|A version of the macOS operating system|
Screenshot of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger
|Source model||Closed source (with open source components)|
|April 29, 2005|
|Latest release||10.4.11 / November 14, 2007|
|Update method||Apple Software Update|
|Platforms||IA-32, x86-64, PowerPC|
|Kernel type||Hybrid (XNU)|
|License||Commercial proprietary software|
|Preceded by||Mac OS X 10.3 Panther|
|Succeeded by||Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard|
|Official website||Apple - Mac OS X at the Wayback Machine (archived July 28, 2006)|
|Unsupported as of September 2009, Safari support ended November 2010.|
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger is the fifth major release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apple's desktop and server operating system for Mac computers. Tiger was released to the public on April 29, 2005 for US$129.95 as the successor to Mac OS X 10.3 Panther. Some of the new features included a fast searching system called Spotlight, a new version of the Safari web browser, Dashboard, a new 'Unified' theme, and improved support for 64-bit addressing on Power Mac G5s. Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file searching and improved graphics processing, that Microsoft had spent several years struggling to add to Windows with acceptable performance.
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was included with all new Macs, and was also available as an upgrade for existing Mac OS X users, or users of supported pre-Mac OS X systems. The server edition, Mac OS X Server 10.4, was also available for some Macintosh product lines. Six weeks after its official release, Apple had delivered 2 million copies of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger, representing 16% of all Mac OS X users. Apple claimed that Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was the most successful Apple OS release in the company's history. At the WWDC on June 11, 2007, Apple's CEO, Steve Jobs, announced that out of the 22 million Mac OS X users, more than 67% were using Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger.
Apple announced a transition to Intel x86 processors during Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger's lifetime, making it the first Apple operating system to work on Apple-Intel architecture machines. The original Apple TV, released in March 2007, shipped with a customized version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger branded "Apple TV OS" that replaced the usual GUI with an updated version of Front Row.
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was succeeded by Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard on October 26, 2007, after 30 months, making Mac OS 10.4 Tiger the longest running version of Mac OS X. The last security update released for Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger users was the 2009-005 update. The next security update, 2009-006 only included support for Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard. The latest supported version of QuickTime is 7.6.4. The latest version of iTunes that can run on Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger is 9.2.1, because 10.0 only supports Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and later. Safari 4.1.3 is the final version for Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger as of November 18, 2010. Despite not having received security updates since then, Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger remains popular with Power Mac users and retrocomputing enthusiasts due to its wide software and hardware compatibility, as it runs on a wide variety of older machines and is the last Mac OS X version that supports the Classic Environment, a Mac OS 9 compatibility layer and PowerPC G3 processors.
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was initially available in a PowerPC edition, with an Intel edition released beginning at Mac OS X 10.4.4 Tiger. There is no universal version of the client operating system, although Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger Server was made available on a universal DVD from version Mac OS X 10.4.7 Tiger. While Apple shipped the PowerPC edition bundled with PowerPC-based Macs and also sold it as a separate retail box, the only way to obtain the Intel version was to buy an Intel-based Mac bundled with it. However, it was possible to buy the 'restore' DVDs containing the Intel version through unofficial channels such as eBay, and officially through Apple if you could provide proof of purchase of the appropriate Intel Mac. These grey colored 'restore' DVDs supplied with new Macs, are designed to only restore on the model of Mac that they are intended for. However, they can be modified to work on any Intel Mac. The retail PowerPC-only DVD can be used on any PowerPC-based Mac supported by Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger.
The system requirements of the PowerPC edition are:
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger removed support for older New World ROM Macs such as the original iMacs and iBooks that were supported in Mac OS X 10.3 Panther; however it is possible to install Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger on these Macs using third-party software (such as XPostFacto) that overrides the checks made at the beginning of the installation process. Likewise, machines such as beige Power Mac G3s and 'Wall Street' PowerBook G3s that were dropped by Mac OS X 10.3 Panther can also be made to run both Mac OS X 10.3 Panther and Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger in this way. Also, Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger can be installed on unsupported New World ROM Macs by installing it on a supported Mac, then swapping hard drives. Old World ROM Macs require the use of XPostFacto to install Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger.
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was the last version of Mac OS X that supported the PowerPC G3 processor.
Apple CEO Steve Jobs first presented Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger in his keynote presentation at the WWDC on June 28, 2004, ten months before its commercial release in April 2005. Four months before that official release, several non-commercial, developer's releases of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger leaked onto the internet via BitTorrent file sharers. It was first mentioned on Apple's website on May 4, 2004. Apple sued these file sharers. On April 12, 2005, Apple announced Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger's official, worldwide release would be April 29. All Apple Stores around the world held Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger seminars, presentations and demos.
On June 6, 2005 at the WWDC in San Francisco, Jobs reported that nearly two million copies had been sold in Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger's first six weeks of release, making Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger the most successful operating system release in Apple's history. Jobs then disclosed that Mac OS X had been engineered from its inception to work with Intel's x86 line of processors in addition to the PowerPC, the CPU for which the operating system had always been publicly marketed. Apple concurrently announced its intent to release the first x86-based computers in June 2006, and to move the rest of its computers to x86 microprocessors by June 2007. On January 10, 2006, Apple presented its new iMac and MacBook Pro computers running on Intel Core Duo processors, and announced that the entire Apple product line would run on Intel processors by the end of 2006. Apple then released the Mac Pro and announced the new Xserve on August 8, completing the Intel transition in 210 days, roughly ten months ahead of the original schedule.
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger is the first version of Mac OS X to be supplied on a DVD, although the DVD could originally be exchanged for CDs for $9.95. It is also the first (and so far only) version of Mac OS X that would eventually have an update version number ending with a value greater than 9, as the last version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was 10.4.11.
Apple advertises that Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger has over 150 new and improved features, including:
In every major new revision of Mac OS X, Apple alters the graphical user interface somewhat. In Tiger, the menu bar displayed at the top of the screen now features a colored Spotlight button in the upper right corner; the menu itself has a smoother 'glassy' texture to replace the faint pinstripes in Panther.
Also of note, Tiger introduces a new window theme, often described as 'Unified'. A variation on the standard, non-brushed metal theme used since the introduction of Mac OS X, this theme integrates the title bar and the toolbar of a window. A prominent example of an application that utilizes this theme is Mail.
Tiger was the first version of Mac OS X to include the "Zoom" screen magnifier functionality which allowed the user to zoom on to the area around the mouse by holding CONTROL and scrolling the mouse wheel up or down (to zoom in and out respectively).
Shortly before the release of Mac OS X Tiger, the computer retailer TigerDirect.com, Inc. filed a lawsuit against Apple, alleging that Apple infringed TigerDirect.com's trademark with the Mac OS X Tiger operating system.
The following is a quotation from TigerDirect.com's court memorandum:
In 2005 TigerDirect was denied a preliminary injunction which would have prevented Apple from using the mark while the case was decided. Apple and TigerDirect reached a settlement in 2006, after which TigerDirect withdrew its opposition.
At the 2005 WWDC, Apple CEO Steve Jobs announced that Apple would begin selling Mac computers with Intel processors in 2006. To allow developers to begin producing software for these Intel-based Macs, Apple made Developer Transition Kits available for sale that included a version of Mac OS X v10.4.1 designed to run on x86 processors.
This build includes Apple's Rosetta -- a translation process that allows Intel processor versions of the OS to run PPC software with little penalty. This is contrasted with the current Mac OS 9 Classic mode, which uses comparably larger amounts of system resources.
Soon after the Developer Transition Kits began shipping, copies of Tiger x86 were leaked onto file sharing networks. Although Apple had implemented a Trusted Computing DRM scheme in the transition hardware and OS in an attempt to stop people installing Tiger x86 on non-Apple PCs, the OSx86 project soon managed to remove this restriction. As Apple released each update with newer safeguards to prevent its use on non-Apple hardware, unofficially-modified versions were released that circumvented Apple's safeguards. However, with the release of 10.4.5, 10.4.6, and 10.4.7 the unofficially-modified versions continued to use the kernel from the 10.4.4 because later kernels have hardware locks and depend heavily on EFI. By late 2006, the 10.4.8 kernel was cracked.
At MacWorld San Francisco 2006, Jobs announced the immediate availability of Mac OS X v10.4.4, the first publicly available release of Tiger compiled for both PowerPC and Intel x86-based machines.
|10.4||8A428||April 29, 2005||Darwin 8.0||Preinstalled on much of new line|
|8A432||Original retail release|
|10.4.1||8B15||May 16, 2005||Darwin 8.1||About the Mac OS X 10.4.1 Update|
|8B17||May 19, 2005||Server edition|
|10.4.2||8C46||July 12, 2005||Darwin 8.2||About the Mac OS X 10.4.2 Update (Delta)|
|8E102||October 12, 2005||Exclusively for Front Row iMac G5 released on same date|
|8E45||October 19, 2005||Exclusively for PowerBook G4s released on same date|
|8E90||Exclusively for Power Mac G5 Dual and Quad released on same date|
|10.4.3||8F46||October 31, 2005||Darwin 8.3||About the Mac OS X 10.4.3 Update (Delta) Updated retail release|
|10.4.4||8G32||January 10, 2006||Darwin 8.4||About the Mac OS X 10.4.4 Update (Delta) PowerPC|
|8G1165||Shipped on initial Intel-based Macs|
|10.4.5||8H14||February 14, 2006||Darwin 8.5||About the Mac OS X 10.4.5 Update (delta) PowerPC|
|8G1454||About the Mac OS X 10.4.5 Update (delta) Intel|
|10.4.6||8I127||April 3, 2006||Darwin 8.6||About the Mac OS X 10.4.6 Update (delta) PowerPC; Final retail release|
|8I1119||About the Mac OS X 10.4.6 Update (delta) Intel|
|10.4.7||8J135||June 27, 2006||Darwin 8.7||About the Mac OS X 10.4.7 Update (delta) PowerPC|
|8J2135a||About the Mac OS X 10.4.7 Update (delta) Intel|
|8K1079||August 7, 2006||exclusively for Mac Pro released the same date|
|8N5107||exclusively for Apple TV (formerly codenamed iTV)|
|10.4.8||8L127||September 29, 2006||Darwin 8.8||About the Mac OS X 10.4.8 Update (delta) PowerPC|
|8L2127||About the Mac OS X 10.4.8 Update (delta) Intel and Universal Server Edition|
|10.4.9||8P135||March 13, 2007||Darwin 8.9||About the Mac OS X 10.4.9 Update (delta) PowerPC|
|8P2137||About the Mac OS X 10.4.9 Update (delta) Intel and Universal Server Edition|
|10.4.10||8R218||June 20, 2007||Darwin 8.10||About the Mac OS X 10.4.10 Update (delta) PowerPC|
|8R2218, 8R2232||About the Mac OS X 10.4.10 Update (delta) Intel and Universal Server Edition|
|10.4.11||8S165||November 14, 2007||Darwin 8.11||About the Mac OS X 10.4.11 Update PowerPC|
|8S2167||About the Mac OS X 10.4.11 Update Intel and Universal Server Edition|
The company did the same for OS X Tiger, officially known as OS X 10.4, which was retired from support in September 2009, more than four years after its introduction.
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