Learning Management System

A learning management system (LMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of educational courses or training programs.[1] They help the instructor deliver material to the students, administer tests and other assignments, track student progress, and manage record-keeping. LMSs support a range of uses, from supporting classes that meet in physical classrooms to acting as a platform for fully online courses, as well as several hybrid forms, such as blended learning and flipped classrooms.

Characteristics

History

The history of the application of computers to education is filled with broadly descriptive terms such as computer-based instruction (CBI), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and computer-assisted learning (CAL), generally describing drill-and-practice programs, more sophisticated tutorials, and more individualized instruction, respectively.[2] LMS has its history in other terms, computer-managed instruction (CMI), and integrated learning systems (ILS) which offers additional functionality beyond instructional content such as management and tracking, more personalized instruction, and integration across the system. The term ILS was originally coined by Jostens Learning, and CMI was originally used to describe the PLATO Learning Management system (PLM) developed in the 1970s by Control Data Corporation for the PLATO system of computer-based instruction, content-free and separate from the courseware. FirstClass by SoftArc, which the United Kingdom's Open University used in the 1990s and 2000s to deliver online learning across Europe, is often identified as the first modern learning management system, though it was released decades after PLATO's PLM CMI/LMS system.[3][4][5] The term is currently used to describe a number of different educational computer applications.[6]

Purpose

An LMS delivers and manages instructional content, and typically handles student registration, course administration, and tracking, and reporting of student work.[7] Some LMSs help identify progress towards learning or training goals.[8] Most LMSs are web-based, to facilitate access. LMSs are often used by regulated industries (e.g. financial services and biopharma) for compliance training. Some LMS providers include "performance management systems", which encompass employee appraisals, competency management, skills-gap analysis, succession planning, and multi-rater assessments (i.e., 360 degree reviews). Some systems support competency-based learning.

Though there are a wide variety of terms for digital aids or platforms for education, such as course management systems, virtual or managed learning platforms or systems, or computer-based learning environment, the term learning management system has become the ubiquitous term for products that help administer or deliver part or all of a course.

Technical aspects

Most LMSs are web-based. There are a variety of integration strategies for embedding content into LMSs, including SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model)[9] and LTI (Learning Tools Interoperability). LMSs were originally designed to be locally hosted on-premise, where the organization purchases a license to a version of the software, and installs it on their own servers and network. Many LMSs are also offered as SaaS (software as a service), with hosting provided by the vendors.[10]

Learning management industry

In the U.S. higher education market as of fall 2016, the top three LMSes by number of installations were Blackboard (33%), Moodle (19%) and Canvas (17%).[11] The same three systems lead in terms of number of students enrolled, but in a different order: Blackboard (45%), Canvas (24%), Moodle (17%).

In the corporate market in 2015, the six largest LMS providers constitute approximately 50% of the market, with SuccessFactors Learning, Saba Software, Voniz Inc and SumTotal Systems being the four largest providers. Vendors focused on mid-sized companies (200+ employees) include Halogen Software, ADP, and Workday.[12] Another service related to LMS comes from the standardized test preparation vendors, where companies such as Princeton Review or BenchPrep offer online test prep courses.

Many users of LMSs use an authoring tool to create content, which is then hosted on an LMS. In many cases LMSs include a primitive authoring tool for basic content manipulation. There are several standards for creating and integrating complex content into an LMS, including AICC, SCORM and Learning Tools Interoperability. All widely adopted LMSes offer one or more of these standards for importing content.

Evaluation of LMSs is a complex task and significant research supports different forms of evaluation, including iterative processes where students' experiences and approaches to learning are evaluated.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Ellis, Ryann K. (2009), Field Guide to Learning Management Systems, ASTD Learning Circuits 
  2. ^ Parr, Judy M.; Fung, Irene (October 3, 2006). "A Review of the Literature on Computer-Assisted Learning, particularly Integrated Learning Systems, and Outcomes with Respect to Literacy and Numeracy". New Zealand Ministry of Education. Archived from the original on March 9, 2007. Retrieved 2013. 
  3. ^ "History and Trends of Learning Management System (Infographic)". Oxagile. 12 April 2016. 
  4. ^ Ashok Sharma. "The History of Distance Learning and the LMS". ELH Online Learning Made Simple. 
  5. ^ "History of learning management systems". ProProfs. 
  6. ^ Watson, William R. (2007). "An Argument for Clarity: What are Learning Management Systems, What are They Not, and What Should They Become?" (PDF). TechTrends. 51 (2): 28-34. Retrieved 2013. 
  7. ^ Gilhooly, Kym (16 July 2001). "Making e-learning effective". Computerworld. 35 (29): 52-53. 
  8. ^ Szabo, Micheal; Flesher, K. (2002). "CMI Theory and Practice: Historical Roots of Learning Management Systems". Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2002 (White Paper). Montreal, Canada: In M. Driscoll & T. Reeves (Eds.): 929-936. ISBN 1-880094-46-0. 
  9. ^ Learning management system, stratbeans consulting 
  10. ^ Lin, Sandi (2015-11-16). "SaaS Learning Management System: Is your LMS Truly SaaS? - eLearning Industry". eLearning Industry. Retrieved . 
  11. ^ , 2016 http://edutechnica.com/2016/10/03/4th-annual-lms-data-update/  Missing or empty |title= (help).
  12. ^ Bersin, Josh. "Talent Management Software Market Surges Ahead". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 2015. 
  13. ^ Ellis, R.; Calvo, R.A. (2007), "Minimum indicators to quality assure blended learning supported by learning management systems" (PDF), Journal of Educational Technology and Society 

Bibliography

Further information


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


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