Michelin Guide
Cover of a 2006 Michelin Guide

Michelin Guides (French: Guide Michelin [?id mi?.l??]) are a series of guide books published by the French tire company Michelin for more than a century. The term normally refers to the annually published Michelin Red Guide, the oldest European hotel and restaurant reference guide, which awards Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments.[1] The acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin also publishes a series of general guides to countries.

History

In 1900, fewer than 3,000 cars graced the roads of France. To boost the demand for cars and, accordingly, car tires, brothers and car tire manufacturers Édouard and André Michelin published the first edition of a guide for French motorists, the Michelin Guide.[2] The brothers printed nearly 35,000 copies of this first, free edition of the Michelin Guide, which provided useful information to motorists, such as maps, tire repair and replacement instructions, car mechanics listings, hotels, and petrol stations throughout France. Four years later, in 1904, the brothers published a guide to Belgium similar to the Michelin Guide.[3]

1911 Michelin Guide to the British Isles

The brothers subsequently introduced guides for Algeria and Tunisia (1907); the Alps and the Rhine (northern Italy, Switzerland, Bavaria, and the Netherlands) (1908); Germany, Spain, and Portugal (1910); Ireland and the British Isles (1911); and "The Countries of the Sun" (Les Pays du Soleil) (northern Africa, southern Italy and Corsica) (1911). In 1909, the Michelin Guide for France saw its first English-language version published.[4]

During the First World War, publication of the guide was suspended. After the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920. The company's website recounts the story that André Michelin, visiting a tire merchant, noticed copies of the guide being used to prop up a workbench. Based on the principle that "man only truly respects what he pays for," the brothers decided to charge a price for the guide, which was about 750 francs or $2.15 in 1922.[5] They also made several changes, notably: listing restaurants by specific categories; the debut of hotel listings (initially only for Paris); and the abandonment of advertisements in the guide.[3] Recognizing the growing popularity of the restaurant section of the guide, the brothers recruited a team of inspectors to visit and review restaurants, who were always careful in maintaining anonymity.[6]

In 1926, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments. Initially, there was only a single star awarded. Then, in 1931, the hierarchy of zero, one, two, and three stars was introduced. Finally, in 1936, the criteria for the starred rankings were published:[3]

  • 1 Michelin star: "A very good restaurant in its category" (Une très bonne table dans sa catégorie)
  • 2 Michelin stars: "Excellent cooking, worth a detour" (Table excellente, mérite un détour)
  • 3 Michelin stars: "Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey" (Une des meilleures tables, vaut le voyage).[6]

In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red, and has remained so in all subsequent editions.[6] During the Second World War, publication was again suspended, but in 1944, at the request of the Allied Forces, the 1939 guide to France was specially reprinted for military use; its maps were judged the best and most up-to-date available. Publication of the annual guide resumed on 16 May 1945, a week after VE Day.[3]

In the early post-war years the lingering effects of wartime shortages led Michelin to impose an upper limit of two stars; by 1950 the French edition listed 38 establishments judged to meet this standard.[7] The first Michelin Guide to Italy was published in 1956. It awarded no stars in the first edition. In 1974, the first guide to Britain since 1931 was published. Twenty-five stars were awarded.[8]

In November 2005 Michelin produced its first American guide, concentrating on New York, covering 500 restaurants in the city's five boroughs and 50 hotels (Manhattan only). In 2007 a Tokyo Michelin Guide was launched. In the same year the guide introduced a magazine, Étoile. In 2008 a Hong Kong and Macau volume was added to the list of Michelin Guides.[3] The Michelin website in 2013 notes that the guide is published in 14 editions covering 23 countries and sold in nearly 90 countries.[3]

In 2008 the German restaurateur Juliane Caspar was appointed editor-in-chief of the French edition of the guide. She had previously been responsible for the Michelin guides to Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. She became the first woman and first non-French national to occupy the French position. The German newspaper Die Welt commented on the appointment, "In view of the fact German cuisine is regarded as a lethal weapon in most parts of France, this decision is like Mercedes announcing that its new director of product development is a Martian."[9]

Methods and layout

Dishes made by Michelin star restaurants

Red Guides have historically listed many more restaurants than rival guides have done, relying on an extensive system of symbols to describe each establishment in as little as two lines. Reviews of starred restaurants also include two to three culinary specialities. Short summaries (2-3 lines) were added in 2002/2003 to enhance descriptions of many establishments. These summaries are written in the language of the country for which the guide is published (though the Spain and Portugal volume is in Spanish only) but the symbols are the same throughout all editions.[10]

Stars

Michelin reviewers (commonly called "inspectors") are completely anonymous; they do not identify themselves, and their meals and expenses are paid for by the company founded by the Michelin brothers, never by a restaurant being reviewed. In 2009 The New Yorker said:

Michelin has gone to extraordinary lengths to maintain the anonymity of its inspectors. Many of the company's top executives have never met an inspector; inspectors themselves are advised not to disclose their line of work, even to their parents (who might be tempted to boast about it); and, in all the years that it has been putting out the guide, Michelin has refused to allow its inspectors to speak to journalists. The inspectors write reports that are distilled, in annual "stars meetings" at the guide's various national offices, into the ranking of three stars, two stars, or one star--or no stars. (Establishments that Michelin deems unworthy of a visit are not included in the guide.)[11]

The French chef Paul Bocuse, one of the pioneers of nouvelle cuisine in the 1960s, said, "Michelin is the only guide that counts."[12] In France, each year, at the time the guide is published, it sparks a media frenzy which has been compared to that for annual Academy Awards for films.[11] Media and others debate likely winners, speculation is rife, and TV and newspapers discuss which restaurant might lose, and who might gain a Michelin star, with three stars being the maximum a restaurant can attain.[13]

The Michelin Guide also awards Rising Stars, an indication that a restaurant has the potential to qualify for a star, or an additional star.

Bib Gourmand

A menu course from a Michelin rated restaurant in Helsinki, Finland
A course in a Michelin starred restaurant in Geneva, Switzerland
A course in a Michelin starred restaurant in Tokyo, Japan

Since 1955, the guide has also highlighted restaurants offering "exceptionally good food at moderate prices," a feature now called "Bib Gourmand". They must offer menu items priced below a maximum determined by local economic standards. Bib (Bibendum) is the company's nickname for the Michelin Man, its corporate logo for over a century.

Country[14] Release date 3 Michelin stars 2 Michelin stars 1 Michelin star Bib Gourmand Establishments
France 2012 Edition[15] 26 83 485 630
(EUR29, EUR35 in Paris area)[16]
over 4,900 hotels and guest houses,
4,200 restaurants
Belgium and Luxembourg 2012 Edition[17][18] 3 16 99 140 (EUR35 or less) over 700 hotels and guest houses,
1,100 restaurants
Germany 2016 Edition[19] 10 39 241 471
(EUR35 or less)
over 4,200 hotels and guest houses,
2,100 restaurants, 4,287 hotels
Great Britain and Ireland 2018 Edition[20] 5 20 150 145
(£28 or EUR40)
over 1,100 hotels, guest houses,
2,100 restaurants, pubs
Italy 2012 Edition[21] 7 38 250 260 (EUR35) over 3,700 hotels and guest houses,
2,700 restaurants
Netherlands 2012 Edition[22][23] 2 16 84 102
(EUR35)[24]
over 600 hotels and guest houses,
700 restaurants
Spain and Portugal 2014 Edition (preview)[25] 8 17 134 219
(EUR35 or less)
over 1,775 hotels and guest houses,
1,549 restaurants, 130 tapas bars
Switzerland 2012 Edition[26][27] 2 18 76 87
(EUR35)[28]
over 800 hotels and guest houses,
800 restaurants
City[14] Release date 3 Michelin stars 2 Michelin stars 1 Michelin star Bib Gourmand Establishments
Paris 2012 Edition[29] 10 17 50 70 (EUR35) 60 hotels, 453 restaurants[16]
Chicago 2017 Edition[30] 2 5 19 52 ($40)[31] 400 restaurants[32]
Hong Kong and Macau 2012 Edition[33] 5 13 51 64 (HK$300 or MOP$300) 272 restaurants, 60 hotels[34]
Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Nara 2012 Edition[35] 15 61 224 40
(coins, ¥5000)[36]
296 restaurants, 48 hotels, 41 ryokans
Las Vegas (suspended) 21 October 2008[37] 1 3 13 127 restaurants, 30 hotels (2007)
London 2012 Edition[38] 2 7 46 45 (£28) 450 restaurants, 50 hotels
Los Angeles (suspended) 21 October 2008[39] 0 4 16 263 restaurants, 27 hotels (2007)
Main Cities of Europe 17 March 2010[40] 15 55 271 231 1,715 restaurants, 1,542 hotels
New York City 2017 Edition[41] 6 10 61 132 ($40) 857[41]
San Francisco and Bay Area 2017 Edition[42] 6 7 41 75 ($40)[42] 513 restaurants[42]
Seoul 2017 Edition[43] 2 3 19 36 (?35,000 or less)[44] 145 restaurants, 35 hotels
Shanghai 2017 Edition[45] 1 7 18 25 (?200 or less)[45] TBC
Singapore 2017 Edition[46][47] 1 7 30 38 (S$45) TBC
Tokyo, Yokohama
and Shonan
2012 Edition[48] 17 57 219 95
(coins, ¥5000)[49]
292 restaurants, 54 hotels and 10 ryokans
Washington, DC 2017 Edition[50] 0 3 9 19
($40)[51]
102 restaurants, 440 hotels and inns

Non-restaurant food

With the blurring of lines between restaurants and other eateries, Michelin is adapting too. From 2014, it had a separate listing for gastropubs in Ireland.[52] The 2016 Guide for Hong Kong and Macau introduced an overview of notable street food establishments.[53][54] The Singapore guide that year introduced the first Michelin stars for street food locations, for Hong Kong Soya Sauce Chicken Rice and Noodle and Hill Street Tai Hwa Pork Noodle.[55]

Other ratings

All listed restaurants, regardless of their star- or Bib Gourmand-status, also receive a "fork and spoon" designation, as a subjective reflection of the overall comfort and quality of the restaurant.[56] Rankings range from one to five: One fork and spoon represents a "comfortable restaurant" and five signifies a "luxurious restaurant". Forks and spoons coloured red designate a restaurant that is considered "pleasant" as well.

Restaurants, independently of their other ratings in the guide, can also receive a number of other symbols next to their listing.

  • Coins indicate restaurants that serve a menu for a certain price or less, depending on the local monetary standard.[56] In 2010 France, 2011 US and Japan Red Guides, the maximum permitted "coin" prices were EUR19, $25, and ¥5000, respectively.
  • Interesting view or Magnificent view, designated by a black or red symbol, are given to restaurants offering those features.
  • Grapes, a sake set, or a cocktail glass indicate restaurants that offer, at minimum, a "somewhat interesting" selection of wines, sake, or cocktails, respectively.[56]

Green Guides

The Michelin Green Guides review and rate attractions other than restaurants. There is a Green Guide for France as a whole, and a more detailed one for each of ten regions within France. Other Green Guides cover many countries, regions, and cities outside France. Many Green Guides are published in several languages. They include background information and an alphabetical section describing points of interest. Like the Red Guides, they use a three-star system for recommending sights ranging from "worth a trip" to "worth a detour", and "interesting".

Controversies

Allegations of lax inspection standards and bias

Pascal Rémy, a veteran France-based Michelin inspector, and also a former Gault Millau employee, wrote a tell-all book published in 2004 entitled L'Inspecteur se met à table (literally, "The Inspector Sits Down at the Table"; idiomatically, "The Inspector Spills the Beans", or "The Inspector Puts It All on the Table"). Rémy's employment was terminated in December 2003 when he informed Michelin of his plans to publish his book.[57] He brought a court case for unfair dismissal, which was unsuccessful.[58]

Rémy described the French Michelin inspector's life as lonely, underpaid drudgery, driving around France for weeks on end, dining alone, under intense pressure to file detailed reports on strict deadlines. He maintained that the guide had become lax in its standards. Though Michelin states that its inspectors visited all 4,000 reviewed restaurants in France every 18 months, and all starred restaurants several times a year, Rémy said only about one visit every 3½ years was possible because there were only 11 inspectors in France when he was hired, rather than the 50 or more hinted by Michelin. That number, he said, had shrunk to five by the time he was fired in December 2003.[57]

Rémy also accused the guide of favouritism. He alleged that Michelin treated famous and influential chefs, such as Paul Bocuse and Alain Ducasse, as "untouchable" and not subject to the same rigorous standards as lesser-known chefs.[57] Michelin denied Rémy's charges, but refused to say how many inspectors it actually employed in France. In response to Rémy's statement that certain three-star chefs were sacrosanct, Michelin said, "There would be little sense in saying a restaurant was worth three stars if it weren't true, if for no other reason than that the customer would write and tell us."[59]

Allegations of prejudice for French cuisine

Some non-French food critics have alleged that the rating system is biased in favour of French cuisine or French dining standards. In the UK The Guardian commented in 1997 that "some people maintain the guide's principal purpose is as a tool of Gallic cultural imperialism".[60] When Michelin published its first New York City Red Guide in 2005 Steven Kurutz of The New York Times noted that Danny Meyer's Union Square Cafe, a restaurant rated highly by The New York Times, Zagat Survey, and other prominent guides, received a no star-rating from Michelin. (He did acknowledge that the restaurant received positive mention for its ambience, and that two other restaurants owned by Meyer received stars). Kurutz also claimed the guide appeared to favour restaurants that "emphasized formality and presentation" rather than a "casual approach to fine dining". He also claimed that over half of the restaurants that received one or two stars "could be considered French".[61] The Michelin Guide New York 2007 included 526 restaurants, compared to 2,014 in Zagat New York 2007; after The Four Seasons Restaurant received no stars in that edition, co-owner Julian Niccolini said Michelin "should stay in France, and they should keep their guide there".[62] The 2007 guide does, however, include menus, recipes, and photographs, and description of the atmosphere of starred restaurants.[62]

Allegations of leniency with stars for Japanese cuisine

In 2010 Michelin guides ranked Japan as the country with the most starred restaurants. This sparked questioning over whether these high ratings were merited for Japanese restaurants, or whether the Michelin guide was too generous in giving out stars to gain an acceptance with Japanese customers and to enable the parent tire-selling company to market itself in Japan.[63]The Wall Street Journal reported in 2010 that some Japanese chefs were surprised at receiving a star, and were reluctant to accept one, because the publicity caused an unmanageable jump in booking, affecting their ability to serve their traditional customers without lowering their quality.[64]

Unwanted stars

Some restaurateurs have asked Michelin to revoke a star, because they felt that it created undesirable customer expectations or pressure to spend more on service and décor.[65] Some cases:

  • Casa Julio (Fontanars dels Alforins, Spain): After receiving a star for a perfumed cuisine in 2009, the restaurant chef Julio Biosca felt the award was granted to dishes that he did not like and restricted his creativity, and tried to remove his star and in December 2013, discontinued his tasting menu. The removal took place in the 2015 guide.[66][67]
  • Petersham Nurseries Café (London): After receiving a star in 2011, founder and chef Skye Gyngell received complaints from customers expecting formal dining, leading to her attempt to remove the star, and subsequent retirement from the restaurant.[66][68][69]
  • 't Huis van Lede (Belgium): After receiving a star in 2014, chef Frederick Dhooge said he did not want his Michelin star or his points in the Gault-Millau restaurant guide because some customers were not interested in simple food from a Michelin-starred restaurant.[70]

Notable mistakes

  • In 2017, the Bouche à Oreille café in Bourges was accidentally given a star when it was confused with a restaurant of the same name in Boutervilliers, near Paris.[71][72]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fairburn, Carolyn. "Fading stars - Michelin Red Guide" Archived 10 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., The Times, 29 February 1992; Beale, Victoria and James Boxell "Falling stars" Archived 10 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., The Financial Times, 16 July 2011
  2. ^ Mayyasi, Alex Why Does a Tire Company Publish the Michelin Guide? Pricenomics. June 24, 2016
  3. ^ a b c d e f "The Michelin Guide: 100 editions and over a century of history" ViaMichelin, accessed 20 May 2013
  4. ^ (in French) "Le guide Michelin en quelques dates" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Association des Collectionneurs de Guides et Cartes Michelin, accessed 19 May 2013
  5. ^ Wertenbaker, Charles (5 June 1954). "The Testing of M. Thuilier". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c "Michelin Guide History" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Provence and Beyond, accessed 19 May 2013.
  7. ^ "The Michelin Guide", The Manchester Guardian, 28 March 1950, p. 4
  8. ^ Dawson, Helen. "British Michelin revived", The Observer 24 March 1974, p. 40
  9. ^ Paterson, Tony. "French shock at Michelin guide's first foreign chief"[permanent dead link], The Independent, 18 December 2008[dead link]
  10. ^ Michelin Guide Great Britain & Ireland (2000), Netherlands (2007), Benelux (2003)
  11. ^ a b Colapinta, John. "Lunch with M - Undercover with a Michelin inspector", The New Yorker, 23 November 2009
  12. ^ "Taste test: Menu by three-star Michelin chef Philippe Marc" Archived 15 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Time Out, Kuala Lumpur 20 October 2012
  13. ^ "Michelin Stars Align for Seven NYC Restaurants" Archived 9 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The Wall Street Journal, 4 October 2011; "Off the Menu" Archived 6 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 4 October 2011; "Tokyo retains title as Michelin's gourmet capital" Archived 4 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine., The Asahi Shimbun, 29 November 2011; and "Taking the Pop-Up Restaurant to New Heights", Spiegel Online, 19 January 2011
  14. ^ a b (in French) "Achetez en ligne votre Guide Michelin Europe Archived 7 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.", Michelin.
  15. ^ "Les publications Michelin pour les investisseurs institutionnels" (PDF). michelin.com. 
  16. ^ a b ""The Michelin Guide France 2010 Selection". Michelin North America. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 31 October 2010. 
  17. ^ "Michelin Group: news from the tire and mobility leader". michelin.com. 
  18. ^ "Les publications Michelin pour les investisseurs institutionnels" (PDF). michelin.com. 
  19. ^ "Deutschland 2016 Michelin Guide
  20. ^ "All Current UK and Ireland Michelin Star Restaurants". 2 October 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  21. ^ "Les publications Michelin pour les investisseurs institutionnels" (PDF). michelin.com. 
  22. ^ "Michelin Group: news from the tire and mobility leader - Michelin". michelin.com. 
  23. ^ "Michelin Star Restaurants 2014 / 2015 - dinnersite.nl restaurant guide". dinnersite.nl. 
  24. ^ "Michelin Guide Netherlands 2011", Michelin, 26 November 2010.
  25. ^ (in Spanish) "Michelin Guide for Spain and Portugal 2014" (PDF). abc.es. Retrieved 2015. 
  26. ^ "Michelin Group: news from the tire and mobility leader - Michelin". michelin.com. 
  27. ^ "Michelin news: all recent news from the Group" (PDF). Michelin Australia. Retrieved 2016. 
  28. ^ "Michelin Stars Rain Down on Switzerland", Michelin, 16 November 2010.
  29. ^ "Michelin Group: news from the tire and mobility leader - Michelin". michelin.com. 
  30. ^ "Michelin awards Chicago restaurants record number of stars". chicagotribune.com. 
  31. ^ Vettel, Phil. "Bib Gourmand Awards recognize 52 Chicago restaurants". Chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  32. ^ "Michelin Guide Chicago 2015 - Michelin Travel & Lifestyle". michelintravel.com. 
  33. ^ "Redirecting..." (PDF). google.com. 
  34. ^ (in Japanese) "???????????????2011????", Michelin Japan, 12 March 2010.
  35. ^ "Michelin news: all recent news from the Group - Michelin" (PDF). michelin.com.au. Retrieved 2016. 
  36. ^ (in Japanese) "?????????????????2011?12 ??????????? 44????????2???? ???? 183????????2????????", Michelin Japan, 19 October 2010.
  37. ^ Jinae West "Michelin: Bad economy means no 2010 guide in Las Vegas, Las Vegas Sun, 26 June 2009.
  38. ^ "Restaurants go for Gold as 2012 Michelin Stars are announced". londonandpartners.com. 
  39. ^ Phil Vettel "And the crystal ball says ...", Michelin North America, 16 November 2010.
  40. ^ "Michelin Guide Main Cities of Europe 2010 to go on sale on March 17", Michelin, 16 March 2010. covering Austria (Vienna, Salzburg) - Belgium (Brussels, Antwerp) - Czech Republic (Prague) - Denmark (Copenhagen) - Finland (Helsinki) - France (Paris, Lyons, Strasbourg, Toulouse) - Germany (Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart) - Greece (Athens) - Hungary (Budapest) - Ireland (Dublin) - Italy (Rome, Milan, Turin, Florence) - Luxembourg (Luxembourg) - Netherlands (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague) - Norway (Oslo) - Poland (Warsaw, Cracow) - Portugal (Lisbon) - Spain (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia) - Sweden (Stockholm, Gothenburg) - Switzerland (Bern, Geneva, Zurich) - United Kingdom (London, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Glasgow)
  41. ^ a b "Michelin Releases 2017 Edition of Its Famed Guide to New York's Best Restaurants". 
  42. ^ a b c "Michelin Awards Coveted Three Stars to Quince in 2017 Edition of Famed San Francisco Restaurant Guide". 
  43. ^ Michelin Guide Seoul
  44. ^ Bib Gourmand Seoul 2017
  45. ^ a b "T'ang Court is Shanghai's first 3-star Michelin restaurant", Shanghai Daily, September 21, 2016.
  46. ^ "Singapore restaurant stalwarts, Australian and Italian cuisine celebrated in the 2017 MICHELIN guide Singapore", Michelin Guide Singapore, 29 June 2017.
  47. ^ "The Results: Bib Gourmand Awards For The 2017 MICHELIN guide Singapore", Michelin Guide Singapore, 22 June 2017.
  48. ^ "Les publications Michelin pour les investisseurs institutionnels" (PDF). michelin.com. 
  49. ^ (in Japanese) "?????????????????2011???? ????14??????54??????198??", Michelin Japan, 24 November 2010.
  50. ^ "12 DC Restaurants Earn Michelin Stars", Washingtonian, 13 October 2016
  51. ^ "Michelin Releases Its Bib Gourmand List for DC", Washingtonian, 16 October 2016.
  52. ^ "Four Clare pubs listed in 2014 Michelin Guide". Clare Champion. 19 May 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 2016. 
  53. ^ Adam H. Callaghan (5 November 2015). "Michelin Recognizes Street Food for the First Time in Its Hong Kong Guide". Eater. Retrieved 2016. 
  54. ^ "Michelin includes street food for first time in Hong Kong guide". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016. 
  55. ^ Kim, Soo (July 25, 2016). "Singapore street food stalls get Michelin stars". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2016. 
  56. ^ a b c How to Use This Guide, Michelin, accessed 20 May 2013
  57. ^ a b c Sage, Adam. "J'Accuse: Michelin cooks the books", The Times, 31 May 2004
  58. ^ Henley, John. "Michelin bean-spiller loses court battle", The Guardian, 15 December 2004
  59. ^ "Michelin Man Jolts French Food World", The New York Times, 25 February 2004
  60. ^ "Pass Notes", The Guardian, 23 January 1997, p. A3
  61. ^ Kurutz, Steven. "She's a Belle of the City, but the French are Blasé", The New York Times, 13 November 2005
  62. ^ a b Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst (2008-02-01). "Michelin in America". Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies. 8 (1): 49-55. ISSN 1529-3262. doi:10.1525/gfc.2008.8.1.49. 
  63. ^ Robinson, Gwen. "Michelin serves up stars and stirs envy in Japan", The Financial Times, 14 October 2009; and Robinson, Gwen. "Michelin sprinkles stars on Tokyo", The Financial Times, 19 November 2007
  64. ^ Sanchanta, Mariko, Katy Mclaughlin and Max Colchester. "Michelin Stars Draw Shots", The Wall Street Journal, 25 October 2010
  65. ^ Gergaud, Olivier; Storchmann, Karl; Verardi, Vincenzo (22 May 2012). "Expert Opinion and Quality Perception of Consumers: Evidence from New York City Restaurants". SSRN 2064554 Freely accessible. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2064554. 
  66. ^ a b Ian Mount (11 December 2014). "The curse of the Michelin-star restaurant rating". Fortune. Retrieved 2016. 
  67. ^ "The chef who gave up his Michelin star". El País. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 2016. 
  68. ^ "Skye Gyngell: curse of the Michelin star has driven me out of the kitchen". The Daily Telegraph. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 2016. 
  69. ^ "????? ???????? ???????? - ???? - ???? - 20120222". Apple Daily ????. Retrieved 2016. 
  70. ^ Hillary Dixler (13 March 2014). "Chef in Belgium Gives Back His Michelin Star". Eater. Retrieved 2016. 
  71. ^ "Workmen's cafe overwhelmed with customers after it is accidentally awarded a Michelin star". The Daily Telegraph. 18 February 2017. Retrieved 2017. 
  72. ^ "Quand un bistrot de quartier reçoit par erreur une étoile au Michelin". Konbini. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 2017. 

Further reading

Published in the 20th century

Published in the 21st century

  • Trois étoiles au Michelin: Une histoire de la haute gastronomie française et européenne, by Jean-François Mesplède and Alain Ducasse, 2004. ISBN 2-7000-2468-0. Follows the 60-odd chefs who have been awarded three stars.
  • The Perfectionist: Life and Death in Haute Cuisine, by Rudolph Chelminski, 2006. ISBN 978-0-14-102193-5. The story of Bernard Loiseau.
  • From behind the wall: Danish Newspaper Berlingske Employee 'Awards'

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


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