Portal:Statistics

## Welcome to the statistics portal
Statistical methods are used to summarize and describe a collection of data; this is called Statistics arose no later than the 18th century from the need of states to collect data on their people and economies, in order to administer them. The meaning broadened in the early 19th century to include the collection and analysis of data in general. ## Selected articleThe A well-known statement of the problem was published in Because there is no way for the player to know which of the two remaining unopened doors is the winning door, most people assume that each of these doors has an equal probability and conclude that switching does not matter. In fact, the player should switch - doing so doubles the probability of winning the car from 1/3 to 2/3. When the problem and the solution appeared in ## Selected biography
t-test and Student's t-distribution. He joined the Dublin brewery of Arthur Guinness & Son in 1899, where he applied his statistical knowledge both in the brewery and on the farm to the selection of the best yielding varieties of barley. Gosset's key 1908 papers addressed the brewer's concern with small samples. To prevent further disclosure of confidential information, Guinness prohibited its employees from publishing any papers regardless of the contained information, so Gosset used the pseudonym Student for his publications to avoid their detection by his employer.## Featured and good articlesThese are featured or good articles on statistics topics. - Featured articles
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A ## Did you know?- ...that one result of the birthday problem is that among a group of 23 (or more) randomly chosen people, there is more than 50% probability that some pair of them will both have been born on the same day of the year?
- ...that the term
*bias*is not necessarily pejorative in statistics, since biased estimators may have desirable properties (such as a smaller mean squared error than any unbiased estimator), and that in extreme cases the only unbiased estimators are not even within the convex hull of the parameter space? - ...that William Sealy Gosset published under the pseudonym
*Student*in order to avoid detection by his employer, and so his most famous achievement is now referred to as Student's t-distribution, which might otherwise have been Gosset's t-distribution? - ...that in 1747, by dividing 12 men suffering from scurvy into six pairs and giving each group different additions to their basic diet for a period of two weeks, the surgeon James Lind conducted one of the first controlled experiments?
- ...that the Cauchy distribution is an example of a distribution which has no mean, variance or higher moments defined?
- ...that according to Benford's law, the first digit from many real-life sources of data is 1 almost one third of the time?
- ...that the Law of Truly Large Numbers of Diaconis and Mosteller states that with a sample size large enough, any outrageous thing is likely to happen?
- ...that for the number of shuffles needed to randomize a deck, Persi Diaconis concluded that for good shuffling technique, the deck did not start to become random until five good riffle shuffles, and was truly random after seven, in the precise sense of variation distance described in Markov chain mixing time?
- ...that for many standard probability distributions, there are infinitely many outcomes in the sample space, so that attempting to define probabilities for all possible subsets of such spaces would cause difficulties for 'badly-behaved' sets such as those which are nonmeasurable?
## Topics in Statistics
## Statistics categoriesClick an arrow symbol to expand any of the sub-categories: ## Wikimedia |

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