Developer(s) OpenNebula Community
Initial release March 1, 2008; 9 years ago (2008-03-01)
Stable release
5.4.0[1] / 20 July 2017; 4 months ago (2017-07-20)
Written in C++, C, Ruby, Java, Shell script, lex, yacc
Operating system Linux
Platform Hypervisors (Xen, KVM, VMware, vCenter)
Available in English, Russian, Spanish
Type Cloud computing
License Apache License version 2

OpenNebula is a cloud computing platform for managing heterogeneous distributed data center infrastructures. The OpenNebula platform manages a data center's virtual infrastructure to build private, public and hybrid implementations of infrastructure as a service. OpenNebula is free and open-source software, subject to the requirements of the Apache License version 2.


The OpenNebula Project was started as a research venture in 2005 by Ignacio M. Llorente and Ruben S. Montero. The first public release of the software occurred in 2008. The goals of the research were to create efficient solutions for managing virtual machines on distributed infrastructures. It was also important that these solutions had the ability to scale at high levels. Open-source development and an active community of developers have since helped mature the project. As the project matured it began to become more and more adopted and in March 2010 the primary writers of the project founded C12G Labs, now known as OpenNebula Systems, which provides value-added professional services to enterprises adopting or utilizing OpenNebula. OpenNebula Systems now sponsors the OpenNebula project.


OpenNebula orchestrates storage, network, virtualization, monitoring, and security[2] technologies to deploy multi-tier services (e.g. compute clusters[3][4]) as virtual machines on distributed infrastructures, combining both data center resources and remote cloud resources, according to allocation policies. According to the European Commission's 2010 report "... only few cloud dedicated research projects in the widest sense have been initiated - most prominent amongst them probably OpenNebula ...".[5]

The toolkit includes features for integration, management, scalability, security and accounting. It also claims standardization, interoperability and portability, providing cloud users and administrators with a choice of several cloud interfaces (Amazon EC2 Query, OGF Open Cloud Computing Interface and vCloud) and hypervisors (Xen, KVM and VMware), and can accommodate multiple hardware and software combinations in a data center.[6]

OpenNebula was a mentoring organization in Google Summer of Code 2010.[7]

OpenNebula is sponsored by OpenNebula Systems (formerly C12G).

OpenNebula is used by hosting providers, telecom operators, IT services providers, supercomputing centers, research labs, and international research projects. Some other cloud solutions use OpenNebula as the cloud engine or kernel service.[8]

Internal architecture

Basic components

OpenNebula Internal Architecture

Host: Physical machine running a supported hypervisor.
Cluster: Pool of hosts that share data stores and virtual networks.
Template: Virtual Machine definition.
Image: Virtual Machine disk image.
Virtual Machine: Instantiated Template. A Virtual Machine represents one life-cycle, and several Virtual Machines can be created from a single Template.
Virtual Network: A group of IP leases that VMs can use to automatically obtain IP addresses. It allows the creation of Virtual Networks by mapping over the physical ones. They will be available to the VMs through the corresponding bridges on hosts. Virtual network can be defined in three different parts:

  1. Underlying of physical network infrastructure.
  2. The logical address space available (IPv4, IPv6, dual stack).
  3. Context attributes (e.g. net mask, DNS, gateway). OpenNebula also comes with a Virtual Router appliance to provide networking services like DHCP, DNS etc.

See also


  1. ^ Releases
  2. ^ "OpenNebula Key Features and Functionality". OpenNebula documentation. Retrieved 2011. 
  3. ^ R. Moreno-Vozmediano, R. S. Montero, and I. M. Llorente. "Multi-Cloud Deployment of Computing Clusters for Loosely-Coupled MTC Applications", Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. Special Issue on Many Task Computing (in press, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2010.186)
  4. ^ R. S. Montero, R. Moreno-Vozmediano, and I. M. Llorente. "An Elasticity Model for High Throughput Computing Clusters", J. Parallel and Distributed Computing (in press, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpdc.2010.05.005)
  5. ^ "The Future of Cloud Computing" (PDF). European Commission Expert Group Report. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 2013. 
  6. ^ B. Sotomayor, R. S. Montero, I. M. Llorente, I. Foster. "Virtual Infrastructure Management in Private and Hybrid Clouds", IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 14-22, September/October 2009. DOI: 10.1109/MIC.2009.119)
  7. ^ "OpenNebula @ GSoC 2010". Google Summer of Code 2010. Retrieved 2010. 
  8. ^ "Featured Users". OpenNebula website. Retrieved 2011. 

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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