Non-English-based programming languages are computer programming languages that, unlike better-known programming languages, do not use keywords taken from, or inspired by, the English vocabulary.
Prevalence of English-based programming languages
There has been an overwhelming trend in programming languages to use the English language to inspire the choice of keywords and code libraries. According to the HOPL online database of languages, out of the 8,500+ programming languages recorded, roughly 2,400 of them were developed in the United States, 600 in the United Kingdom, 160 in Canada, and 75 in Australia.
In other words, over a third of all programming languages were developed in a country with English as the primary language. This does not take into account the usage share of each language, situations where a language was developed in a non-English-speaking country but used English to appeal to an international audience (see the case of Python from the Netherlands, Ruby from Japan, and Lua from Brazil), and situations where it was based on another language which used English (see the case of Caml, developed in France but using English keywords).
International programming languages
ALGOL 68's standard document was published in numerous natural languages, and the standard allowed the internationalisation of the programming language itself.
On December 20, 1968, the "Final Report" (MR 101) was adopted by the Working Group, then subsequently approved by the General Assembly of UNESCO's IFIP for publication. Translations of the standard were made for Russian, German, French, Bulgarian, and then later Japanese. The standard was made available also in Braille. ALGOL 68 went on to become the GOST/?-27974-88 standard in the Soviet Union.
GOST 27974-88 Programming language ALGOL 68 - ? ? 68
Lusus - A Latin programming language. It is the first programming language to be exclusively in Latin. 
LSE (Language Symbolique d'Enseignement) - a French, pedagogical, programming language designed in the 1970s at the École Supérieure d'Électricité. A kind of BASIC, but with procedures, functions, and local variables, like in Pascal.
Mama - An educational programming language and development environment, designed to help young students start programming by building 3D animations and games. It is currently available in English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Chinese.
Mind - A Japanese programming language. It is used for hobby and business applications.
Ring - Open-source programming language, user defined syntax/operator (ChangeRingkeyword / ChangeRingOperator command; can use UTF-8 string, keywords, operators), and supports natural language programming paradigms.
Component Pascal - A preprocessor that translates native-language keywords into English in an educational version of the BlackBox Component Builder available as open source. The translation is controlled via a modifiable vocabulary and supported by modifiable compiler error messages. A complete Russian version is used in education, and it should be possible to accommodate other left-to-right languages (e.g., the Kabardian language has been tried as a proof of concept).
IronPerunis - An IronPython 2.7 localisation to Lithuanian and Russian.
AppleScript - A language which once allowed for different "dialects" including French and Japanese; however, these were removed in later versions.
Maude - Completely user-definable syntax and semantics, within the bounds of the ASCII character set.
Perl - While Perl's keywords and function names are generally in English, it allows modification of its parser to modify the input language, such as in Damian Conway's Lingua::Romana::Perligata module, which allows programs to be written in Latin or his Lingua::tlhInganHol::yIghun Perl language in Klingon. They do not just change the keywords but also the grammar to match the language.
Perunis - Python 2.6 localization to Lithuanian and Russian.
Ioke - Ioke is a folding language. It allows writing highly expressive code that writes code. Examples of same program in Chinese, Danish, Hindi and Spanish
Emojicode - Emojicode is an open-source, full-blown programming language consisting of emoji.
^In HOPL (History of Programming Languages), advanced search finds languages by country.
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