||Red Bull GmbH
|Country of origin
||Caffeine, taurine, sucrose and glucose, B-group vitamins, and alpine spring water
- Total Zero
- Red Edition
- Blue Edition
- Yellow/Tropical Edition
- Orange/Mandarine Edition
- Lime Edition
- Silver Edition
- Spring Edition
- Green Edition
- Winter Edition
- Summer Edition
- The "BULL" Edition
- Red Bull G-Drive Edition
- F1 Edition
- Orange Edition Zero
- Cherry Edition Zero
- Lime Edition Zero
- Purple Edition Zero (Acai berry)
||Krating Daeng, Red Bull Cola, Red Bull Energy Shot, Red Bull Sugar-Free, Red Bull Total Zero, Red Bull Racing, Red Bull Racing Team
Red Bull is an energy drink sold by Austrian company Red Bull GmbH, created in 1987. Red Bull has the highest market share of any energy drink in the world, with 5.387 billion cans sold in 2013.
Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz was inspired by an existing energy drink named Krating Daeng, which was first introduced and sold in Thailand by Chaleo Yoovidhya. He took this idea, modified the ingredients to suit the tastes of Westerners, and, in partnership with Chaleo, founded Red Bull GmbH in 1987 in Chakkapong, Thailand. In Thai, daeng means red, and krating is the word used for a large bovine animal called a gaur in formal English. In colloquial English, a gaur is more commonly called a bull.
Red Bull is sold in a tall and slim blue-silver can, while Krating Daeng is in a shorter gold can. The two are different products, produced separately. The Red Bull company slogan was "Red Bull gives you wings", prior to a class action lawsuit related to the benefits of the drink in 2014. Rather than following a traditional approach to mass marketing, Red Bull has generated awareness and created a seductive 'brand myth' through proprietary extreme sport event series such as Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series, Red Bull Air Race, Red Bull Crashed Ice and stand-out stunts such as as the Stratos space diving project. Red Bull's marketing arsenal also includes multiple sports team ownerships (Flying Bulls [actually owned by Dietrich Mateschitz], RB Leipzig, FC Red Bull Salzburg, Red Bull Brasil, New York Red Bulls, Red Bull Racing, Scuderia Toro Rosso), celebrity endorsements, and music, through its record label Red Bull Records.
Energy drinks have been associated with health risks, such as masking the effects of intoxication when consumed with alcohol, and excessive or repeated consumption can lead to cardiac and psychiatric conditions. However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that an adequate consumption of Red Bull and other popular energy drinks is safe and that the amount of caffeine in standard Red Bull cans is unlikely to interact adversely with other typical constituents of energy drinks or with alcohol. Energy drinks have the effects that caffeine and sugar provide, but there is no distinct evidence that the wide variety of other ingredients has any effect.
In front of the Potala Palace
: a model of Red Bull in Chinese version is displayed.
In 1976, Chaleo Yoovidhya introduced a drink called Krating Daeng in Thailand, which means "red gaur" in English. It was popular among Thai truck drivers and labourers. While working for German manufacturer Blendax (later acquired by Procter & Gamble) in 1982, Dietrich Mateschitz traveled to Thailand and met Chaleo, owner of T.C. Pharmaceutical. During his visit, Mateschitz discovered that Krating Daeng helped cure his jet lag. In 1984, Mateschitz co-founded Red Bull GmbH with Yoovidhya and turned it into an international brand. Each partner invested US$500,000 of savings to found the company. Yoovidhya and Mateschitz each held a 49 percent share of the new company. They gave the remaining two percent to Yoovidhya's son, Chalerm, but it was agreed that Mateschitz would run the company. The product was launched in Austria in 1987.
In Thailand, energy drinks are most popular with blue-collar workers. Red Bull repositioned the drink as a trendy, upscale drink, first introducing it at Austrian ski resorts. Pricing was a key differentiator, with Red Bull positioned as a premium drink and Krating Daeng as a lower cost item. In many countries both drinks are available, dominating each end of the price spectrum.
In 1992, the product expanded to international markets: Hungary and Slovenia. It entered the United States via California in 1997 and the Middle East in 2000. In 2008, Forbes magazine listed both Chaleo and Mateschitz as the 250th richest people in the world with an estimated net worth of US$4 billion.
Red Bull GmbH is headquartered in Fuschl am See, an Austrian village of about 1,500 inhabitants near Salzburg. The company is 51 percent controlled by the Yoovidhya family who, for technical reasons, own the trademark in Europe and the US.
In 1995, Krating Daeng authorized its drink marked as Red Bulls sold in China. The Austrian Red Bull (carbonated) has been exported to China since 2014. It has created confusion since both drink use the same brand name, in English and in Chinese.
In Southeast Asia, Red Bull and Krating Daeng are often confused for one another as Krating Daeng uses the Red Bull name in their packaging. They are two separate entities marketing for different markets. The main differences are that Red Bull is in a blue silver tall can packaging while the Thailand Red Bull or Krating Daeng is in a smaller gold packaging. They differ in terms of tastes as well. Red Bull has less sugar and is carbonated. The flavouring used for Red Bull is still produced in Bangkok and exported worldwide.
Red Bull contains caffeine, taurine, B vitamins (B3, B5, B6, B12), sucrose, and glucose. To produce Red Bull Sugarfree, sugars sucrose and glucose have been replaced by the sweeteners acesulfame K and aspartame/sucralose.
Claims about the drink's effects and performance have been challenged on various occasions, with the UK's Advertising Standards Authority imposing advertising restrictions in 2001 in response to complaints recorded as early as 1997.
The latest dietary guidelines from the U.S. suggest that moderate caffeine intake may not only be safe, but also healthy. Studies from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services show that daily consumption of the amount of caffeine contained in three to five cups of coffee is not only safe, but also appears to reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adults. Caffeine may even protect against Parkinson's disease, the evidence suggests.
Energy drinks have the effects that caffeine and sugar provide, but experts still argue about the possible effects of the other ingredients. Most of the effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance, such as increased attention and reaction speed, are primarily due to the presence of caffeine. Still there is evidence that energy drinks can increase mental  and athletic  performance. Performance of prolonged driving, for example is increased significantly after consumption of Red Bull. Other tests for physical performance showed results such as increased endurance and power. Red Bull energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance during repeated Wingate tests in young healthy adults. Excessive or repeated consumption of energy drinks can lead to cardiac and psychiatric conditions.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that exposure to taurine and glucuronolactone at the levels presently used in energy drinks is no safety concern. In a separate analysis, they also concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support a number of commercial health claims about taurine. A review published in 2008 found no documented reports of negative or positive health effects associated with the amount of taurine used in energy drinks, including Red Bull. The review also states that though the caffeine and sugar levels in the energy drink are comparable to those present in coffee and fruit juice respectively, these levels have been shown to cause adverse health effects.
In its scientific opinion on the safety of caffeine of 2015 the EFSA concludes, that "Consumption of other constituents of energy drinks at concentrations commonly present in such beverages would not affect the safety of single doses of caffeine up to 200 mg." Also the consumption of alcohol, leading to a blood alcohol content of about 0.08%, would, according to the EFSA, not affect the safety of single doses of caffeine up to 200 mg. Up to these levels of intake, caffeine is unlikely to mask the subjective perception of alcohol intoxication. Habitual use of caffeine up to 400 mg per day does not.
According to SAMHSA, the number of people hospitalized due to energy drinks doubled between 2007 and 2014 in the US.
The caffeine content of a single can of Red Bull is 80 mg/250 ml (32 mg/100 ml). This is about the same as one cup of coffee, or slightly less depending on the brewing method. The actual caffeine level in Red Bull can vary depending on country, as some countries have legal restrictions on how much caffeine is allowed in drinks. As is the case with other caffeinated beverages, Red Bull drinkers may experience adverse effects as a result of overuse. Excessive consumption may induce mild to moderate euphoria primarily caused by stimulant properties of caffeine and may also induce agitation, anxiety, irritability and insomnia.
The general population of healthy adults is not at risk for potential adverse effects from caffeine if they limit their consumption to 400 mg per day, which is the equivalent of 5 standard cans, with one can being 250ml in volume. Consumption of a single energy drink will not lead to excessive caffeine intake. Adverse effects associated with caffeine consumption in amounts greater than 400 mg include nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, increased urination, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), and dyspepsia. Consumption also has been known to cause pupil dilation when taken with certain antidepressants or SSRIs. Caffeine dosage is not required to be on the product label for food in the United States, unlike drugs, but some advocates are urging the FDA to change this practice.
Market approval and legal status
Authorities in France, Denmark, and Norway initially kept Red Bull from being sold domestically. However, as of 2014 , it is on sale in all 28 member states of the European Union and in more than 167 countries around the world.
The French food safety agency was concerned about taurine. A Red Bull drink that did not contain taurine was introduced. The French refusal of market approval was challenged by the European Commission, and partially upheld by the European Court of Justice in 2004. The French food safety agency relented in 2008, because it was unable to prove a definite health risk, taurine-related or not.
In 2012, the Kuwaiti Ministry of Commerce banned Red Bull for people under 16 after it had allegedly caused heart attacks for a 16-year-old and a 21-year-old national squash team player.
In 2013, Red Bull told the Redwell Brewery, a Norfolk micro brewery to change its name or face legal action, because it sounded too similar to Red Bull. The eight-man brewery in Norwich was told its name could "confuse" customers and "tarnish" its trademark. The two companies reached a settlement permitting Redwell to continue using its name.
In 2014, Red Bull faced a US$13 million settlement addressing two consumer class action lawsuits in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. The listed plaintiffs were Benjamin Careathers, David Wolf, and Miguel Almarez who sued the company for Red Bull's marketing and labeling, claiming that the company violated "express warranty and unjust enrichment" since their products were first launched. The court hearing took place the morning of 1 May 2015 in an attempt to determine approval for the settlement. Customers that submitted claims then have the opportunity to receive a US$10 cash reimbursement or product option of US$15 in Red Bull products within 150 days of the approved appeals.
A 2010 Formula 1 car of the Red Bull Racing F1 Team
Red Bull's slogan was "it gives you wings" until they were hit with a $13 million class-action lawsuit in late 2014. Red Bull's international marketing campaign targets young men mostly with extreme sports. These range from mountain biking, BMX, motocross, windsurfing, snowboarding, skateboarding, kayaking, rowing, wakeboarding, cliff-diving,parkour, surfing, skating, freestyle motocross, rallycross, Formula 1 racing,NASCAR racing, to breakdancing. Red Bull uses music and videogames, and has enlisted celebrities, such as Eminem (sponsoring the Red Bull "EmSee Battle Rap championships"). It hosts events like art shows and the "Red Bull Flugtag" (German for "flight day" or "flying day"). Red Bull owns association football teams, with clubs in Austria,Germany, the United States and Brazil featuring the Red Bull trademark in their names. By associating the drink's image with these activities, the company seeks to promote a "cool" public image and raise brand power. The energy drink has created a market for over 150 related types of products.
In the PlayStation 3's social gaming platform, PlayStation Home, Red Bull developed its own in-game island, specifically advertising its energy drink and the Red Bull Air Race event (for which the space is named) released in January 2009. In late November 2009, Red Bull produced two new spaces, the Red Bull Illume space, and the Red Bull Beach space featuring the Red Bull Flugtag, both released on the same day. In January 2012, Red Bull released its first personal space called the "Red Bull House of Skate" featuring an indoor skate park.
On the Apple App store Red Bull also has a few apps which include: RedBull.com, Red Bull TV, The Red Bulletin, RBMA Radio, Red Bull iFunk, Wings For Life- Selfie Run. As well as some games on the app store which are: Bike Unchained, Red Bull Kart Fighter 3, Red Bull Air Race The Game, Red Bull Racers.
In 2010, the company enlisted Adrian Newey to design a prototype racing car, the Red Bull X2010, for the videogame Gran Turismo 5.
Red Bull House of Art
The Red Bull House of Art is an art fellowship program that was launched by Red Bull. The program is held in multiple cities, most notably the Red Bull House of Art programs in Detroit, Michigan and São Paulo, Brazil, and the program typically consists of a three-month period during which time six to eight participants will create new artwork with the intent to display it in a final exhibition. During the fellowship the artists receive unlimited access to the galleries and a stipend for art supplies.
The program has received criticism as being an "elaborate advertising scheme", as some of the artwork has been used in Red Bull advertising campaigns.
Sports sponsorships and acquisitions
- RB Leipzig: a football club currently playing in the German 1. Bundesliga
- New York Red Bulls (officially Red Bull New York): a soccer franchise competing in Major League Soccer of the United States
- Red Bull Racing--a Formula One team based in Milton Keynes, England, World Constructor's Championship winner of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, and produced the car for the 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 F1 World Champion Sebastian Vettel.
- Red Bull Sailing Team: an Extreme Sailing Series racing team.
- Scuderia Toro Rosso (Italian translation of Team Red Bull): Another Formula One team based in Faenza, Italy.
- Team Red Bull: a Toyota racing team competing in the U.S.-based stock car racing competition NASCAR Red Bull Racing Team competed in NASCAR beginning in 2007. The team ceased operations after the Sprint Cup Series' 2011 season.
- FC Red Bull Salzburg: an Austrian football club based in Salzburg and competing in the Austrian Bundesliga
- EC Red Bull Salzburg: a member of the Austrian Hockey League based in Salzburg, Austria
- EHC Red Bull München: a member of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga based in Munich, Germany
- Red Bull Brasil: a football club currently playing in the Brazilian Campeonato Paulista based in Campinas, Brazil
- Triple Eight Race Engineering - since 2013, Red Bull has sponsored the V8 Supercars team.
- Red Bull Racing Brasil, a Stock Car Brasil team, since 2007.
- Red Bull Ghana: was a Ghanaian professional football club located in Sogakope that played in the Poly Tank Division One League.
- ?koda Motorsport rally team
- Red Bulls, a League of Legends team currently playing in the Open Qualifiers of the European League of Legends Challenger Series
Audi A4 DTM, which won the Manufacturers' championship in 2004
The Citroën rally car, which won the manufacturers' title in 2008, 2009 and 2010.
A Red Bull sponsored track racing bike
A Sauber C15 from 1995 in display at Red Bull Hangar-7
A VW Touareg during the Dakar Rally, which won the event in 2009, 2010 and 2011
A KTM, which won the motocross world championship in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013
In 2009, Red Bull added mainstream sport athletes to its roster of endorsements, which also includes persons involved in non-sporting activities.
- Reggie Bush, US NFL athlete announced at the 2009 Super Bowl.
- Dani Pedrosa, Marc Márquez, and John Reynolds.
- Red Bull Junior Team, a program which sponsors young drivers competing in single seater racing. Since 2001 many young drivers developed careers in professional motorsport, with 13 participants having competed in Formula One, including quadruple F1 world champion Sebastian Vettel.
- Skijumpers Gregor Schlierenzauer, Thomas Morgenstern, Adam Ma?ysz, and Andreas Goldberger, snowboarders Mark McMorris, Torah Bright and Nathan Johnstone, and skiers Kaya Turski, Lindsey Vonn, Axel Lund Svindal and Alexis Pinturault.
- Dion Phaneuf NHL defenseman, currently with the Ottawa Senators.
- Young professional golfer Rickie Fowler.
- Racing driver Andrew Jordan.
- Drift racing driver "Mad" Mike Whiddett.
- Professional chess player Hikaru Nakamura.
- Super Smash Bros. Melee player William "Leffen" Hjelte
- Street Fighter players Daigo Umehara, Masato "Bonchan" Takahashi,Darryl "Snake Eyez" Lewis and Olivier "Luffy" Hay.
Red Bull Flugtag Stockholm 2010
Red Bull Flugtag Stockholm 2010
- ^ Boome, Adam (31 May 2011). "Who makes Red Bull".
- ^ Burt Helm (4 January 2005). "Energy Drinks Build Their Buzz". BloombergBusinessweek. BLOOMBERG L.P. Retrieved .
- ^ Red Bull (2012). "Company Figures". Red Bull. Red Bull. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull the company - Who makes Red Bull? Red Bull Origin :: Energy Drink :: Red Bull". Energydrink.redbull.com. Retrieved .
- ^ Roll, Martin (2005-10-17). Asian Brand Strategy: How Asia Builds Strong Brands. Springer. p. 199. ISBN 9780230513068. Retrieved .
- ^ Cheryl Tay (8 April 2011). "Former F1 Driver David Coulthard Thrilled Shoppers Along Bukit Bintang In Red Bull Racings Show Car Run". Va Va Vroom. Cheryl Tay Pte Ltd. Retrieved .
- ^ "Company". Red Bull. Retrieved .
- ^ a b "Red Bull to Pay $13 Million". bevnet.com. Law360. Retrieved .
- ^ Kuehlwein, JP and Schaefer, Wolf. How modern prestige brands create meaning through mission and myth. Journal of Brand Strategy. Henry Stewart Publications. Vol.5 Nr.4. Spring 2017. ISSN 2025855x
- ^ Kuehlwein, JP. Ueber-Brands and The Art of Myth-Making. www.ueberbrands.com 12/2015
- ^ Schaefer, Wolf and Kuehlwein, JP. 2015. Rethinking Prestige Branding - Secrets of the Ueber-Brands. Kogan Page. pp.77ff. ISBN 9780749470036
- ^ Lauria, Peter (2008-04-01). "Pump the Music: Red Bull Eyes Starting Branded Music Label -- NYPost.com". New York Post.101013 NYPost.com
- ^ Pennay A, Lubman DI, Miller P (2011). "Combining energy drinks and alcohol" (PDF). Retrieved .
- ^ a b Sanchis-Gomar F, Pareja-Galeano H, Cervellin G, Lippi G, Earnest CP (2015). "Energy drink overconsumption in adolescents: implications for arrhythmias and other cardiovascular events.". Can J Cardiol. 31 (5): 572-5. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2014.12.019. PMID 25818530.
- ^ a b Petit A, Karila L, Lejoyeux M (2015). "[Abuse of energy drinks: does it pose a risk?].". Presse Med. 44 (3): 261-70. doi:10.1016/j.lpm.2014.07.029. PMID 25622514.
- ^ a b c "Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine | Europäische Behörde für Lebensmittelsicherheit". www.efsa.europa.eu. Retrieved .
- ^ a b McLellan TM, Lieberman HR (2012). "Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine?". Nutr Rev. 70 (12): 730-44. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00525.x. PMID 23206286.
- ^ "Face value | Selling energy". Economist.com. 2002-05-09. Retrieved .
- ^ Kerry A. Dolan (28 March 2005). "The Soda With Buzz". Forbes. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ a b c Nivatpumin, Chiratas; Treeraponpichit, Busrin (2015-12-28). "Red Bull still charging ahead". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ a b "Red Bull GmbH Company History". Funding Universe. Retrieved .
- ^ Ligaya, Armina (2010-05-12). "Region abuzz over energy drinks". The National. p. Business section, pp. 1, 6. Retrieved .
- ^ "The World's Billionaires". Forbes.com. 2008-02-11. Retrieved .
- ^ "The World's Billionaires". Forbes.com. 2008-02-11. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Ingredients :: Energy Drink :: Red Bull". Red Bull. Retrieved .
- ^ "Sweeteners in Red Bull zero sugar? :: Energy drink sugar free". Red Bull. Retrieved .
- ^ "HEALTH | Energy drink claims rejected". BBC News. 2001-01-24. Retrieved .
- ^ Mohney, Gillian. "New Dietary Guidelines: Limit Added Sugars but Enjoy That Coffee". ABC News. Retrieved 2016.
- ^ Healy, Melissa. "New Dietary Guidelines for Americans: Watch your sugar, but enjoy the eggs and coffee". L.A. Times. Retrieved 2016.
- ^ a b Van Den Eynde F, Van Baelen PC, Portzky M, Audenaert K (2008). "The effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance". Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie. 50 (5): 273-81. PMID 18470842.
- ^ Alford, C.; Cox, H.; Wescott, R. (2001-01-01). "The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood". Amino Acids. 21 (2): 139-150. doi:10.1007/s007260170021. ISSN 0939-4451. PMID 11665810.
- ^ "Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie - Author index: Baelen, P.C. van". 2008-12-21. Archived from the original on December 21, 2008. Retrieved .
- ^ a b Mets, Monique A. J.; Ketzer, Sander; Blom, Camilla; van Gerven, Maartje H.; van Willigenburg, Gitta M.; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C. (2011-04-01). "Positive effects of Red Bull® Energy Drink on driving performance during prolonged driving". Psychopharmacology. 214 (3): 737-745. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-2078-2. ISSN 1432-2072. PMC 3053448 . PMID 21063868.
- ^ Baum, M.; Weiss, M. (2001-01-01). "The influence of a taurine containing drink on cardiac parameters before and after exercise measured by echocardiography". Amino Acids. 20 (1): 75-82. doi:10.1007/s007260170067. ISSN 0939-4451. PMID 11310932.
- ^ Geiß, K.-R.; Jester, I.; Falke, W.; Hamm, M.; Waag, K.-L. (1994-02-01). "The effect of a taurine-containing drink on performance in 10 endurance-athletes". Amino Acids. 7 (1): 45-56. doi:10.1007/BF00808445. ISSN 0939-4451.
- ^ Forbes, Scott C.; Candow, Darren G.; Little, Jonathan P.; Magnus, Charlene; Chilibeck, Philip D. (2007-10-01). "Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance". International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 17 (5): 433-444. ISSN 1526-484X. PMID 18046053.
- ^ EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (2009). "The use of taurine and D-glucurono-?-lactone as constituents of the so-called 'energy' drinks". The EFSA Journal. 935: 1-31. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.935.
- ^ Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to taurine and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 612,1658, 1959), energy-yielding metabolism (ID 614), and delay in the onset of fatigue and enhancement of physical performance (ID 1660) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, European Food Safety Authority 2009, http://www.efsa.europa.eu/fr/efsajournal/doc/1260.pdf
- ^ Persad, Nikki; McQueen, Cydney E.; Shields, Kelly M.; Clauson, Kevin A. (2008). "Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks". Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. 48 (3): e55-63; quiz e64-7. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2008.07055. PMID 18595815.
- ^ "1 in 10 Energy Drink-Related Emergency Department Visits Results in Hospitalization" (PDF). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ "Red Bull caffeine beverage review". About.com. 2009-10-22. Retrieved .
- ^ "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Energy drink, RED BULL, with added caffeine, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamins B6 and B12". Condé Nast. Retrieved .
- ^ Owen, Daniel (2006-01-15). "How much caffeine is there in [drink/food/pill]?". Coffeefaq.com. Retrieved .
- ^ Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R (2001). "The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood". Amino Acids. 21 (2): 139-50. doi:10.1007/s007260170021. PMID 11665810.
- ^ "It's Your Health - Caffeine". Health Canada. April 13, 2012. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ a b Winston AP (2005). "Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 11 (6): 432-439. doi:10.1192/apt.11.6.432.
- ^ Warning: Energy Drinks Contain Caffeine by Allison Aubrey. Morning Edition, National Public Radio, 24 September 2008.
- ^ a b Frith, Maxine (2004-02-07). "European court backs ban on Red Bull over health concerns". The Independent. London. Retrieved .
- ^ "France ends 12-year ban on energy drink Red Bull". Paris. Reuters. 15 July 2008. Retrieved .
- ^ Habib Toumi, Bureau Chief (2013-05-16). "Kuwaiti player dies after taking energy drinks". GulfNews. Retrieved .
- ^ "KUNA : Decisions regulating sale of energy drinks issued - Economics - 21/10/2012". Kuwait News Agency (KUNA). 2012-10-21. Retrieved .
- ^ ???? : ????? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? - ??????? - 21/10/2012 (in Arabic). Kuwait News Agency (KUNA). 2012-10-21. Retrieved .
- ^ "???????": ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? 16 (in Arabic). Al-Qabas newspaper. 2012-10-21. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull and a crisis in Kuwait that hasn't hit the headlines". Alex of Arabia's Blog. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Kuwait Loses Millions". Q8Critic. 2012-10-24. Retrieved .
- ^ http://omarker.com/?p=15727
- ^ "Red Bull pursues Redwell brewery in Norwich over name". BBC News. 2013-08-14. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull ends dispute with Redwell brewery in Norwich". BBC News. 2013-08-14. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Puts Up $13M To Settle False Advertising Suit - Law360". www.law360.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Agrees to $13M False Advertising Class Action Settlement". Top Class Actions. 2014-08-04. Retrieved .
- ^ "Drink Red Bull? You may have $10 coming to you". cbsnews.com. 2014-10-09. Retrieved .
- ^ "So Red Bull doesn't actually 'give you wings'". Bbc.co.uk. 2014-10-09. Retrieved .
- ^ sean. "Red Bull Rampage Recap". Mountain Bike Action Magazine. Retrieved .
- ^ "Drew Bezanson wins Red Bull Framed Reactions BMX Park comp". XGames. Retrieved .
- ^ "2017 Red Bull KTM | Team Intro | Transworld Motocross". Transworld Motocross. 2016-12-18. Retrieved .
- ^ (PWA), Professional Windsurfing Association. "Red Bull Storm Chase". PWA World Tour. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Snowboarding | Snowboarder Magazine.". Snowboarder Magazine. Retrieved .
- ^ "red bull skateboarding | TransWorld SKATEboarding". TransWorld SKATEboarding. Retrieved .
- ^ "Chasing Niagara Falls in a Kayak | VICE Sports". VICE Sports. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull High Stakes - Overview". www.regattacentral.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Wake of Steel 2016". Wakeboarding Magazine. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series Announces 2017 Schedule". Retrieved .
- ^ Kolasa-Sikiaridi, Kerry. "...Wins Parkour Red Bull Art of Motion in Santorini (video) | GreekReporter.com". Retrieved .
- ^ RED BULL QIANTANG: SURFING SHOOTOUT, retrieved
- ^ "Red Bull Crashed Ice Championship In Saint Paul, MN - Visit Saint Paul". www.visitsaintpaul.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "Real-Time Data Tech Dazzles Red Bull X-Fighters Fans". iQ by Intel. 2016-06-22. Retrieved .
- ^ GRC. "Red Bull Global Rallycross New England set for June". www.racer.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull "positive" RB13 can challenge Mercedes in F1 2017". Motorsport.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "Archrival | Red Bull Racing in NASCAR". Archrival. Retrieved .
- ^ "Redbull Flying Bach tour brings Bach and breakdancing to Dallas in 2017". AXS. Retrieved .
- ^ Pajot, S. (2011-11-03). "Calling Battle Rappers! Enter Red Bull EmSee Miami and Win a Trip to the Finals in Atlanta". Miami New Times. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull's high-flying Flugtag competition to return to Nashville". The Tennessean. Retrieved .
- ^ "Austria - FC Salzburg - Results, fixtures, squad, statistics, photos, videos and news - Soccerway". us.soccerway.com. Retrieved .
- ^ a b "Analysis | RB Leipzig's Bundesliga debut is like a fairy tale in which the bad guys are winning". Washington Post. Retrieved .
- ^ "Brazil - Red Bull Brasil - Results, fixtures, squad, statistics, photos, videos and news - Soccerway". us.soccerway.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "RED BULL HISTORY". speedace.info. Electrick Publications. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull becomes first brand on PlayStation Home". Retrieved .
- ^ Fahey, Mike. "Red Bull Gives PlayStation Home New Things To Do". Kotaku. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull House of Skate". YourPSHome.net. Retrieved .
- ^ "iTunes - Browse the top free apps on the App Store - Apple". Apple. Retrieved .
- ^ "GTVault - Gran Turismo 5Setup for". www.gtvault.com. Retrieved .
- ^ Abbey-Lambertz, Kate (2013-08-07). "Red Bull House Of Art Bolsters Detroit Scene By Giving Artists On The Verge A Leg Up (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Hammerstein, BJ. "Detroit artist star of new Red Bull ad". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Rigby, Claire. "Red Bull Station opens up downtown". Time Out Brazil. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ DeVito, Lee. "Meet the creative minds behind the Red Bull House of Art's Cycle 8". Metro Times. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Trevino, Jessica J. "Meet the 6 local artists featured in the Red Bull House of Art exhibit". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ DeVito, Lee. "Red Bull House of Art". MetroTimes. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Lacy, Eric. "Grammys 2014: Watch Detroit Red Bull House of Art 'City of Soldiers' commercial aired during show". MLive. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ "Red Bull New York -- Ball Sports Profiles". Red Bull. Retrieved .
- ^ "Reggie Bush Goes to Red Bull -- ESPN The Magazine". Sports.espn.go.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "Hikaru Nakamura Always try to win at all costs".
- ^ "US #1 Nakamura Signs with Red Bull".
- ^ Womack, Barrett (February 16, 2016). "How Leffen Will Take Over the World". Red Bull eSports.
- ^ "Daigo signs with Red Bull as Mad Catz officially exits player sponsorship". Dot Esports. May 16, 2016. Retrieved .
- ^ "Japanese fighting game legend Bonchan joins Red Bull". Dot Esports. September 1, 2015. Retrieved .
- ^ Walker, Ian (July 22, 2015). "Red Bull Gives Darryl "Snake Eyez" Lewis Wings". Shoryuken.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "Luffy signs with Red Bull". Dot Esports. February 14, 2016. Retrieved .
- ^ "Breaking Down The Elite Eight :: Red Bull Esports". Red Bull. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Cold Rush 2012 :: Red Bull". Red Bull. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Dolomitenmann |". Dolomitenmann.com. 2013-04-03. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Elements". Red Bull Aventure. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Storm Chase". Red Bull. Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Supernatural Event Web Page". Retrieved .
- ^ "Red Bull Soapbox Race". Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved .
- ^ Red Bull Unleashed
- ^ "2014 World Bridge Series - World Bridge Federation". Worldbridge.org. 2013-07-24. Retrieved .