Artificial Intelligence

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence:

Artificial intelligence (AI) - intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the academic field which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behaviour.

What type of thing is artificial intelligence?

Types of artificial intelligence

  • Weak AI (narrow AI) - non-sentient machine intelligence, typically focused on a narrow task (narrow AI).
  • Strong AI / artificial general intelligence (AGI) - (hypothetical) machine with the ability to apply intelligence to any problem, rather than just one specific problem, typically meaning "at least as smart as a typical human". It's future potential creation is referred to as a technological singularity, and constitutes a global catastrophic risk (see Superintelligence, below).
  • Superintelligence - (hypothetical) artificial intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds. Due to recursive self-improvement, superintelligence is expected to be a rapid outcome of creating artificial general intelligence.

Branches of artificial intelligence

By approach

By application

Applications of artificial intelligence -

Further AI design elements

AI projects

List of artificial intelligence projects

AI applications

Integrated AI systems

  • AIBO – Sony's robot dog. It integrates vision, hearing and motorskills.
  • Asimo (2000 to present) - humanoid robot developed by Honda, capable of walking, running, negotiating through pedestrian traffic, climbing and descending stairs, recognizing speech commands and the faces of specific individuals, among a growing set of capabilities.
  • MIRAGE – A.I. embodied humanoid in an augmented reality environment.
  • Cog – M.I.T. humanoid robot project under the direction of Rodney Brooks.
  • QRIO – Sony's version of a humanoid robot.
  • TOPIO, TOSY's humanoid robot that can play ping-pong with humans.
  • Watson (2011) - computer developed by IBM that played and won the game show Jeopardy! It is now being used to guide nurses in medical procedures.
  • Project Debater (2018) – artificially intelligent computer system, designed to make coherent arguments, developed at IBM's lab in Haifa, Israel.

Intelligent personal assistants

Intelligent personal assistant

AI development

AI algorithms

Open-source AI development tools

Psychology and AI

History of artificial intelligence

History of artificial intelligence

by period or events

by region

by subject

  • AI effect - as soon as AI successfully solves a problem, the problem is no longer considered by the public to be a part of AI. This phenomenon has occurred in relation to every AI application produced, so far, throughout the history of development of AI.
  • AI winter -
  • History of machine learning   (timeline)
  • History of machine translation   (timeline)
  • Moore's Law - observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years. One way this relates to AI is that hypothetically a computer would need at least as much capacity as a human brain to be able to be programmed to be as smart as a human. So as long as the aforementioned rate of development met or beat the 2-year doubling time, one could roughly forecast when a computer would have as much memory and calculation capacity as a human brain, a milestone which was reached in 2010. Though it may take as much as 3 magnitudes (1000 times) more computer capacity (since computers calculate things in a much more linear fashion) to emulate the massively parallel structure of the human brain. At a doubling time of 2 years, an increase in capacity by 1000-fold would take a little less than 18 years (9 doublings), if reaching the limit of integrated circuit technology did not pose an obstacle before then.
  • History of natural language processing
  • History of optical character recognition   (timeline)

AI hazards and safety

AI and the future

  • Artificial general intelligence (Strong AI) - hypothetical artificial intelligence that matches or exceeds human intelligence -- an intelligent machine that could perform intellectual tasks at least as well as a human
    • Aspects or features
      • Self-replicating machines - smart computers and robots would be able to make more of themselves, in a geometric progression or via mass production. Or smart programs may be uploaded into hardware existing at the time (because linear architecture of sufficient speeds could be used to emulate massively parallel analog systems such as human brains).
      • Recursive self improvement (aka seed AI) - speculative ability of strong artificial intelligence to reprogram itself to make itself even more intelligent. The more intelligent it got, the more capable it would be of further improving itself, in successively more rapid iterations, potentially resulting in an intelligence explosion leading to the emergence of a superintelligence.
      • Hive mind -
      • Robot swarm -
    • Technological singularity - the development of strong AI may cause an intelligence explosion in which greater-than-human intelligence emerges, radically changing civilization, and perhaps even human nature. The TS has been identified by Berglas (2012) and others to be an existential risk.
    • Intelligence explosion - through recursive self-improvement and self-replication, the magnitude of intelligent machinery could achieve superintelligence, surpassing human ability to resist it.
    • Superintelligence - AI may grow to such an advanced state to become as proportionately superior to humans as humans are to ants. Theoretically, there would be little humans could do to prevent such an intelligence from reaching its goals.

Philosophy of artificial intelligence

Philosophy of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence debate

Supporters of AI

Marek Rosa Owner of goodAI

Critics of AI

Artificial intelligence in fiction

Artificial intelligence in fiction - Some examples of artificially intelligent entities depicted in science fiction include:

AI community

Competitions and awards

Competitions and prizes in artificial intelligence


List of important publications in computer science



Artificial intelligence researchers and scholars

1930s and 40s (generation 0)

1950s (the founders)

1960s (their students)




  • Hugo de Garis - known for his research on the use of genetic algorithms to evolve neural networks using three-dimensional cellular automata inside field programmable gate arrays.
  • Ray Kurzweil - developed optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, and speech recognition systems. He has also authored multiple books on artificial intelligence and its potential promise and peril. In December 2012 Kurzweil was hired by Google in a full-time director of engineering position to "work on new projects involving machine learning and language processing".[2] Google co-founder Larry Page and Kurzweil agreed on a one-sentence job description: "to bring natural language understanding to Google".

2000s on

  • Nick Bostrom
  • David Ferrucci - principal investigator who led the team that developed the Watson computer at IBM.
  • Andrew Ng - Director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab. He founded the Google Brain project at Google, which developed very large scale artificial neural networks using Google's distributed compute infrastructure.[3] He is also co-founder of Coursera, a massive open online course (MOOC) education platform, with Daphne Koller.
  • Peter Norvig - co-author, with Stuart Russell, of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now the leading college text in the field. He is also Director of Research at Google, Inc.
  • Marc Raibert – founder of Boston Dynamics, developer of hopping, walking, and running robots.
  • Stuart J. Russell - co-author, with Peter Norvig, of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, now the leading college text in the field.
  • Murray Shanahan – author of The Technological Singularity, a primer on superhuman intelligence.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e "The 6 craziest robots Google has acquired". Business Insider. Retrieved . 
  2. ^ Letzing, John (2012-12-14). "Google Hires Famed Futurist Ray Kurzweil". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved . 
  3. ^ Claire Miller and Nick Bilton (3 November 2011). "Google's Lab of Wildest Dreams". New York Times. 


Further reading

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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