary Berkovitz, writing in the New England Journal of Medicine states that Karkazis's analysis is fair, compelling, and eloquent.[14] Elizabeth Reis, reviewing the book in American Journal of Bioethics, states that the book "masterfully examines the concerns and fears of all those with a stake in the intersex debate: physicians, parents, intersex adults, and activists."[15] Mijeon, in American Journal of Human Genetics writes that the "conclusion is quite fitting", "the history of thinking about the body ... can be highly politicized and controversial".[16] Kenneth Copeland MD, former president of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society describes the book as, "Masterfully balancing all aspects of one of the most polarizing, contentious topics in medicine... the most recent authoritative treatise on intersex."[3] Intersex community organization Organisation Intersex International Australia regards the book as "approachable," "compelling and recommended reading",[17] and the book was subsequently cited by the Senate of Australia in 2013.[17][18]

Peer-reviewed publications

In Out of Bounds? A Critique of the New Policies on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes, a collaborative article with Georgiann Davis, Rebecca Jordan-Young, and Silvia Camporesi, published in 2012 in the American Journal of Bioethics, they argue that a new sex testing policy by the International Association of Athletics Federations will not protect against breaches of privacy, will require athletes to undergo unnecessary treatment in order to compete, and will intensify "gender policing". They recommend that athletes be able to compete in accordance with their legal gender.[19][20] The analysis was described as an "influential critique" in the Los Angeles Times.[21]

In Emotionally and cognitively informed consent for clinical care for differences of sex development, co-authored with Anne Tamar-Mattis, Arlene Baratz, and Katherine Baratz Dalke and published in 2013, the authors write that "physicians continue to recommend certain irreversible treatments for children with differences of sex development (DSD) without adequate psychosocial support".[22]

In What's in a Name? The Controversy over "Disorders of Sex Development", co-authored with Ellen Feder and published in 2008, the authors state that "tracing "the history of the terminology applied to those with atypical sex anatomy reveals how these conditions have been narrowly cast as problems of gender to the neglect of broader health concerns and of the well-being of affected individuals."[23] Karkazis and Feder also collaborated in Naming the problem: disorders and their meanings, published in The Lancet in 2008.[24]

Selected bibliography


  • Karkazis, Katrina (2008). Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-4318-9.

Peer-reviewed journals

Editorial works

Awards and recognition

Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience was nominated for the Margaret Mead Award, 2010, and a finalist for the Lambda Literary Award, 2009.[3] In 2016, Karkazis was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship.[5]


  1. ^ "Karkazis, Katrina Alicia, 1970-". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ "Katrina Karkazis Anthropologist & Bioethicist". Katrina Karkazis. Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b c d Katrina Karkazis, PhD, MPH Archived 2013-12-26 at the Wayback Machine., Stanford University School of Medicine Center for Biomedical Ethics, 2013
  4. ^ About, Katrina Karkazis, retrieved 9 January 2014.
  5. ^ a b c "Katrina Karkazis". John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. 2016. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Karkazis, Katrina Alicia (2002). Beyond treatment: mapping the connections among gender, genitals, and sexuality in recent controversies over intersexuality (Ph.D thesis). Columbia University. OCLC 56173510.
  7. ^ Katrina Karkazis, PhD, MPH, Stanford University School of Medicine Center for Biomedical Ethics, 2013.
  8. ^ "Katrina Karkazis". Yale Law School. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Articles:
  10. ^ Fagan, Kate (August 13, 2016). "Katie Ledecky is crushing records, so why are we still worried about Caster Semenya?". ESPN. Retrieved .
  11. ^ Padawer, Ruth (June 28, 2016). "The Humiliating Practice of Sex-Testing Female Athletes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved .
  12. ^ Branch, John (27 July 2015). "Dutee Chand, Female Sprinter With High Testosterone Level, Wins Right to Compete". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015.
  13. ^ Karkazis, Katrina (June 28, 2018). "The Masculine Mystique of T". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved .
  14. ^ Berkovitz, Gary (2009). "Book Review Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience By Katrina Karkazis. 365 pp. Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 2008. $84.95 (cloth); $23.95 (paper). 978-0-8223-4302-8 (cloth); 978-0-8223-4318-9 (paper)". New England Journal of Medicine. 360: 1683. doi:10.1056/NEJMbkrev0805101.
  15. ^ Reis, Elizabeth (2009). "Review of Katrina Karkazis,Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience1". The American Journal of Bioethics. 9: 105-106. doi:10.1080/15265160902790617.
  16. ^ Migeon, Claude J. (2009). "Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 84 (6): 717. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.04.022. PMC 2694968.
  17. ^ a b Katrina Karkazis, "Fixing Sex" (recommended reading), Organisation Intersex International Australia, 26 January 2010
  18. ^ Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia, Community Affairs Committee, Senate of Australia, October 2013.
  19. ^ Karkazis, K; Jordan-Young, R; Davis, G; Camporesi, S (2012). "Out of bounds? A critique of the new policies on hyperandrogenism in elite female athletes". Am J Bioeth. 12: 3-16. doi:10.1080/15265161.2012.680533. PMC 5152729. PMID 22694023.
  20. ^ The Harrison Bergeron Olympics, Response to Letter to the Editor, American Journal of Bioethics, 13(5):66-69, 2013.
  21. ^ Is sex testing in the Olympics a fool's errand?, Jon Bardin in Los Angeles Times, July 30, 2012.
  22. ^ Tamar-Mattis, Anne (2013). "Emotionally and cognitively informed consent for clinical care for differences of sex development". Psychology & Sexuality. 5: 44-55. doi:10.1080/19419899.2013.831215.
  23. ^ "What's in a Name? The Controversy over 'Disorders of Sex Development'", Ellen K. Feder and Katrina Karkazis, Hastings Center Report 38, no. 5 (2008): 33- 36.
  24. ^ Naming the problem: disorders and their meanings, Katrina Karkazis and Ellen Feder, The Lancet, Vol 372 December 13, 2008.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Connect with defaultLogic
What We've Done
Led Digital Marketing Efforts of Top 500 e-Retailers.
Worked with Top Brands at Leading Agencies.
Successfully Managed Over $50 million in Digital Ad Spend.
Developed Strategies and Processes that Enabled Brands to Grow During an Economic Downturn.
Taught Advanced Internet Marketing Strategies at the graduate level.

Manage research, learning and skills at defaultlogic.com. Create an account using LinkedIn to manage and organize your omni-channel knowledge. defaultlogic.com is like a shopping cart for information -- helping you to save, discuss and share.

  Contact Us