Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg
40th President of the United States

January 20, 1981 - January 20, 1989
George H. W. Bush
Jimmy Carter
George H. W. Bush
33rd Governor of California

January 2, 1967 - January 6, 1975
Pat Brown
Jerry Brown
President of the Screen Actors Guild

November 16, 1959 - June 12, 1960
Howard Keel
George Chandler

November 17, 1947 - November 9, 1952
Robert Montgomery
Walter Pidgeon
Personal details
Born Ronald Wilson Reagan
(1911-02-06)February 6, 1911
Tampico, Illinois, U.S.
Died June 5, 2004(2004-06-05) (aged 93)
Bel Air, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Cause of death Pneumonia complicated by Alzheimer's disease
Resting place Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Center
34°15?32?N 118°49?14?W / 34.25899°N 118.82043°W / 34.25899; -118.82043
Political party Republican
Other political
Democratic (before 1962)
Relations Neil Reagan (brother)
Children 5
Alma mater Eureka College
  • Actor
  • politician
  • sports commentator
Signature Cursive signature in ink
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg U.S. Army Air Forces
Years of service 1937-1945
Rank US-O3 insignia.svg Captain
Unit 18th AAF Base Unit

Ronald Wilson Reagan (; February 6, 1911 - June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to the presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd Governor of California from 1967 to 1975.

Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois. He graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to Hollywood in 1937, he became an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild--the labor union for actors--where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman. Building a network of supporters, he was elected Governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, and was re-elected in 1970. He twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for the U.S. presidency in 1968 and 1976. Four years later in 1980, he easily won the nomination outright and became the oldest elected U.S. president up to that time, when he defeated incumbent Jimmy Carter in a landslide.

Entering the presidency in 1981, Reagan implemented sweeping new political and economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, and reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, and fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, and an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%; while Reagan did enact cuts in domestic discretionary spending, tax cuts and increased military spending contributed to increased federal outlays overall, even after adjustment for inflation. During his re-election bid, Reagan campaigned on the notion that it was "Morning in America", winning a landslide in 1984 with the largest electoral college victory in American history. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, and the Iran-Contra affair. Reagan publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", and during his famous speech at the Brandenburg Gate he challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!". He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty, which shrank both countries' nuclear arsenals. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, and the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, and on December 26, 1991 (nearly three years after he left office), the Soviet Union collapsed.

When Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of sixty-eight percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and later Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era.[1] He was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent as the disease progressed. He died at home on June 5, 2004. An icon among Republicans, he is viewed favorably in historical rankings of U.S. presidents, and his tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States.

Early life

Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911 in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois. He was the younger son of Nelle Clyde (née Wilson; 1883-1962) and Jack Reagan (1883-1941).[2] Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic emigrants from County Tipperary,[3] while Nelle was of half English and half Scottish descent (her mother was born in Surrey).[4] Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan (1908-1996), became an advertising executive.[5]

Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut;[6] the nickname stuck with him throughout his youth.[6] Reagan's family briefly lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth, Galesburg, and Chicago.[7] In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store until finally settling in Dixon.[2] After his election as president, Reagan resided in the upstairs White House private quarters, and he would quip that he was "living above the store again".[8]


Ronald Reagan wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and often did".[9] She attended the Disciples of Christ church regularly and was active, and very influential, within it; she frequently led Sunday school services and gave the Bible readings to the congregation during the services. A strong believer in the power of prayer, she led prayer meetings at church and was in charge of mid-week prayers when the pastor was out of town.[10] Her strong commitment to the church is what induced her son Ronald to become a Protestant Christian rather than a Roman Catholic like his father.[4] He also stated that she strongly influenced his own beliefs: "I know that she planted that faith very deeply in me."[11] For example, Ronald Reagan attended Eureka College, founded by the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in 1855. While pursuing the degree he earned in economics-sociology in 1932, Ronald Reagan continued to be surrounded with the same faith his mother had introduced in his life.

According to Paul Kengor, author of God and Ronald Reagan, Reagan had a particularly strong faith in the goodness of people; this faith stemmed from the optimistic faith of his mother[12] and the Disciples of Christ faith,[12] into which he was baptized in 1922.[13] For that period of time, which was long before the civil rights movement, Reagan's opposition to racial discrimination was unusual and commendable. He recalled the time in Dixon when the proprietor of a local inn would not allow black people to stay there, and he brought them back to his house. His mother invited them to stay overnight and have breakfast the next morning.[14] After the closure of the Pitney Store in 1920 and the family's move to Dixon,[15] the midwestern "small universe" had a lasting impression on Reagan.[16]

Formal education

Reagan attended Dixon High School, where he developed interests in acting, sports, and storytelling.[17] His first job involved working as a lifeguard at the Rock River in Lowell Park in 1927. Over a six-year period, Reagan reportedly performed 77 rescues as a lifeguard.[18] He attended Eureka College, a Disciples-oriented liberal arts school, where he became a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity, a cheerleader, and studied economics and sociology. While involved, the Miller Center of Public Affairs described him as an "indifferent student". He majored in economics and sociology and graduated with a C grade.[19] He developed a reputation as a "jack of all trades", excelling in campus politics, sports, and theater. He was a member of the football team and captain of the swim team. He was elected student body president and led a student revolt against the college president after the president tried to cut back the faculty.[20]

Entertainment career

Radio and film

The Bad Man (1941)

After graduating from Eureka in 1932, Reagan drove to Iowa, where he held jobs as a radio announcer at several stations. He moved to WHO radio in Des Moines as an announcer for Chicago Cubs baseball games. His specialty was creating play-by-play accounts of games using as his source only basic descriptions that the station received by wire as the games were in progress.[21]

While traveling with the Cubs in California in 1937, Reagan took a screen test that led to a seven-year contract with Warner Brothers studios.[22] He spent the first few years of his Hollywood career in the "B film" unit, where, Reagan joked, the producers "didn't want them good; they wanted them Thursday".[23]

He earned his first screen credit with a starring role in the 1937 movie Love Is on the Air, and by the end of 1939 he had already appeared in 19 films,[24] including Dark Victory with Bette Davis and Humphrey Bogart. Before the film Santa Fe Trail with Errol Flynn in 1940, he played the role of George "The Gipper" Gipp in the film Knute Rockne, All American; from it, he acquired the lifelong nickname "the Gipper."[25] In 1941, exhibitors voted him the fifth most popular star from the younger generation in Hollywood.[26]

Reagan played his favorite acting role in 1942's Kings Row,[27] where he plays a double amputee who recites the line "Where's the rest of me?"--later used as the title of his 1965 autobiography. Many film critics considered Kings Row to be his best movie,[28] though the film was condemned by New York Times critic Bosley Crowther.[29][30]

Although Reagan called Kings Row the film that "made me a star",[31] he was unable to capitalize on his success because he was ordered to active duty with the U.S. Army at San Francisco two months after its release, and never regained "star" status in motion pictures.[31] In the post-war era, after being separated from almost four years of World War II stateside service with the 1st Motion Picture Unit in December 1945, Reagan co-starred in such films as The Voice of the Turtle, John Loves Mary, The Hasty Heart, Bedtime for Bonzo, Cattle Queen of Montana, Tennessee's Partner, Hellcats of the Navy (the only film in which he appears with Nancy Reagan), and the 1964 remake The Killers (his final film). Throughout his film career, his mother answered much of his fan mail.[32]

Like many actors of his generation, Reagan endorsed cigarettes.[33]

Military service

Capt. Ronald Reagan at Fort Roach

After completing 14 home-study Army Extension Courses, Reagan enlisted in the Army Enlisted Reserve and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Officers' Reserve Corps of the Cavalry on May 25, 1937.[34]

On April 18, 1942, Reagan was ordered to active duty for the first time. Due to his poor eyesight, he was classified for limited service only, which excluded him from serving overseas.[35] His first assignment was at the San Francisco Port of Embarkation at Fort Mason, California, as a liaison officer of the Port and Transportation Office.[36] Upon the approval of the Army Air Forces (AAF), he applied for a transfer from the cavalry to the AAF on May 15, 1942, and was assigned to AAF Public Relations and subsequently to the First Motion Picture Unit (officially, the "18th Army Air Force Base Unit") in Culver City, California.[36] On January 14, 1943, he was promoted to first lieutenant and was sent to the Provisional Task Force Show Unit of This Is the Army at Burbank, California.[36] He returned to the First Motion Picture Unit after completing this duty and was promoted to captain on July 22, 1943.[37]

In January 1944, Reagan was ordered to temporary duty in New York City to participate in the opening of the Sixth War Loan Drive, which campaigned for the purchase of war bonds. He was reassigned to the First Motion Picture Unit on November 14, 1944, where he remained until the end of World War II.[37] He was recommended for promotion to major on February 2, 1945, but this recommendation was disapproved on July 17 of that year.[38] While with the First Motion Picture Unit in 1945, he was indirectly involved in discovering actress Marilyn Monroe.[39] He returned to Fort MacArthur, California, where he was separated from active duty on December 9, 1945.[38] By the end of the war, his units had produced some 400 training films for the AAF.[37]

Reagan never left the United States during the war, but he kept a film reel that he obtained while he was in the service. The reel depicted the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp; he believed that doubts would someday arise as to whether the Holocaust had occurred.[40] It has been alleged that he was overheard telling Israeli foreign minister Yitzhak Shamir in 1983 that he had filmed that footage himself and helped liberate Auschwitz,[40][41] though this purported conversation was disputed by Secretary of State George P. Shultz.[42]

Screen Actors Guild presidency

Guest stars for the premiere of The Dick Powell Show. Reagan stands behind, at the far left of the photograph

Reagan was first elected to the Board of Directors of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) in 1941, serving as an alternate member. After World War II, he resumed service and became third vice-president in 1946.[43] The adoption of conflict-of-interest bylaws in 1947 led the SAG president and six board members to resign; Reagan was nominated in a special election for the position of president and was subsequently elected.[43] He was chosen by the membership to serve seven additional one-year terms, from 1947 to 1952 and in 1959.[43] Reagan led the SAG through eventful years that were marked by labor-management disputes, the Taft-Hartley Act, the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) hearings and the Hollywood blacklist era.[43]

Secret FBI informant in Hollywood

During the late 1940s, Reagan and his then-wife, Jane Wyman, provided the FBI with the names of actors within the motion picture industry whom they believed to be communist sympathizers. Though he expressed reservations, he said, "Do they expect us to constitute ourselves as a little FBI of our own and determine just who is a Commie and who isn't?"[44]

Reagan also testified on the subject before the House Un-American Activities Committee.[45] A fervent anti-communist, he reaffirmed his commitment to democratic principles, stating, "I never as a citizen want to see our country become urged, by either fear or resentment of this group, that we ever compromise with any of our democratic principles through that fear or resentment."[45]


Though an early critic of television, Reagan landed fewer film roles in the late 1950s and decided to join the medium.[23] He was hired as the host of General Electric Theater,[46] a series of weekly dramas that became very popular.[23] His contract required him to tour General Electric (GE) plants 16 weeks out of the year, which often demanded that he give 14 speeches per day.[23] He earned approximately $125,000 (equivalent to $1011276 in 2017) in this role. The show ran for 10 seasons from 1953 to 1962, which increased Reagan's profile in American households.[47] He had previously appeared in feature films mostly in supporting roles or as a "second lead". In his final work as a professional actor, Reagan was a host and performer from 1964 to 1965 on the television series Death Valley Days.[48] Reagan and future wife Nancy Davis appeared together on television several times, including an episode of General Electric Theater in 1958 called "A Turkey for the President."[49]

Marriages and children

First wife Jane Wyman and Reagan, 1942

In 1938, Reagan co-starred in the film Brother Rat with actress Jane Wyman (1917-2007). They announced their engagement at the Chicago Theatre[50] and married on January 26, 1940 at the Wee Kirk o' the Heather church in Glendale, California.[51] Together they had two biological children, Maureen (1941-2001) and Christine (b. in 1947 but lived only one day), and adopted a third, Michael (b. 1945).[52] After the couple had arguments about Reagan's political ambitions, Wyman filed for divorce in 1948,[53] citing a distraction due to her husband's Screen Actors Guild union duties; the divorce was finalized in 1949.[25] Wyman, who was a registered Republican, also stated that their break-up was due to a difference in politics (Reagan was still a Democrat at the time).[54] When Reagan became President 32 years later, he had the distinction of being the first divorced person to assume the nation's highest office.[55] Reagan and Wyman continued to be friends until his death, with Wyman voting for Reagan in both of his runs and, upon his death, saying "America has lost a great president and a great, kind, and gentle man."[56]

Wedding of Ronald and Nancy Reagan, 1952. Matron of honor Brenda Marshall and best man William Holden were the sole guests

Reagan met actress Nancy Davis (1921-2016)[57][58] in 1949 after she contacted him in his capacity as president of the Screen Actors Guild. He helped her with issues regarding her name appearing on a Communist blacklist in Hollywood. She had been mistaken for another Nancy Davis. She described their meeting by saying, "I don't know if it was exactly love at first sight, but it was pretty close."[59] They were engaged at Chasen's restaurant in Los Angeles and were married on March 4, 1952, at the Little Brown Church in the Valley (North Hollywood, now Studio City) San Fernando Valley.[60] Actor William Holden served as best man at the ceremony. They had two children: Patti (b. 1952) and Ronald "Ron" Jr. (b. 1958).

Observers described the Reagans' relationship as close, authentic and intimate.[61] During his presidency, they reportedly displayed frequent affection for one another; one press secretary said, "They never took each other for granted. They never stopped courting."[59][62] He often called her "Mommy" and she called him "Ronnie."[62] He once wrote to her, "Whatever I treasure and enjoy... all would be without meaning if I didn't have you."[63] When he was in the hospital in 1981 after an assassination attempt, she slept with one of his shirts to be comforted by his scent.[64] In a letter to the American people in 1994, Reagan wrote "I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's disease... I only wish there was some way I could spare Nancy from this painful experience,"[59] and in 1998, while he was stricken by Alzheimer's, Nancy told Vanity Fair, "Our relationship is very special. We were very much in love and still are. When I say my life began with Ronnie, well, it's true. It did. I can't imagine life without him."[59]Nancy Reagan died on March 6, 2016 at the age of 94.[65]

Early political career

Nancy and Ronald Reagan aboard a boat in California, 1964

Reagan began as a Hollywood Democrat, and Franklin D. Roosevelt was "a true hero" to him.[66] He moved to the right-wing in the 1950s, became a Republican in 1962, and emerged as a leading conservative spokesman in the Goldwater campaign of 1964.[67]

In his early political career, he joined numerous political committees with a left-wing orientation, such as the American Veterans Committee. He fought against Republican-sponsored right-to-work legislation and supported Helen Gahagan Douglas in 1950 when she was defeated for the Senate by Richard Nixon. It was his realization that Communists were a powerful backstage influence in those groups that led him to rally his friends against them.[68]

At rallies, Reagan spoke frequently with a strong ideological dimension. In December 1945, he was stopped from leading an anti-nuclear rally in Hollywood by pressure from the Warner Bros. studio. He would later make nuclear weapons a key point of his presidency when he specifically stated his opposition to mutual assured destruction. Reagan also built on previous efforts to limit the spread of nuclear weapons.[69] In the 1948 presidential election, Reagan strongly supported Harry S. Truman and appeared on stage with him during a campaign speech in Los Angeles.[70] In the early 1950s, his relationship with actress Nancy Davis grew,[71] and he shifted to the right when he endorsed the presidential candidacies of Dwight D. Eisenhower (1952 and 1956) and Richard Nixon (1960).[72]

Reagan was hired by General Electric (GE) in 1954 to host the General Electric Theater, a weekly TV drama series. He also traveled across the country to give motivational speeches to over 200,000 GE employees. His many speeches--which he wrote himself--were non-partisan but carried a conservative, pro-business message; he was influenced by Lemuel Boulware, a senior GE executive. Boulware, known for his tough stance against unions and his innovative strategies to win over workers, championed the core tenets of modern American conservatism: free markets, anticommunism, lower taxes, and limited government.[73] Eager for a larger stage, but not allowed to enter politics by GE, he quit and formally registered as a Republican.[74] He often said, "I didn't leave the Democratic Party. The party left me."[75]

When the legislation that would become Medicare was introduced in 1961, he created a recording for the American Medical Association (AMA) warning that such legislation would mean the end of freedom in America. Reagan said that if his listeners did not write letters to prevent it, "we will awake to find that we have socialism. And if you don't do this, and if I don't do it, one of these days, you and I are going to spend our sunset years telling our children, and our children's children, what it once was like in America when men were free."[76][77] He also joined the National Rifle Association (NRA) and would become a lifetime member.[78]

Reagan gained national attention in his speeches for conservative presidential contender Barry Goldwater in 1964.[79] Speaking for Goldwater, Reagan stressed his belief in the importance of smaller government. He consolidated themes that he had developed in his talks for GE to deliver his famous speech, "A Time for Choosing":

The Founding Fathers knew a government can't control the economy without controlling people. And they knew when a government sets out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose. So we have come to a time for choosing ... You and I are told we must choose between a left or right, but I suggest there is no such thing as a left or right. There is only an up or down. Up to man's age-old dream--the maximum of individual freedom consistent with order--or down to the ant heap of totalitarianism.[80][81]

-- October 27, 1964

This "A Time for Choosing" speech was not enough to turn around the faltering Goldwater campaign, but it was the key event that established Reagan's national political visibility.[82][83]

External audio
Speech to the National Press Club
Reagan's speech on June 16, 1966 (starts at 06:16; finishes at 39:04)[84]

Governor of California (1967-1975)

Ronald and Nancy Reagan celebrate his gubernatorial victory at the Biltmore Hotel, Los Angeles

California Republicans were impressed with Reagan's political views and charisma after his "Time for Choosing" speech,[85] and in late 1965 he announced his campaign for Governor in the 1966 election.[86][87] He defeated former San Francisco mayor George Christopher in the GOP primary. In Reagan's campaign, he emphasized two main themes: "to send the welfare bums back to work," and, in reference to burgeoning anti-war and anti-establishment student protests at the University of California at Berkeley, "to clean up the mess at Berkeley."[88] In 1966, Reagan accomplished what both U.S. Senator William F. Knowland in 1958 and former Vice President Richard Nixon in 1962 had attempted to do: he was elected, defeating two-term governor Pat Brown, and was sworn in on January 2, 1967. In his first term, he froze government hiring and approved tax hikes to balance the budget.[89]

Shortly after assuming his gubernatorial term, Reagan tested the 1968 presidential waters as part of a "Stop Nixon" movement, hoping to cut into Nixon's southern support[90] and become a compromise candidate[91] if neither Nixon nor second-place candidate Nelson Rockefeller received enough delegates to win on the first ballot at the Republican convention. However, by the time of the convention Nixon, had 692 delegate votes, 25 more than he needed to secure the nomination, followed by Rockefeller with Reagan in third place.[90]

Reagan was involved in several high-profile conflicts with the protest movements of the era, including his public criticism of university administrators for tolerating student demonstrations at the University of California, Berkeley campus. On May 15, 1969, during the People's Park protests at the university's campus (the original purpose of which was to discuss the Arab-Israeli conflict), Reagan sent the California Highway Patrol and other officers to quell the protests. This led to an incident that became known as "Bloody Thursday," resulting in the death of student James Rector and the blinding of carpenter Alan Blanchard.[92][93] In addition, 111 police officers were injured in the conflict, including one who was knifed in the chest. Reagan then called out 2,200 state National Guard troops to occupy the city of Berkeley for two weeks to crack down on the protesters.[92] The Guard remained in Berkeley for 17 days, camping in People's Park, and demonstrations subsided as the university removed cordoned-off fencing and placed all development plans for People's Park on hold.[92][94] One year after "Bloody Thursday," Reagan responded to questions about campus protest movements saying, "If it takes a bloodbath, let's get it over with. No more appeasement."[95] When the Symbionese Liberation Army kidnapped Patty Hearst in Berkeley and demanded the distribution of food to the poor, Reagan joked to a group of political aides about a botulism outbreak contaminating the food.[96]

The Reagans meet with President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon, July 1970

Early in 1967, the national debate on abortion was starting to gain traction. In the early stages of the debate, Democratic California state senator Anthony C. Beilenson introduced the "Therapeutic Abortion Act" in an effort to reduce the number of "back-room abortions" performed in California.[92] The state legislature sent the bill to Reagan's desk where, after many days of indecision, he signed it on June 14, 1967.[97] About two million abortions would be performed as a result, mostly because of a provision in the bill allowing abortions for the well-being of the mother.[97] Reagan had been in office for only four months when he signed the bill, and later stated that had he been more experienced as governor, he would not have signed it. After he recognized what he called the "consequences" of the bill, he announced that he was pro-life.[97] He maintained that position later in his political career, writing extensively about abortion.[98]

In 1967, Reagan signed the Mulford Act, which repealed a law allowing public carrying of loaded firearms (becoming California Penal Code 12031 and 171(c)). The bill, which was named after Republican assemblyman Don Mulford, garnered national attention after the Black Panthers marched bearing arms upon the California State Capitol to protest it.[99][100]

Despite an unsuccessful attempt to force a recall election on Reagan in 1968,[101] he was re-elected governor in 1970, defeating "Big Daddy" Jesse M. Unruh. He chose not to seek a third term in the following election cycle. One of Reagan's greatest frustrations in office was the issue of capital punishment, which he strongly supported.[27] His efforts to enforce the state's laws in this area were thwarted when the Supreme Court of California issued its People v. Anderson decision, which invalidated all death sentences issued in California before 1972, though the decision was later overturned by a constitutional amendment. The only execution during Reagan's governorship was on April 12, 1967, when Aaron Mitchell's sentence was carried out by the state in San Quentin's gas chamber.[102]

When Reagan was governor in 1969, he signed the Family Law Act, which was an amalgam of two bills that had been written and revised by the California State Legislature over more than two years.[103] It became the first no-fault divorce legislation in the United States.[104]

Reagan's terms as governor helped to shape the policies he would pursue in his later political career as president. By campaigning on a platform of sending "the welfare bums back to work," he spoke out against the idea of the welfare state. He also strongly advocated the Republican ideal of less government regulation of the economy, including that of undue federal taxation.[105]

Reagan did not seek re-election to a third term as governor in 1974; he was succeeded by the Secretary of State, Democrat Jerry Brown, who took office on January 6, 1975.

1976 presidential campaign

On the podium with Gerald Ford after narrowly losing the nomination at the 1976 Republican National Convention

In 1976, Reagan challenged incumbent President Gerald Ford in a bid to become the Republican Party's candidate for president. Reagan soon established himself as the conservative candidate with the support of like-minded organizations such as the American Conservative Union, which became key components of his political base, while Ford was considered a more moderate Republican.[106]

Reagan's campaign relied on a strategy crafted by campaign manager John Sears of winning a few primaries early to damage the inevitability of Ford's likely nomination. Reagan won North Carolina, Texas, and California, but the strategy failed, as[107] he ended up losing New Hampshire, Florida, and his native Illinois.[108] The Texas campaign lent renewed hope to Reagan, when he swept all 96 delegates chosen in the May 1 primary, with four more awaiting at the state convention. Much of the credit for that victory came from the work of three co-chairmen, including Ernest Angelo, the mayor of Midland, and Ray Barnhart of Houston, whom Reagan as President would appoint in 1981 as director of the Federal Highway Administration.[109]

However, as the GOP convention neared, Ford appeared close to victory. Acknowledging his party's moderate wing, Reagan chose moderate Senator Richard Schweiker of Pennsylvania as his running mate if nominated. Nonetheless, Ford prevailed with 1,187 delegates to Reagan's 1,070.[108] Ford would go on to lose the 1976 presidential election to the Democratic nominee, Jimmy Carter.

Reagan's concession speech emphasized the dangers of nuclear war and the threat posed by the Soviet Union. Though he lost the nomination, he received 307 write-in votes in New Hampshire, 388 votes as an Independent on Wyoming's ballot, and a single electoral vote from a faithless elector in the November election from the state of Washington,[110] which Ford had won over Democratic challenger Jimmy Carter.

After the campaign, Reagan remained in the public debate with the Ronald Reagan Radio Commentary series[111] and his political action committee, Citizens for the Republic, which was later revived in Alexandria, Virginia, in 2009 by the Reagan biographer Craig Shirley.[112]

1980 presidential campaign

1980 electoral vote results

The 1980 presidential election featured Reagan against incumbent President Jimmy Carter and was conducted amid a multitude of domestic concerns as well as the ongoing Iran hostage crisis. Reagan's campaign stressed some of his fundamental principles: lower taxes to stimulate the economy,[113] less government interference in people's lives,[114]states' rights,[115] and a strong national defense.[116]

Reagan launched his campaign by declaring "I believe in states' rights." After receiving the Republican nomination, Reagan selected one of his opponents in the primaries, George H. W. Bush, to be his running mate. His appearance in an October televised debate boosted his popularity. Reagan won the election, carrying 44 states with 489 electoral votes to 49 electoral votes for Carter (representing six states and Washington, D.C.). Reagan received 51% of the popular vote while Carter took 41%, and Independent John B. Anderson (a liberal Republican) received 7%.[117]Republicans captured the Senate for the first time since 1952, and gained 34 House seats, but the Democrats retained a majority.

Presidency (1981-1989)

Inauguration parade (January 20, 1981). As Reagan read his inauguration address, 52 U.S. hostages (held by Iran for 444 days) were set free

During his presidency, Reagan pursued policies that reflected his personal belief in individual freedom; brought changes domestically, both to the U.S. economy and expanded military; and contributed to the end of the Cold War.[118] Termed the "Reagan Revolution," his presidency would reinvigorate American morale,[119][120] reinvigorate the U.S. economy and reduce reliance upon government.[118] As president, Reagan kept a diary in which he commented on daily occurrences of his presidency and his views on the issues of the day. The diaries were published in May 2007 in the bestselling book, The Reagan Diaries.[121]

First term

Ronald Reagan was 69 years old when he sworn into office for his first term on January 20, 1981. In his inaugural address (which Reagan himself wrote), he addressed the country's economic malaise, arguing: "In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem."[122]

Prayer in schools and a moment of silence

In 1981, Reagan became the first president to propose a constitutional amendment on school prayer.[123] Reagan's election reflected an opposition[123] to the 1962 Supreme Court case Engel v. Vitale, prohibiting state officials from composing an official state prayer and requiring that it be recited in the public schools.[124] Reagan's 1981 proposed amendment stated: "Nothing in this Constitution shall be construed to prohibit individual or group prayer in public schools or other public institutions. No person shall be required by the United States or by any state to participate in prayer." In 1984, Reagan again raised the issue, asking Congress "why can't [the] freedom to acknowledge God be enjoyed again by children in every schoolroom across this land?"[125] In 1985, Reagan expressed his disappointment that the Supreme Court ruling still bans a moment of silence for public schools, and said he had "an uphill battle."[126] In 1987 Reagan renewed his call for Congress to support voluntary prayer in schools and end "the expulsion of God from America's classrooms."[127] Critics argue that any governmental imposition of prayer on public school students is involuntary.[127] No Supreme Court rulings suggest that students cannot engage in silent prayer on their own.[127] During his term in office, Reagan campaigned vigorously to restore organized prayer to the schools, first as a moment of prayer and later as a Moment of Silence.[128]

Reagan, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Strom Thurmond at a state dinner in 1981

Assassination attempt

On March 30, 1981 (shortly into the new administration), Reagan, his press secretary James Brady, Washington police officer Thomas Delahanty, and Secret Service agent Tim McCarthy were struck by gunfire from would-be assassin John Hinckley Jr. outside the Washington Hilton hotel. Although "close to death" upon arrival at George Washington University Hospital, Reagan was stabilized in the emergency room, then underwent emergency exploratory surgery.[129] He recovered and was released from the hospital on April 11, becoming the first serving U.S. president to survive being shot in an assassination attempt.[130] The attempt had great influence on Reagan's popularity; polls indicated his approval rating to be around 73%.[131] Reagan believed that God had spared his life so that he might go on to fulfill a greater purpose.[132]

Assistant Secretary of State nomination

In response to conservative criticism that the State Department lacked hardliners, Reagan in 1981 nominated Ernest W. Lefever as Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs. Lefever performed poorly at his confirmation hearings and the Senate committee rejected his nomination by vote of 4-13; Lefever withdrew his name.[133]

Air traffic controllers' strike

In 1981, PATCO, the union of federal air traffic controllers went on strike, violating a federal law prohibiting government unions from striking.[134] Declaring the situation an emergency as described in the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act, Reagan stated that if the air traffic controllers "do not report for work within 48 hours, they have forfeited their jobs and will be terminated."[135] They did not return and on August 5, Reagan fired 11,345 striking air traffic controllers who had ignored his order, and used supervisors and military controllers to handle the nation's commercial air traffic until new controllers could be hired and trained.[136] A leading reference work on public administration concluded, "The firing of PATCO employees not only demonstrated a clear resolve by the president to take control of the bureaucracy, but it also sent a clear message to the private sector that unions no longer needed to be feared."[137]

"Reaganomics" and the economy

Outlining his plan for Tax Reduction Legislation from the Oval Office in a televised address, July 1981

During Jimmy Carter's last year in office (1980), inflation averaged 12.5%, compared with 4.4% during Reagan's last year in office (1988).[138] During Reagan's administration, the unemployment rate declined from 7.5% to 5.4%, with the rate reaching highs of 10.8% in 1982 and 10.4% in 1983, averaging 7.5% over the eight years, and real GDP growth averaged 3.4% with a high of 8.6% in 1983, while nominal GDP growth averaged 7.4%, and peaked at 12.2% in 1982.[139][140][141]

Reagan implemented policies based on supply-side economics, advocating a laissez-faire philosophy and free-market fiscal policy,[142] seeking to stimulate the economy with large, across-the-board tax cuts.[143][144] He also supported returning the United States to some sort of gold standard, and successfully urged Congress to establish the U.S. Gold Commission to study how one could be implemented. Citing the economic theories of Arthur Laffer, Reagan promoted the proposed tax cuts as potentially stimulating the economy enough to expand the tax base, offsetting the revenue loss due to reduced rates of taxation, a theory that entered political discussion as the Laffer curve. Reaganomics was the subject of debate with supporters pointing to improvements in certain key economic indicators as evidence of success, and critics pointing to large increases in federal budget deficits and the national debt.[145] His policy of "peace through strength" resulted in a record peacetime defense buildup including a 40% real increase in defense spending between 1981 and 1985.[146]

During Reagan's presidency, federal income tax rates were lowered significantly with the signing of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981,[147] which lowered the top marginal tax bracket from 70% to 50% and the lowest bracket from 14% to 11%. Other tax increases passed by Congress and signed by Reagan ensured however that tax revenues over his two terms were 18.2% of GDP as compared to 18.1% over the 40-year period of 1970-2010.[148] Then, in 1982 the Job Training Partnership Act of 1982 was signed into law, initiating one of the United States' first public-private partnerships and a major part of the president's job creation program. Reagan's Assistant Secretary of Labor and Chief of Staff, Al Angrisani, was a primary architect of the bill.

President Reagan with real estate developer and future president Donald Trump in 1987

Conversely, Congress passed and Reagan signed into law tax increases of some nature in every year from 1981 to 1987 to continue funding such government programs as Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (TEFRA), Social Security, and the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984 (DEFRA).[149][150] TEFRA was the "largest peacetime tax increase in American history."[150][151][152][153] Gross domestic product (GDP) growth recovered strongly after the early 1980s recession ended in 1982, and grew during his eight years in office at an annual rate of 7.9% per year, with a high of 12.2% growth in 1981.[154] Unemployment peaked at 10.8% monthly rate in December 1982--higher than any time since the Great Depression--then dropped during the rest of Reagan's presidency.[155] Sixteen million new jobs were created, while inflation significantly decreased.[156] The Tax Reform Act of 1986, another bipartisan effort championed by Reagan, simplified the tax code by reducing the number of tax brackets to four and slashing a number of tax breaks. The top rate was dropped to 28%, but capital gains taxes were increased on those with the highest incomes from 20% to 28%. The increase of the lowest tax bracket from 11% to 15% was more than offset by expansion of the personal exemption, standard deduction, and earned income tax credit. The net result was the removal of six million poor Americans from the income tax roll and a reduction of income tax liability at all income levels.[157][158]

The net effect of all Reagan-era tax bills was a 1% decrease in government revenues when compared to Treasury Department revenue estimates from the Administration's first post-enactment January budgets.[159] However, federal income tax receipts increased from 1980 to 1989, rising from $308.7 billion to $549 billion[160] or an average annual rate of 8.2% (2.5% attributed to higher Social Security receipts), and federal outlays grew at an annual rate of 7.1%.[161][162]

Addressing Congress on the Program for Economic Recovery, April 28, 1981 (a few weeks after surviving an assassination attempt)

Reagan's policies proposed that economic growth would occur when marginal tax rates were low enough to spur investment, which would then lead to higher employment and wages. Critics labeled this "trickle-down economics"--the belief that tax policies that benefit the wealthy will create a "trickle-down" effect to the poor.[163] Questions arose whether Reagan's policies benefited the wealthy more than those living in poverty,[164] and many poor and minority citizens viewed Reagan as indifferent to their struggles.[164] These views were exacerbated by the fact that Reagan's economic regimen included freezing the minimum wage at $3.35 an hour, slashing federal assistance to local governments by 60%, cutting the budget for public housing and Section 8 rent subsidies in half, and eliminating the antipoverty Community Development Block Grant program.[165] The widening gap between the rich and poor had already begun during the 1970s before Reagan's economic policies took effect.[166] Along with Reagan's 1981 cut in the top regular tax rate on unearned income, he reduced the maximum capital gains rate to 20%.[167] Reagan later set tax rates on capital gains at the same level as the rates on ordinary income like salaries and wages, with both topping out at 28%.[168] Reagan is viewed as an antitax hero despite raising taxes eleven times over the course of his presidency, all in the name of fiscal responsibility.[169] According to Paul Krugman, "Over all, the 1982 tax increase undid about a third of the 1981 cut; as a share of GDP, the increase was substantially larger than Mr. Clinton's 1993 tax increase."[170] According to historian and domestic policy adviser Bruce Bartlett, Reagan's tax increases over the course of his presidency took back half of the 1981 tax cut.[171]

Reagan was opposed to government intervention, and he cut the budgets of non-military[172] programs[173] including Medicaid, food stamps, federal education programs[172] and the EPA.[174] He protected entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare,[175] but his administration attempted to purge many people with disabilities from the Social Security disability rolls.[176]

The administration's stance toward the savings and loan industry contributed to the savings and loan crisis. A minority of the critics of Reaganomics also suggested that the policies partially influenced the stock market crash of 1987,[177] but there is no consensus regarding a single source for the crash.[178] In order to cover newly spawned federal budget deficits, the United States borrowed heavily both domestically and abroad, raising the national debt from $997 billion to $2.85 trillion.[179] Reagan described the new debt as the "greatest disappointment" of his presidency.[156]

He reappointed Paul Volcker as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, and in 1987 he appointed monetarist Alan Greenspan to succeed him. Reagan ended the price controls on domestic oil that had contributed to the energy crises of 1973-74 and the summer of 1979.[180][181] The price of oil subsequently dropped, and the 1980s did not see the fuel shortages that the 1970s had.[181] Reagan also fulfilled a 1980 campaign promise to repeal the windfall profits tax in 1988, which had previously increased dependence on foreign oil.[182] Some economists, such as Nobel Prize winners Milton Friedman and Robert Mundell, argue that Reagan's tax policies invigorated America's economy and contributed to the economic boom of the 1990s.[183] Other economists, such as Nobel Prize winner Robert Solow, argue that Reagan's deficits were a major reason his successor, George H. W. Bush, reneged on a campaign promise and resorted to raising taxes.[183]

During Reagan's presidency, a program was initiated within the United States Intelligence Community to ensure America's economic strength. The program, Project Socrates, developed and demonstrated the means required for the United States to generate and lead the next evolutionary leap in technology acquisition and utilization for a competitive advantage--automated innovation. To ensure that the United States acquired the maximum benefit from automated innovation, Reagan, during his second term, had an executive order drafted to create a new federal agency to implement the Project Socrates results on a nationwide basis. However, Reagan's term came to end before the executive order could be coordinated and signed, and the incoming Bush administration, labeling Project Socrates as "industrial policy," had it terminated.[184][185]

Escalation of the Cold War

As the first U.S. president invited to speak before the British Parliament (June 8, 1982), Reagan predicted Marxism would end up on the "ash heap of history"[186]

Reagan escalated the Cold War, which accelerated a reversal from the policy of détente that began in 1979 after the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[187] Reagan ordered a massive buildup of the United States Armed Forces[146] and implemented new policies that were directed towards the Soviet Union; he revived the B-1 Lancer program that had been canceled by the Carter administration, and he produced the MX missile.[188] In response to Soviet deployment of the SS-20, Reagan oversaw NATO's deployment of the Pershing missile in West Germany.[189]

In 1984, journalist Nicholas Lemann interviewed Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and summarized the strategy of the Reagan administration to roll back the Soviet Union:

Their society is economically weak, and it lacks the wealth, education, and technology to enter the information age. They have thrown everything into military production, and their society is starting to show terrible stress as a result. They can't sustain military production the way we can. Eventually it will break them, and then there will be just one superpower in a safe world--if, only if, we can keep spending.[190]

Lemann noted that when he wrote that in 1984, he thought the Reaganites were living in a fantasy world. But by 2016, Lemann stated that the passage represents "a fairly uncontroversial description of what Reagan actually did."

Meeting with leaders of the Afghan Mujahideen in the Oval Office, 1983

Reagan and the United Kingdom's prime minister Margaret Thatcher both denounced the Soviet Union in ideological terms.[191] In a famous address on June 8, 1982, to the Parliament of the United Kingdom in the Royal Gallery of the Palace of Westminster, Reagan said, "the forward march of freedom and democracy will leave Marxism-Leninism on the ash heap of history."[192][193] On March 3, 1983, he predicted that communism would collapse, stating, "Communism is another sad, bizarre chapter in human history whose last pages even now are being written."[194] In a speech to the National Association of Evangelicals on March 8, 1983, Reagan called the Soviet Union "an evil empire."[195]

After Soviet fighters downed Korean Air Lines Flight 007 near Moneron Island on September 1, 1983, carrying 269 people, including Georgia congressman Larry McDonald, Reagan labeled the act a "massacre" and declared that the Soviets had turned "against the world and the moral precepts which guide human relations among people everywhere."[196] The Reagan administration responded to the incident by suspending all Soviet passenger air service to the United States, and dropped several agreements being negotiated with the Soviets, wounding them financially.[196] As a result of the shootdown, and the cause of KAL 007's going astray thought to be inadequacies related to its navigational system, Reagan announced on September 16, 1983, that the Global Positioning System would be made available for civilian use, free of charge, once completed in order to avert similar navigational errors in future.[197][198]

Reagan with actress Sigourney Weaver and King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in 1985. The U.S. and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan.

Under a policy that came to be known as the Reagan Doctrine, Reagan and his administration also provided overt and covert aid to anti-communist resistance movements in an effort to "rollback" Soviet-backed communist governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.[199] Reagan deployed the CIA's Special Activities Division to Afghanistan and Pakistan. They were instrumental in training, equipping and leading Mujahideen forces against the Soviet Army.[200][201] President Reagan's Covert Action program has been given credit for assisting in ending the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan,[202] though some of the United States funded armaments introduced then would later pose a threat to U.S. troops in the 2001 War in Afghanistan.[203] However, in a break from the Carter policy of arming Taiwan under the Taiwan Relations Act, Reagan also agreed with the communist government in China to reduce the sale of arms to Taiwan.[204]

In March 1983, Reagan introduced the Strategic Defense Initiative, a defense project[205] that would have used ground- and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.[206] Reagan believed that this defense shield could make nuclear war impossible.[205][207] There was much disbelief surrounding the program's scientific feasibility, leading opponents to dub SDI "Star Wars" and argue that its technological objective was unattainable.[205] The Soviets became concerned about the possible effects SDI would have;[208] leader Yuri Andropov said it would put "the entire world in jeopardy."[209] For those reasons, David Gergen, former aide to President Reagan, believes that in retrospect, SDI hastened the end of the Cold War.[210]

Critics labeled Reagan's foreign policies as aggressive, imperialistic, and chided them as "warmongering," though they were supported by leading American conservatives who argued that they were necessary to protect U.S. security interests.[208] The Reagan administration also backed anti-communist leaders accused of severe human rights violations, such as Efraín Ríos Montt of Guatemala and Hissène Habré of Chad,[211][212][213] and helped Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini identify and purge communists in his government.[214] As a result of the brief 16-month regime of Ríos Montt in 1982 and 1983, Guatemala was accused of genocide for massacres of members of the Ixil people and other indigenous groups. Reagan had said that Montt was getting a "bum rap,"[215] and described him as "a man of great personal integrity."[216] In May 2013 Montt was found guilty by a Guatemala court of having ordered the deaths of 1,771 Ixil people. His conviction was overturned later that month and his retrial began in January 2015.[217] The Reagan administration unsuccessfully appealed to Congress to restart military aid. The administration was successful, however, in providing nonmilitary aid such as USAID.[215][218]

Mass surveillance

Citing national security concerns, the president's national security team pressed for more surveillance power early during Reagan's first term. Their recommendations were based upon the premise that the federal government's intelligence and counterintelligence capabilities had been weakened by presidents Carter and Ford.[219] On December 4, 1981, Reagan signed Executive Order 12333. This presidential directive broadened the power of the government's intelligence community; mandated rules for spying on United States citizens, permanent residents, and on anyone within the United States; and also directed the Attorney General and others to create further policies and procedures for what information intelligence agencies can collect, retain, and share.[220]

Lebanese Civil War

Reagan (far left) and First Lady Nancy Reagan pay their respects to the 17 American victims of the April 18 attack on the U.S. embassy by Hezbollah in Beirut, 1983

With the approval of Congress, Reagan sent forces to Lebanon in 1983 to reduce the threat of the Lebanese Civil War. The American peacekeeping forces in Beirut, a part of a multinational force during the Lebanese Civil War, were attacked on October 23, 1983. The Beirut barracks bombing killed 241 American servicemen and wounded more than 60 others by a suicide truck bomber.[221] Reagan sent in the USS New Jersey battleship to shell Syrian positions in Lebanon. He then withdrew all the Marines from Lebanon.[222]

Operation Urgent Fury (Grenada)

On October 25, 1983, Reagan ordered U.S. forces to invade Grenada (codenamed "Operation Urgent Fury") where a 1979 coup d'état had established an independent non-aligned Marxist-Leninist government. A formal appeal from the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) led to the intervention of U.S. forces; President Reagan also cited an allegedly regional threat posed by a Soviet-Cuban military build-up in the Caribbean and concern for the safety of several hundred American medical students at St. George's University as adequate reasons to invade. Operation Urgent Fury was the first major military operation conducted by U.S. forces since the Vietnam War, several days of fighting commenced, resulting in a U.S. victory,[223] with 19 American fatalities and 116 wounded American soldiers.[224] In mid-December, after a new government was appointed by the governor-general, U.S. forces withdrew.[223]

1984 presidential campaign

1984 presidential electoral votes by state. Reagan (red) won every state except Mondale's home state of Minnesota; Mondale also carried the District of Columbia

Reagan accepted the Republican nomination in Dallas, Texas. He proclaimed that it was "morning again in America," regarding the recovering economy and the dominating performance by the U.S. athletes at the 1984 Summer Olympics, among other things.[23] He became the first president to open an Olympic Games held in the United States.[225]

Reagan's opponent in the 1984 presidential election was former Vice President Walter Mondale. With questions about Reagan's age, and a weak performance in the first presidential debate, his ability to perform the duties of president for another term was questioned. His apparent confused and forgetful behavior was evident to his supporters; they had previously known him clever and witty. Rumors began to circulate that he had Alzheimer's disease.[226][227] Reagan rebounded in the second debate, and confronted questions about his age, quipping, "I will not make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent's youth and inexperience," which generated applause and laughter, even from Mondale himself.[228]

That November, Reagan was re-elected, winning 49 of 50 states.[229] The president's overwhelming victory saw Mondale carry only his home state of Minnesota (by 3,800 votes) and the District of Columbia. Reagan won a record 525 electoral votes, the most of any candidate in United States history,[230] and received 59% of the popular vote to Mondale's 41%.[229]

Second term

Reagan is sworn in for a second term as president by Chief Justice Burger in the Capitol rotunda

Reagan was sworn in as president for the second time on January 20, 1985, in a private ceremony at the White House. At 73 years of age, he was the oldest person to ever have been sworn into a second term. Because January 20 fell on a Sunday, a public celebration was not held but took place in the Capitol rotunda the following day. January 21 was one of the coldest days on record in Washington, D.C.; due to poor weather, inaugural celebrations were held inside the Capitol. In the coming weeks he shook up his staff somewhat, moving White House Chief of Staff James Baker to Secretary of the Treasury and naming Treasury Secretary Donald Regan, a former Merrill Lynch officer, Chief of Staff.[231][231]

Reagan addresses the nation after the Challenger disaster

The disintegration of the Space Shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986, proved a pivotal moment in Reagan's presidency. All seven astronauts aboard were killed.[232] On the night of the disaster, Reagan delivered a speech, written by Peggy Noonan, in which he said:

The future doesn't belong to the fainthearted; it belongs to the brave ... We will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them, this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye and 'slipped the surly bonds of Earth' to 'touch the face of God.'[233]

In 1988, near the end of the Iran-Iraq War, the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser USS Vincennes accidentally shot down Iran Air Flight 655 killing 290 civilian passengers. The incident further worsened already tense Iran-United States relations.[234]

1985 placing of wreath at cemetery in Bitburg, Germany

In February 1985, the administration accepted an invitation for Reagan alongside with West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl to visit a German military cemetery in Bitburg and place a wreath. Deputy Chief of Staff Michael Deaver was given assurances by a German head of protocol that no war criminals were buried there. It was later determined that the cemetery held the graves of 49 members of the Waffen-SS. What neither Deaver nor other administration officials initially realized was that many Germans drew a distinction between the regular SS, who typically were composed of Nazi true believers, and the Waffen-SS which were attached to military units and composed of conscripted soldiers.[235] However, at a joint protest in Florida by American veteran organizations and camp survivors at the time of Reagan's visit, one speaker read from the Congressional Record an entry by Senator Howard Metzenbaum stating that the Waffen-SS force had been involved in the massacre of 350 American soldiers and 100 Belgian soldiers who were prisoners of war.[236]

As the controversy brewed in April 1985, Reagan issued a statement that called the Nazi soldiers buried in that cemetery as themselves "victims," a designation which ignited a stir over whether Reagan had equated the SS men to victims of the Holocaust.[237]Pat Buchanan, Reagan's Director of Communications, argued that the president did not equate the SS members with the actual Holocaust, but as victims of the ideology of Nazism.[238] Now strongly urged to cancel the visit,[239] the president responded that it would be wrong to back down on a promise he had made to Chancellor Kohl. On May 5, 1985, President Reagan and Chancellor Kohl visited first visited the site of the former Nazi Bergen-Belsen concentration camp and then the Bitburg cemetery where, along with two military generals, they did place a wreath.[240][241]

War on Drugs

Reagan announced a War on Drugs in 1982, in response to concerns about the increasing crack epidemic. Though Nixon had previously declared a war on drugs, Reagan advocated more militant policies.[242]

He said that "drugs were menacing our society" and promised to fight for drug-free schools and workplaces, expanded drug treatment, stronger law enforcement and drug interdiction efforts, and greater public awareness.[243][244]

In 1986, Reagan signed a drug enforcement bill that budgeted $1.7 billion to fund the War on Drugs and specified a mandatory minimum penalty for drug offenses.[245] The bill was criticized for promoting significant racial disparities in the prison population[245] and critics also charged that the policies did little to reduce the availability of drugs on the street, while resulting in a great financial burden for America.[246] Defenders of the effort point to success in reducing rates of adolescent drug use:[247] marijuana use among high-school seniors declined from 33% in 1980 to 12% in 1991.[248]First Lady Nancy Reagan made the War on Drugs her main priority by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, which aimed to discourage children and teenagers from engaging in recreational drug use by offering various ways of saying "no." Nancy Reagan traveled to 65 cities in 33 states, raising awareness about the dangers of drugs including alcohol.[249]

Response to AIDS epidemic

According to AIDS activist organizations such as ACT UP, the Reagan administration largely ignored the AIDS crisis, which began to unfold in the United States in 1981, the same year Reagan took office. They also claim AIDS research was chronically underfunded during Reagan's administration, and requests for more funding by doctors at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) were routinely denied.[250][251]

By the time President Reagan had given his first prepared speech on the epidemic, some six years into his presidency, 36,058 Americans had been diagnosed with AIDS and 20,849 had died of it.[252] By the end of 1989, the year Reagan left office, 115,786 people had been diagnosed with AIDS in the United States, and more than 70,000 of them had died of it.

Others however point out that federal funding for AIDS-related programs was $2.3 billion in 1989 and nearly 6 billion total over his presidency. In a September 1985 press conference Reagan said: "this is a top priority with us...there's no question about the seriousness of this and the need to find an answer."[253]

Libya bombing

British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (here with Reagan outside 10 Downing Street in June 1982, as the Falklands War drew to a close) granted the U.S. use of British airbases to launch the Libya attack

Relations between Libya and the United States under President Reagan were continually contentious, beginning with the Gulf of Sidra incident in 1981; by 1982, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was considered by the CIA to be, along with USSR leader Leonid Brezhnev and Cuban leader Fidel Castro, part of a group known as the "unholy trinity" and was also labeled as "our international public enemy number one" by a CIA official.[254] These tensions were later revived in early April 1986, when a bomb exploded in a Berlin discothèque, resulting in the injury of 63 American military personnel and death of one serviceman. Stating that there was "irrefutable proof" that Libya had directed the "terrorist bombing," Reagan authorized the use of force against the country. In the late evening of April 15, 1986, the United States launched a series of airstrikes on ground targets in Libya.[255][256]

Britain's prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, allowed the U.S. Air Force to use Britain's air bases to launch the attack, on the justification that the UK was supporting America's right to self-defense under Article 51 of the United Nations Charter.[256] The attack was designed to halt Gaddafi's "ability to export terrorism," offering him "incentives and reasons to alter his criminal behavior."[255] The president addressed the nation from the Oval Office after the attacks had commenced, stating, "When our citizens are attacked or abused anywhere in the world on the direct orders of hostile regimes, we will respond so long as I'm in this office."[256] The attack was condemned by many countries. By a vote of 79 in favor to 28 against with 33 abstentions, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 41/38 which "condemns the military attack perpetrated against the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya on April 15, 1986, which constitutes a violation of the Charter of the United Nations and of international law."[257]


Reagan signed the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. The act made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants, required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status, and granted amnesty to approximately three million illegal immigrants who entered the United States before January 1, 1982, and had lived in the country continuously. Critics argue that the employer sanctions were without teeth and failed to stem illegal immigration.[258] Upon signing the act at a ceremony held beside the newly refurbished Statue of Liberty, Reagan said, "The legalization provisions in this act will go far to improve the lives of a class of individuals who now must hide in the shadows, without access to many of the benefits of a free and open society. Very soon many of these men and women will be able to step into the sunlight and, ultimately, if they choose, they may become Americans."[259] Reagan also said, "The employer sanctions program is the keystone and major element. It will remove the incentive for illegal immigration by eliminating the job opportunities which draw illegal aliens here."[259]

Iran-Contra affair

Reagan (center) receives the Tower Commission Report regarding the Iran-Contra affair in the Cabinet Room with John Tower (left) and Edmund Muskie (right)

In 1986, the Iran-Contra affair became a problem for the administration stemming from the use of proceeds from covert arms sales to Iran during the Iran-Iraq War to fund the Contra rebels fighting against the government in Nicaragua, which had been specifically outlawed by an act of Congress.[260][261] The affair became a political scandal in the United States during the 1980s.[262] The International Court of Justice, whose jurisdiction to decide the case was disputed by the United States,[263] ruled that the United States had violated international law and breached treaties in Nicaragua in various ways.[264][265]

President Reagan professed that he was unaware of the plot's existence. He opened his own investigation and appointed two Republicans and one Democrat, John Tower, Brent Scowcroft and Edmund Muskie, respectively, to investigate the scandal. The commission could not find direct evidence that Reagan had prior knowledge of the program, but criticized him heavily for his disengagement from managing his staff, making the diversion of funds possible.[266] A separate report by Congress concluded that "If the president did not know what his national security advisers were doing, he should have."[266] Reagan's popularity declined from 67% to 46% in less than a week, the greatest and quickest decline ever for a president.[267] The scandal resulted in fourteen indictments within Reagan's staff, and eleven convictions.[268]

Many Central Americans criticize Reagan for his support of the Contras, calling him an anti-communist zealot, blinded to human rights abuses, while others say he "saved Central America."[269]Daniel Ortega, Sandinistan and president of Nicaragua, said that he hoped God would forgive Reagan for his "dirty war against Nicaragua."[269]

End of the Cold War

Gorbachev and Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House, 1987

Until the early 1980s, the United States had relied on the qualitative superiority of its weapons to essentially frighten the Soviets, but the gap had been narrowed.[270] Although the Soviet Union did not accelerate military spending after President Reagan's military buildup,[271] their large military expenses, in combination with collectivized agriculture and inefficient planned manufacturing, were a heavy burden for the Soviet economy.[272] At the same time, Saudi Arabia increased oil production,[273] which resulted in a drop of oil prices in 1985 to one-third of the previous level; oil was the main source of Soviet export revenues.[272] These factors contributed to a stagnant Soviet economy during Gorbachev's tenure.[272]

Reagan recognized the change in the direction of the Soviet leadership with Mikhail Gorbachev, and shifted to diplomacy, with a view to encourage the Soviet leader to pursue substantial arms agreements.[274] Reagan's personal mission was to achieve "a world free of nuclear weapons," which he regarded as "totally irrational, totally inhumane, good for nothing but killing, possibly destructive of life on earth and civilization."[275][276][277] He was able to start discussions on nuclear disarmament with General Secretary Gorbachev.[277] Gorbachev and Reagan held four summit conferences between 1985 and 1988: the first in Geneva, Switzerland, the second in Reykjavík, Iceland, the third in Washington, D.C., and the fourth in Moscow.[278] Reagan believed that if he could persuade the Soviets to allow for more democracy and free speech, this would lead to reform and the end of Communism.[279]

Challenging Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!" at the Brandenburg Gate (June 12, 1987)

Speaking at the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987, Reagan challenged Gorbachev to go further, saying "General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"

Before Gorbachev's visit to Washington, D.C., for the third summit in 1987, the Soviet leader announced his intention to pursue significant arms agreements.[280] The timing of the announcement led Western diplomats to contend that Gorbachev was offering major concessions to the United States on the levels of conventional forces, nuclear weapons, and policy in Eastern Europe.[280] He and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) at the White House, which eliminated an entire class of nuclear weapons.[281] The two leaders laid the framework for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, or START I; Reagan insisted that the name of the treaty be changed from Strategic Arms Limitation Talks to Strategic Arms Reduction Talks.[276]

When Reagan visited Moscow for the fourth summit in 1988, he was viewed as a celebrity by the Soviets. A journalist asked the president if he still considered the Soviet Union the evil empire. "No," he replied, "I was talking about another time, another era."[282] At Gorbachev's request, Reagan gave a speech on free markets at the Moscow State University.[283] In his autobiography, An American Life, Reagan expressed his optimism about the new direction that they charted and his warm feelings for Gorbachev.[284] In November 1989, ten months after Reagan left office, the Berlin Wall was opened, the Cold War was unofficially declared over at the Malta Summit on December 3, 1989, and two years later, the Soviet Union collapsed.[285]


Early in his presidency, Reagan started wearing a custom-made, technologically advanced hearing aid, first in his right ear[286] and later in his left ear as well.[287] His decision to go public in 1983 regarding his wearing the small, audio-amplifying device boosted their sales.[288]

On July 13, 1985, Reagan underwent surgery at Bethesda Naval Hospital to remove cancerous polyps from his colon. He relinquished presidential power to the Vice President for eight hours in a similar procedure as outlined in the 25th Amendment, which he specifically avoided invoking.[289] The surgery lasted just under three hours and was successful.[290] Reagan resumed the powers of the presidency later that day.[291] In August of that year, he underwent an operation to remove skin cancer cells from his nose.[292] In October, more skin cancer cells were detected on his nose and removed.[293]

In January 1987, Reagan underwent surgery for an enlarged prostate that caused further worries about his health. No cancerous growths were found and he was not sedated during the operation.[294] In July of that year, aged 76, he underwent a third skin cancer operation on his nose.[295]

On January 7, 1989, Reagan underwent surgery at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to repair a Dupuytren's contracture of the ring finger of his left hand. The surgery lasted for more than three hours and was performed under regional anesthesia.[296] This procedure was done just thirteen days before he left office. For this reason, he had a hand and finger bandage the day of his farewell speech and the day of the inauguration of George H. W. Bush.


During his 1980 campaign, Reagan pledged that he would appoint the first female Supreme Court Justice if given the opportunity.[297] That opportunity came in his first year in office when he nominated Sandra Day O'Connor to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Justice Potter Stewart. In his second term, Reagan elevated William Rehnquist to succeed Warren E. Burger as Chief Justice, and named Antonin Scalia to fill the vacant seat. Reagan nominated conservative jurist Robert Bork to the high court in 1987. Senator Ted Kennedy, a Democrat of Massachusetts, strongly condemned Bork, and great controversy ensued.[298] Bork's nomination was rejected 58-42.[299] Reagan then nominated Douglas Ginsburg, but Ginsburg withdrew his name from consideration after coming under fire for his cannabis use.[300]Anthony Kennedy was eventually confirmed in his place.[301] Along with his three Supreme Court appointments, Reagan appointed 83 judges to the United States courts of appeals, and 290 judges to the United States district courts.

Reagan also nominated Vaughn Walker--who would later be revealed to be the earliest known gay federal judge--[302] to the United States District Court for the Central District of California. However, the nomination stalled in the Senate, and Walker was not confirmed until he was renominated by Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush.[303]

Early in his tenure, Reagan appointed Clarence M. Pendleton Jr., of San Diego as the first African American to chair the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Pendleton tried to steer the commission into a conservative direction in line with Reagan's views on social and civil rights policy during his tenure from 1981 until his sudden death in 1988. Pendleton soon aroused the ire of many civil rights advocates and feminists when he ridiculed the comparable worth proposal as being "Looney Tunes."[304][305][306]

In 1984, Reagan commuted the 18-year sentence of former Louisiana Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry Gil Dozier, a Democrat from Baton Rouge, to the time served for violations of both the Hobbs and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations acts. On September 23, 1980, the United States District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana convicted Dozier of extortion and racketeering when he pushed companies doing business with his department to make campaign contributions on his behalf.[307] Reagan determined that the 18-year sentence was excessive compared to what other political figures in similar circumstances had been receiving.[308][309]

Post-presidency (1989-2004)

Public speaking

The Reagans in Los Angeles after leaving the White House, early 1990s

After leaving office in 1989, the Reagans purchased a home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, in addition to the Reagan Ranch in Santa Barbara. They regularly attended Bel Air Church[310] and occasionally made appearances on behalf of the Republican Party; Reagan delivered a well-received speech at the 1992 Republican National Convention.[311] Previously on November 4, 1991, the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library was dedicated and opened to the public. At the dedication ceremonies, five presidents were in attendance, as well as six first ladies, marking the first time that five presidents were gathered in the same location.[312] Reagan continued publicly to speak in favor of a line-item veto; the Brady Bill;[313] a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced budget; and the repeal of the 22nd Amendment, which prohibits anyone from serving more than two terms as president.[314] In 1992 Reagan established the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award with the newly formed Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation.[315] His final public speech was on February 3, 1994, during a tribute to him in Washington, D.C., and his last major public appearance was at the funeral of Richard Nixon on April 27, 1994.


On April 13, 1992, Reagan was assaulted by an anti-nuclear protester during a luncheon speech while accepting an award from the National Association of Broadcasters in Las Vegas.[316] The protester, 41-year old Richard Paul Springer, smashed a 2-foot-high (60 cm) 30-pound (13.5 kg) crystal statue of an eagle that the broadcasters had given the former president. Flying shards of glass hit Reagan, but he was not injured. Using media credentials, Springer intended to announce government plans for an underground nuclear weapons test in the Nevada desert the following day.[317] Springer was the founder of an anti-nuclear group called the 100th Monkey. Following his arrest on assault charges, a Secret Service spokesman could not explain how Springer got past the federal agents who guarded Reagan's life at all times.[318] Later, Springer pled guilty to reduced charges and said he hadn't meant to hurt Reagan through his actions. He pled guilty to a misdemeanor federal charge of interfering with the Secret Service, but other felony charges of assault and resisting officers were dropped.[319]

Alzheimer's disease

Announcement and reaction: 1994

In August 1994, at the age of 83, Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease,[320] an incurable neurological disorder which destroys brain cells and ultimately causes death.[320][321] In November, he informed the nation through a handwritten letter,[320] writing in part:

I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's Disease ... At the moment I feel just fine. I intend to live the remainder of the years God gives me on this earth doing the things I have always done ... I now begin the journey that will lead me into the sunset of my life. I know that for America there will always be a bright dawn ahead. Thank you, my friends. May God always bless you.[322]

After his diagnosis, letters of support from well-wishers poured into his California home.[323]

The Reagans with a model of USS Ronald Reagan, May 1996. At left is Newport News Shipbuilding Chairman and CEO Bill Fricks

But there was also speculation over how long Reagan had demonstrated symptoms of mental degeneration.[324] Not long after the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan, at a reception for mayors, Reagan greeted his Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Samuel Pierce in 1981 by saying "How are you, Mr Mayor? How are things in your city?",[325][326] although he later realized his mistake.[327] Former CBS White House correspondent Lesley Stahl recounted that, in her final meeting with the president in 1986, Reagan did not seem to know who Stahl was, and that she came close to reporting that Reagan was senile, but at the end of the meeting, Reagan had regained his alertness.[328] However, Dr. Lawrence K. Altman, a physician employed as a reporter for The New York Times, noted that "the line between mere forgetfulness and the beginning of Alzheimer's can be fuzzy,"[329] and all four of Reagan's White House doctors said that they saw no evidence of Alzheimer's while he was president.[329] Dr. John E. Hutton, Reagan's primary physician from 1984 to 1989, said the president "absolutely" did not "show any signs of dementia or Alzheimer's."[329] His former Chief of Staff James Baker considered "ludicrous" the idea that Reagan slept during cabinet meetings.[330] Other staff members, former aides, and friends said they saw no indication of Alzheimer's while he was president.[329] Reagan did experience occasional memory lapses, though, especially with names.[329] Reagan's doctors say that he only began exhibiting overt symptoms of the illness in late 1992[331] or 1993,[329] several years after he had left office. For example, Reagan repeated a toast to Margaret Thatcher, with identical words and gestures, at his 82nd-birthday party on February 6, 1993.[332]

Complicating the picture, Reagan suffered an episode of head trauma in July 1989, five years before his diagnosis. After being thrown from a horse in Mexico, a subdural hematoma was found and surgically treated later in the year.[320][321] Nancy Reagan, citing what doctors told her, asserted that her husband's 1989 fall hastened the onset of Alzheimer's disease,[321] although acute brain injury has not been conclusively proven to accelerate Alzheimer's or dementia.[333][334] Reagan's one-time physician Daniel Ruge has said it is possible, but not certain, that the horse accident affected the course of Reagan's memory.[331]

Progression: 1994-2004

As the years went on, the disease slowly destroyed Reagan's mental capacity.[329] He was only able to recognize a few people, including his wife, Nancy.[329] He remained active, however; he took walks through parks near his home and on beaches, played golf regularly, and until 1999 he often went to his office in nearby Century City.[329]

Reagan suffered a fall at his Bel Air home on January 13, 2001, resulting in a broken hip.[335] The fracture was repaired the following day[336] and the 89-year-old Reagan returned home later that week, although he faced difficult physical therapy at home.[337] On February 6, 2001, Reagan reached the age of 90, becoming the third former president to do so (the other two being John Adams and Herbert Hoover, with Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush and Jimmy Carter later reaching 90).[338] Reagan's public appearances became much less frequent with the progression of the disease, and as a result, his family decided that he would live in quiet semi-isolation with his wife Nancy. Nancy Reagan told CNN's Larry King in 2001 that very few visitors were allowed to see her husband because she felt that "Ronnie would want people to remember him as he was."[339] After her husband's diagnosis and death, Nancy Reagan became a stem-cell research advocate, urging Congress and President George W. Bush to support federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research, something Bush opposed. In 2009, she praised President Barack Obama for lifting restrictions on such research.[340] Nancy Reagan said that she believed it could lead to a cure for Alzheimer's.[341]

Death and funeral

Reagan lying in state in the Capitol rotunda

Reagan died of pneumonia, complicated by Alzheimer's disease,[342] at his home in the Bel Air district of Los Angeles, California, on the afternoon of June 5, 2004.[343] A short time after his death, Nancy Reagan released a statement saying, "My family and I would like the world to know that President Ronald Reagan has died after 10 years of Alzheimer's disease at 93 years of age. We appreciate everyone's prayers."[343] President George W. Bush declared June 11 a National Day of Mourning,[344] and international tributes came in from around the world.[345] Reagan's body was taken to the Kingsley and Gates Funeral Home in Santa Monica, California later in the day, where well-wishers paid tribute by laying flowers and American flags in the grass.[346] On June 7, his body was removed and taken to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, where a brief family funeral was held conducted by Pastor Michael Wenning. His body lay in repose in the Library lobby until June 9; over 100,000 people viewed the coffin.[347]

On June 9, Reagan's body was flown to Washington, D.C. where he became the tenth U.S. president to lie in state; in thirty-four hours, 104,684 people filed past the coffin.[348]

On June 11, a state funeral was conducted in the Washington National Cathedral, and presided over by President George W. Bush. Eulogies were given by former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher,[349] former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, and both former President George H. W. Bush and President George W. Bush. Also in attendance were Mikhail Gorbachev, and many world leaders, including British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Prince Charles, representing his mother Queen Elizabeth II, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, and interim presidents Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan, and Ghazi al-Yawer of Iraq.[350]

After the funeral, the Reagan entourage was flown back to the Ronald W. Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, where another service was held, and President Reagan was interred.[351] At the time of his death, Reagan was the longest-lived president in U.S. history, having lived 93 years and 120 days (2 years, 8 months, and 23 days longer than John Adams, whose record he surpassed). He was the first U.S. president to die in the 21st century, and his was the first state funeral in the United States since that of President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1973.

His burial site is inscribed with the words he delivered at the opening of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library: "I know in my heart that man is good, that what is right will always eventually triumph and that there is purpose and worth to each and every life."[352]


A bronze statue of Reagan standing in the Capitol rotunda (a part of the National Statuary Hall Collection)

Since Reagan left office in 1989, substantial debate has occurred among scholars, historians, and the general public surrounding his legacy.[353] Supporters have pointed to a more efficient and prosperous economy as a result of Reagan's economic policies,[354] foreign policy triumphs including a peaceful end to the Cold War,[355] and a restoration of American pride and morale.[120] Proponents say that he had an unabated and passionate love for the United States which restored faith in the American Dream,[356] after a decline in American confidence and self-respect under Jimmy Carter's perceived weak leadership, particularly during the Iran hostage crisis, as well as his gloomy, dreary outlook for the future of the United States during the 1980 election.[357] Critics point out that Reagan's economic policies resulted in rising budget deficits,[156] a wider gap in wealth, and an increase in homelessness[165] and that the Iran-Contra affair lowered American credibility.[358]

Opinions of Reagan's legacy among the country's leading policy makers and journalists differ as well. Edwin Feulner, president of The Heritage Foundation, said that Reagan "helped create a safer, freer world" and said of his economic policies: "He took an America suffering from 'malaise'... and made its citizens believe again in their destiny."[359] However, Mark Weisbrot, co-Director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research, contended that Reagan's "economic policies were mostly a failure"[360] while Howard Kurtz of The Washington Post opined that Reagan was "a far more controversial figure in his time than the largely gushing obits on television would suggest."[361]

Despite the continuing debate surrounding his legacy, many conservative and liberal scholars agree that Reagan has been the most influential president since Franklin D. Roosevelt, leaving his imprint on American politics, diplomacy, culture, and economics through his effective communication and pragmatic compromising.[362] Since he left office, historians have reached a consensus,[363] as summarized by British historian M. J. Heale, who finds that scholars now concur that Reagan rehabilitated conservatism, turned the nation to the right, practiced a considerably pragmatic conservatism that balanced ideology and the constraints of politics, revived faith in the presidency and in American exceptionalism, and contributed to victory in the Cold War.[364]

Cold War

President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev, 1985

The Cold War was a major political, economic and military endeavor for over four decades, but the confrontation between the two superpowers had decreased dramatically by the end of Reagan's presidency.[365] The significance of Reagan's role in ending the Cold War has spurred contentious and opinionated debate.[366][367][368] That Reagan played a role in contributing to the downfall of the Soviet Union is agreed, but the extent of this role is continuously debated,[274] with many believing that Reagan's defense policies, economic policies, military policies and hard line rhetoric against the Soviet Union and Communism, as well as summits with General Secretary Gorbachev played a significant part in ending the Cold War.[164][274]

President Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev at the Geneva Summit in 1985

He was first among post-World War II presidents to put into practice the concept that the Soviet Union could be defeated rather than simply negotiated with, a post-Détente strategy,[274] a conviction that was vindicated by Gennadi Gerasimov, the Foreign Ministry spokesman under Gorbachev, who said that the Strategic Defense Initiative was "very successful blackmail. ...The Soviet economy couldn't endure such competition."[369] Reagan's aggressive rhetoric toward the USSR had mixed effects; Jeffery W. Knopf observes that being labeled "evil" probably made no difference to the Soviets but gave encouragement to the East-European citizens opposed to communism.[274]

General Secretary Gorbachev said of his former rival's Cold War role: "[He was] a man who was instrumental in bringing about the end of the Cold War,"[370] and deemed him "a great president."[370] Gorbachev does not acknowledge a win or loss in the war, but rather a peaceful end; he said he was not intimidated by Reagan's harsh rhetoric.[371] Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, said of Reagan, "he warned that the Soviet Union had an insatiable drive for military power... but he also sensed it was being eaten away by systemic failures impossible to reform."[372] She later said, "Ronald Reagan had a higher claim than any other leader to have won the Cold War for liberty and he did it without a shot being fired."[373] Said Brian Mulroney, former Prime Minister of Canada: "He enters history as a strong and dramatic player [in the Cold War]."[374] Former President Lech Wasa of Poland acknowledged, "Reagan was one of the world leaders who made a major contribution to communism's collapse."[375] That Reagan had little or no effect in ending the Cold War is argued with equal weight; that Communism's internal weakness had become apparent, and the Soviet Union would have collapsed in the end regardless of who was in power.[274] President Harry S. Truman's policy of containment is also regarded as a force behind the fall of the USSR, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan undermined the Soviet system itself.[367]

Domestic and political legacy

Reagan in Minnesota, 1982

Reagan reshaped the Republican party, led the modern conservative movement, and altered the political dynamic of the United States.[376] More men voted Republican under Reagan, and Reagan tapped into religious voters.[376] The so-called "Reagan Democrats" were a result of his presidency.[376]

After leaving office, Reagan became an iconic influence within the Republican party.[377] His policies and beliefs have been frequently invoked by Republican presidential candidates since 1988.[23] The 2008 Republican presidential candidates were no exception, for they aimed to liken themselves to him during the primary debates, even imitating his campaign strategies.[378] Republican nominee John McCain frequently said that he came to office as "a foot soldier in the Reagan Revolution."[379] Reagan's most famous statement regarding the role of smaller government was that "Government is not a solution to our problem, government is the problem."[380]

Reagan has become an iconic figure in the Republican Party. Praise for his accomplishments were part of the standard GOP rhetoric a quarter century after his retirement. Washington Post reporter Carlos Lozada noted how the main Republican contenders in the 2016 presidential race adopted "standard GOP Gipper worship." The contenders included even Donald Trump, who had previously been skeptical.[381]

The period of American history most dominated by Reagan and his policies that concerned taxes, welfare, defense, the federal judiciary and the Cold War is known today as the Reagan Era. This time period emphasized that the conservative "Reagan Revolution," led by Reagan, had a permanent impact on the United States in domestic and foreign policy. The Bill Clinton administration is often treated as an extension of the Reagan Era, as is the George W. Bush administration.[382] Historian Eric Foner noted that the Obama candidacy in 2008 "aroused a great deal of wishful thinking among those yearning for a change after nearly thirty years of Reaganism."[383]

Cultural and political image

According to columnist Chuck Raasch, "Reagan transformed the American presidency in ways that only a few have been able to."[384] He redefined the political agenda of the times, advocating lower taxes, a conservative economic philosophy, and a stronger military.[385] His role in the Cold War further enhanced his image as a different kind of leader.[386][387] Reagan's "avuncular style, optimism, and plain-folks demeanor" also helped him turn "government-bashing into an art form."[165]

President Reagan's approval ratings
Date Event Approval (%) Disapproval (%)
March 30, 1981 Shot by Hinckley 73 19
January 22, 1983 High unemployment 42 54
April 26, 1986 Libya bombing 70 26
February 26, 1987 Iran-Contra affair 44 51
December 27-29, 1988[388] Near end of presidency 63 29
N/A Career average 57 39
July 30, 2001 (Retrospective)[389] 64 27

As a sitting president, Reagan did not have the highest approval ratings,[390] but his popularity has increased since 1989. Gallup polls in 2001 and 2007 ranked him number one or number two when correspondents were asked for the greatest president in history. Reagan ranked third of post-World War II presidents in a 2007 Rasmussen Reports poll, fifth in an ABC 2000 poll, ninth in another 2007 Rasmussen poll, and eighth in a late 2008 poll by British newspaper The Times.[391][392][393] In a Siena College survey of over 200 historians, however, Reagan ranked sixteenth out of 42.[394][395] While the debate about Reagan's legacy is ongoing, the 2009 Annual C-SPAN Survey of Presidential Leaders ranked Reagan the 10th greatest president. The survey of leading historians rated Reagan number 11 in 2000.[396]

Approval ratings for President Reagan (Gallup)

In 2011, the Institute for the Study of the Americas released the first ever British academic survey to rate U.S. presidents. This poll of British specialists in U.S. history and politics placed Reagan as the eighth greatest U.S. president.[397]

Reagan's ability to connect with Americans[398] earned him the laudatory moniker "The Great Communicator."[399] Of it, Reagan said, "I won the nickname the great communicator. But I never thought it was my style that made a difference--it was the content. I wasn't a great communicator, but I communicated great things."[400] His age and soft-spoken speech gave him a warm grandfatherly image.[401][402][403]

Reagan also earned the nickname "the Teflon President," in that public perceptions of him were not tarnished by the controversies that arose during his administration.[404] According to Colorado congresswoman Patricia Schroeder, who coined the phrase, and reporter Howard Kurtz, the epithet referred to Reagan's ability to "do almost anything wrong[404] and not get blamed for it."[398][405]

Public reaction to Reagan was always mixed. He was the oldest president up to that time and was supported by young voters, who began an alliance that shifted many of them to the Republican party.[406] Reagan did not fare well with minority groups, especially African-Americans.[230] This was largely due to his opposition to affirmative action policies.[407] However, his support of Israel throughout his presidency earned him support from many Jews.[408] He emphasized family values in his campaigns and during his presidency, although he was the first president to have been divorced.[409] The combination of Reagan's speaking style, unabashed patriotism, negotiation skills, as well as his savvy use of the media, played an important role in defining the 1980s and his future legacy.[410]

President Reagan clowning with Muhammad Ali in the Oval Office, 1983

Reagan was known to joke frequently during his lifetime, displayed humor throughout his presidency,[411] and was famous for his storytelling.[412] His numerous jokes and one-liners have been labeled "classic quips" and "legendary."[413] Among the most notable of his jokes was one regarding the Cold War. As a microphone test in preparation for his weekly radio address in August 1984, Reagan made the following joke: "My fellow Americans, I'm pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever. We begin bombing in five minutes."[414] Former aide David Gergen commented, "It was that humor... that I think endeared people to Reagan."[210]


Reagan received a number of awards in his pre- and post-presidential years. After his election as president, Reagan received a lifetime gold membership in the Screen Actors Guild, was inducted into the National Speakers Association Speaker Hall of Fame,[415] and received the United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award.[416]

In 1981, Reagan was inducted as a Laureate of The Lincoln Academy of Illinois and awarded the Order of Lincoln (the state's highest honor) by the Governor of Illinois in the area of Government.[417] In 1983, he received the highest distinction of the Scout Association of Japan, the Golden Pheasant Award.[418] In 1989, Reagan was made an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, one of the highest British orders (this entitled him to the use of the post-nominal letters "GCB" but, as a foreign national, not to be known as "Sir Ronald Reagan"); only two U.S. presidents have received this honor since attaining office, Reagan and George H. W. Bush.,[419] while Dwight D. Eisenhower received his before becoming President in his capacity as a general after World War II. Reagan was also named an honorary Fellow of Keble College, Oxford. Japan awarded him the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum in 1989; he was the second U.S. president to receive the order and the first to have it given to him for personal reasons (Dwight D. Eisenhower received it as a commemoration of U.S.-Japanese relations).[420] In 1990, Reagan was awarded the WPPAC's Top Honor Prize because he signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty with H.E. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (then President of Russia), ending the cold war.[421][422]

Former President Reagan returns to the White House to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Bush, 1993

On January 18, 1993, Reagan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom (awarded with distinction), the highest honor that the United States can bestow, from President George H. W. Bush, his Vice President and successor.[423] Reagan was also awarded the Republican Senatorial Medal of Freedom, the highest honor bestowed by Republican members of the Senate.[424]

On Reagan's 87th birthday, in 1998, Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport by a bill signed into law by President Bill Clinton. That year, the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center was dedicated in Washington, D.C.[425] He was among 18 included in Gallup's most admired man and woman poll of the 20th century, from a poll conducted in the U.S. in 1999; two years later, USS Ronald Reagan was christened by Nancy Reagan and the United States Navy. It is one of few Navy ships christened in honor of a living person and the first aircraft carrier to be named in honor of a living former president.[426]

In 1998 the U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation awarded Reagan its Naval Heritage award for his support of the U.S. Navy and military in both his film career and while he served as president.[427]

Congress authorized the creation of the Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home in Dixon, Illinois in 2002, pending federal purchase of the property.[428] On May 16 of that year, Nancy Reagan accepted the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian honor bestowed by Congress, on behalf of the president and herself.[429]

After Reagan's death, the United States Postal Service issued a President Ronald Reagan commemorative postage stamp in 2005.[430] Later in the year, CNN, along with the editors of Time magazine, named him the "most fascinating person" of the network's first 25 years;[431]Time listed Reagan one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century as well.[432] The Discovery Channel asked its viewers to vote for The Greatest American in June 2005; Reagan placed in first place, ahead of Lincoln and Martin Luther King Jr.[433]

In 2006, Reagan was inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum.[434] Every year from 2002, California governors Gray Davis and Arnold Schwarzenegger proclaimed February 6 "Ronald Reagan Day" in the state of California in honor of their most famous predecessor.[435] In 2010, Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 944, authored by Senator George Runner, to make every February 6 Ronald Reagan Day in California.[436]

In 2007, Polish President Lech Kaczy?ski posthumously conferred on Reagan the highest Polish distinction, the Order of the White Eagle, saying that Reagan had inspired the Polish people to work for change and helped to unseat the repressive communist regime; Kaczy?ski said it "would not have been possible if it was not for the tough-mindedness, determination, and feeling of mission of President Ronald Reagan."[437] Reagan backed the nation of Poland throughout his presidency, supporting the anti-communist Solidarity movement, along with Pope John Paul II;[438] the Ronald Reagan Park, a public facility in Gda?sk, was named in his honor.

On June 3, 2009, Nancy Reagan unveiled a statue of her late husband in the United States Capitol rotunda. The statue represents the state of California in the National Statuary Hall Collection. After Reagan's death, both major American political parties agreed to erect a statue of Reagan in the place of that of Thomas Starr King.[439] The day before, President Obama signed the Ronald Reagan Centennial Commission Act into law, establishing a commission to plan activities to mark the upcoming centenary of Reagan's birth.[440]

Independence Day 2011 saw the unveiling of another statue to Reagan--this time in the British capital of London, outside the U.S. embassy in Grosvenor Square. The unveiling was supposed to be attended by Reagan's wife Nancy, but she did not attend; former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice took her place and read a statement on her behalf; further to the former First Lady's absence, President Reagan's friend and British prime minister during his presidency, Baroness Thatcher, was also unable to attend due to frail health.[441]


See also


  1. ^ "A Look Back At The Polls". CBS News. Retrieved 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Main Street Historic District, National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form" (PDF). Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. April 1, 1982. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  3. ^ Terry Golway, Ronald Reagan's America (2008) p. 1
  4. ^ a b Kengor, p. 4
  5. ^ Lynette Holloway (December 13, 1996). "Neil Reagan, 88, Ad Executive And Jovial Brother of President". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009. 
  6. ^ a b "Ronald Reagan Facts". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Retrieved 2007. 
  7. ^ Janssen, Kim. "Is Ronald Reagan's Chicago boyhood home doomed?". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 2, 2011. Retrieved 2012. 
  8. ^ Schribman, David (June 6, 2004). "Reagan, all-American, dies at 93". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2008. 
  9. ^ Reagan, Ronald (1990), p. 22
  10. ^ Kengor, Paul (2004), p. 12
  11. ^ Kengor, paul (2004), p. 48
  12. ^ a b Kengor, p. 16
  13. ^ Lewis, Warren; Rollmann, Hans, eds. (2005). Restoring the First-century Church in the Twenty-first Century. Wipf and Stock. pp. 181-192. ISBN 1-59752-416-6. 
  14. ^ Kengor, p. 15
  15. ^ Cannon (2001), p. 2
  16. ^ Reagan (1990), p. 27
  17. ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) pp. 12-5
  18. ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) pp. 16-7
  19. ^ "Ronald Reagan: Life Before the Presidency". Miller Center. Retrieved 2015. 
  20. ^ Cannon (2003), p. 25
  21. ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) pp. 24-31
  22. ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) pp. 35-41
  23. ^ a b c d e f Cannon, Lou (June 6, 2004). "Actor, Governor, President, Icon". The Washington Post. p. A01. Retrieved 2008. 
  24. ^ "Ronald Reagan > Hollywood Years". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  25. ^ a b Cannon (2001), p. 15
  26. ^ "CUPID'S INFLUENCE ON THE FILM BOX-OFFICE". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848-1956). Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia. October 4, 1941. p. 7 Supplement: The Argus Week-end Magazine. Retrieved 2012. 
  27. ^ a b Reagan, Ronald (1965). Where's the Rest of Me?. New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pearce. ISBN 0-283-98771-5. 
  28. ^ Wood, Brett. "Kings Row". TCM website. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2009. 
  29. ^ Crowther, Bosley (February 3, 1942). "The Screen; 'Kings Row,' With Ann Sheridan and Claude Rains, a Heavy, Rambling Film, Has Its First Showing Here at the Astor". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007. 
  30. ^ Cannon (2003), pp. 56-57
  31. ^ a b Friedrich, Otto (1997). City of nets: a portrait of Hollywood in the 1940s. University of California Press (reprint). pp. 86-89. ISBN 978-0-520-20949-7. 
  32. ^ Skinner, et al. (2003), p. 836
  33. ^ Ronald Reagan Endorsed Smoking In The '40s & '50s
  34. ^ "History of the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment". 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved 2008. 
  35. ^ "USS Ronald Reagan: Ronald Reagan". United States Navy. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  36. ^ a b c "President Ronald Reagan". National Museum of the United States Air Force. Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  37. ^ a b c "Military service of Ronald Reagan". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved 2007. 
  38. ^ a b "Ronald Reagan 1911-2004". Tampico, Illinois Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007. 
  39. ^ Hurlburt, Roger (January 6, 1991). "Monroe An Exhibit Of The Early Days Of Marilyn Monroe - Before She Became A Legend - Brings The Star's History In Focus". Sun-Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale, FL. Retrieved 2012. 
  40. ^ a b Cannon, Lou (1991), pp. 486-490
  41. ^ Schaller, M., Reckoning with Reagan, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 9
  42. ^ Shultz, George (1993), p. 550
  43. ^ a b c d "Screen Actors Guild Presidents: Ronald Reagan". Screen Actors Guild. Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved 2008. 
  44. ^ "American Notes Hollywood". Time. September 9, 1985. Retrieved 2009. 
  45. ^ a b "House Un-American Activities Committee Testimony: Ronald Reagan". Tennessee Wesleyan College. October 23, 1947. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  46. ^
  47. ^ "Morning Joe on MSNBC". 
  48. ^ "Death Valley Days". CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 2013. 
  49. ^ Reagan, American Icon. Metzger, Robert Paul. 1989. University of Pennsylvania. p. 26
  50. ^ "Dispute Over Theatre Splits Chicago City Council". The New York Times. May 8, 1984. Retrieved 2007. 
  51. ^ Oliver, Marilyn (March 31, 1988). "Locations Range From the Exotic to the Pristine". Los Angeles Times. 
  52. ^ "Jane Wyman: Biography". Retrieved 2007. 
  53. ^ Severo, Richard (September 11, 2007). "Jane Wyman, 90, Star of Film and TV, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007. 
  54. ^ "Reagan: Home". HBO. Retrieved 2011. 
  55. ^ National Constitution Center (February 6, 2013). "10 interesting facts on Ronald Reagan's birthday". National Constitution Center. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved 2013. 
  56. ^ POLITICO. "Jane Wyman, Ronald Reagan's first wife, dies at 93". 
  57. ^ "Nancy Reagan > Her Life & Times". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  58. ^ Fieldstadt, Elisha; Gittens, Hasani (March 6, 2016). "Former First Lady Nancy Reagan Dead at 94". NBC News. Retrieved 2016. 
  59. ^ a b c d "End of a Love Story". BBC News. June 5, 2004. Retrieved 2007. 
  60. ^ "Nancy Davis Reagan". The White House. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  61. ^ Beschloss, p. 296
  62. ^ a b Berry, Deborah Barfield (June 6, 2004). "By Reagan's Side, but her own person". Newsday. Archived from the original on June 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  63. ^ "Reagan Love Story". MSNBC. June 9, 2004. Retrieved 2007. 
  64. ^ Beschloss, p. 284
  65. ^ Fieldstadt, Elisha; Gittens, Hasani (March 6, 2016). "Former First Lady Nancy Reagan Dead at 94". NBC News. Retrieved 2016. 
  66. ^ Edward M. Yager (2006). Ronald Reagan's Journey: Democrat to Republican. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 12-15. 
  67. ^ Lori Clune, "Political Ideology and Activism to 1966" in Andrew L. Johns, ed., A Companion to Ronald Reagan (2015) pp. 22-39.
  68. ^ J. David Woodard (2012). Ronald Reagan: A Biography. ABC-CLIO. p. 28. 
  69. ^ "President Reagan's Legacy and U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy." July 20, 2006. Retrieved 2014. 
  70. ^ McCullough, David. Truman. Simon & Schuster, 1992, p. 665. ISBN 0-671-45654-7.
  71. ^ Reagan, Ronald (1990). An American Life: The Autobiography. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-69198-8. 
  72. ^ Pemberton (1998) pp. 29-31
  73. ^ Thomas W. Evans, The Education of Ronald Reagan: The General Electric Years and the Untold Story of His Conversion to Conservatism (2008).
  74. ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) p. 128
  75. ^ Hayward, p. 635.
  76. ^ Ronald Reagan speaks out on Socialized Medicine - Audio on YouTube
  77. ^ Richard Rapaport, June 21, 2009, How AMA 'Coffeecup' gave Reagan a boost. San Francisco Chronicle.
  78. ^ Tatalovich, Raymond; Byron W. Daynes, Theodore J. Lowi (2010). Moral Controversies in American Politics (4th ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7656-2651-6. 
  79. ^ Brands, Reagan (2015) pp. 1-6
  80. ^ "A Time for Choosing". PBS. Retrieved 2007. 
  81. ^ Reagan, Ronald. "A time for choosing." (1964) online.
  82. ^ Ellen Reid Gold, "Ronald Reagan and the oral tradition." Communication Studies (1988) 39#3-4 pp. 159-175
  83. ^ Kurt W. Ritter, "Ronald Reagan and 'the speech': The rhetoric of public relations politics." Western Journal of Communication (1968) 32#1 pp. 50-58.
  84. ^ National Press Club Luncheon Speakers, Ronald Reagan, June 16, 1966 (Speech). Washington, D.C.: National Press Club. June 16, 1966. Retrieved 2016 - via Library of Congress, Recorded Sound Research Center. 
  85. ^ "The Governors' Gallery - Ronald Reagan". California State Library. Retrieved 2007. 
  86. ^ Gerard J. De Groot, "'A Goddamned Electable Person': The 1966 California Gubernatorial Campaign of Ronald Reagan." History 82#267 (1997) pp. 429-448.
  87. ^ Totton J. Anderson and Eugene C. Lee, "The 1966 Election in California," Western Political Quarterly (1967) 20#2 pp. 535-554 in JSTOR
  88. ^ Kahn, Jeffery (June 8, 2004). "Ronald Reagan launched political career using the Berkeley campus as a target". UC Berkeley News. Retrieved 2007. 
  89. ^ Cannon (2001), p. 47.
  90. ^ a b *Fischer, Klaus (2006). America in White, Black, and Gray: The Stormy 1960s. Continuum. pp. 241-243. ISBN 0-8264-1816-3. 
  91. ^ "The New Rules of Play". Time. March 8, 1968. Retrieved 2007. 
  92. ^ a b c d Cannon, Lou (2001), p. 50.
  93. ^ "Postscript to People's Park". Time. February 16, 1970. Retrieved 2007. 
  94. ^ "A Brief History of UCPD: Berkeley, History Topic: People's Park". August 2006. Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved 2015. 
  95. ^ Cannon, Lou (2003), p. 295.
  96. ^ Reagan's botulism joke is variously reported as "sometimes you wonder whether there shouldn't be an outbreak of botulism" (Sarasota Journal, March 7, 1974, p. 15A) and "It's just too bad we can't have an epidemic of botulism" (Los Angeles Times, March 14, 1974, "Reagan Raps Press on Botulism Quote.")
  97. ^ a b c Cannon (2001), p. 51
  98. ^ Reagan, Ronald. (1984) Abortion and the conscience of the nation. Nashville: T. Nelson. ISBN 0-8407-4116-2
  99. ^ "From "A Huey P. Newton Story"". Retrieved 2010. 
  100. ^ "How to Stage a Revolution Introduction". Retrieved 2010. 
  101. ^ Recall Idea Got Its Start in L.A. in 1898, Los Angeles Times, July 13, 2003
  102. ^ Seneker, Carl J (May 1967). "Governor Reagan and Executive Clemency". California Law Review. 55 (2): 412-418. doi:10.2307/3479351. JSTOR 3479351. 
  103. ^ Community Property and Family Law: The Family Law Act of 1969 by Aidan R. Gough,
  104. ^ 1969 Cal. Stats. chapter 1608, p. 3313
  105. ^ Kubarych, Roger M (June 9, 2004). "The Reagan Economic Legacy". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved 2007. 
  106. ^ "Biography of Gerald R. Ford". The White House. Archived from the original on April 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007.  Ford considered himself as "a moderate in domestic affairs, a conservative in fiscal affairs, and a dyed-in-the-wool internationalist in foreign affairs."
  107. ^ "Candidate Reagan is Born Again". Time. September 24, 1979. Retrieved 2008. 
  108. ^ a b "1976 New Hampshire presidential Primary, February 24, 1976 Republican Results". New Hampshire Political Library. Archived from the original on October 6, 2006. Retrieved 2008. 
  109. ^ Hathorn Billy (2010). "Mayor Ernest Angelo Jr., of Midland and the 96-0 Reagan Sweep of Texas, May 1, 1976". West Texas Historical Association Yearbook. 86: 77-91. 
  110. ^ "Electoral College Box Scores 1789-1996". U.S. National Archives and Records Admin. Retrieved 2007. 
  111. ^ "Register of the Ronald Reagan Radio Commentary Sound Recordings, 1967-1980". Retrieved 2014. 
  112. ^ "Citizens for the Republic: Who We Are". Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved 2013. 
  113. ^ Uchitelle, Louis (September 22, 1988). "Bush, Like Reagan in 1980, Seeks Tax Cuts to Stimulate the Economy". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  114. ^ Hakim, Danny (March 14, 2006). "Challengers to Clinton Discuss Plans and Answer Questions". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  115. ^ Kneeland, Douglas E. (August 4, 1980) "Reagan Campaigns at Mississippi Fair; Nominee Tells Crowd of 10,000 He Is Backing States' Rights." The New York Times. p. A11. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  116. ^ John David Lees, Michael Turner. Reagan's first four years: a new beginning? Manchester University Press ND, 1988. p. 11
  117. ^ "1980 Presidential Election Results". Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 2007. 
  118. ^ a b *Freidel, Frank; Sidey, Hugh (1995). The Presidents of the United States of America. Washington, D.C.: White House Historical Association. p. 84. ISBN 0-912308-57-5. 
  119. ^ Hayward, Steven F (May 16, 2005). "Reagan in Retrospect". American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved 2009. 
  120. ^ a b Cannon (1991, 2000), p. 746
  121. ^ Reagan, Ronald (2007). The Reagan Diaries. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-087600-X. Retrieved 2007. 
  122. ^ Murray, Robert K.; Tim H. Blessing (1993). Greatness in the White House. Penn State Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-271-02486-0. 
  123. ^ a b David M. Ackerman, The Law of Church and State: Developments in the Supreme Court Since 1980. Novinka Books, 2001. p. 2.
  124. ^ "U.S. Supreme Court: Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962)". Retrieved 2016. 
  125. ^ Ronald Reagan, Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union. January 25, 1984
  126. ^ George de Lama, Reagan Sees An "Uphill Battle" For Prayer In Public Schools. June 7, 1985, Chicago Tribune.
  127. ^ a b c Stuart Taylor Jr., High Court Accepts Appeal Of Moment Of Silence Law. January 28, 1987, The New York Times.
  128. ^ Lodi News-Sentinel, Reagan Urges School 'Moment of Silence'. July 12, 1984.
  129. ^ "Remembering the Assassination Attempt on Ronald Reagan". CNN. March 30, 2001. Retrieved 2007. 
  130. ^ D'Souza, Dinesh (June 8, 2004). "Purpose". National Review. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved 2009. 
  131. ^ Langer, Gary (June 7, 2004). "Reagan's Ratings: 'Great Communicator's' Appeal Is Greater in Retrospect". ABC. Retrieved 2008. 
  132. ^ Kengor, Paul (2004). "Reagan's Catholic Connections". Catholic Exchange. Retrieved 2008. 
  133. ^ Robert David Johnson (2005). Congress and the Cold War. Cambridge UO. pp. 253-254. 
  134. ^ Herbert R. Northrup, "[ The Rise And Demise Of PATCO]," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, January 1984, Vol. 37 Issue 2, pp. 167-184
  135. ^ "Remarks and a Question-and-Answer Session With Reporters on the Air Traffic Controllers Strike". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. 1981. Retrieved 2007. 
  136. ^ "Unhappy Again". Time. October 6, 1986. Retrieved 2007. 
  137. ^ David Schultz, Encyclopedia of public administration and public policy (2004) p. 359
  138. ^ Cannon (1991, 2000), p. 235.
  139. ^ "Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and over, 1940 to date". United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2010. 
  140. ^ "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". August 17, 2011. Retrieved 2012. 
  141. ^ "Real Gross Domestic Product, 3 Decimal". US. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 2015. 
  142. ^ Karaagac, John (2000). Ronald Reagan and Conservative Reformism. Lexington Books. p. 113. ISBN 0-7391-0296-6. 
  143. ^ Cannon (2001) p. 99
  144. ^ Hayward, pp. 146-148
  145. ^ Peter B. Levy (1996). Encyclopedia of the Reagan-Bush Years. ABC-CLIO. pp. 305-306. 
  146. ^ a b Bartels, Larry M., L. M. (June 1, 1991). "Constituency Opinion and Congressional Policy Making: The Reagan Defense Build Up". The American Political Science Review. 85 (2): 457-474. doi:10.2307/1963169. ISSN 0003-0554. JSTOR 1963169. 
  147. ^ Mitchell, Daniel J. (July 19, 1996). "The Historical Lessons of Lower Tax Rates". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on May 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  148. ^ Sahadi, Jeanne (September 12, 2010). "Taxes: What people forget about Reagan". CNN. Retrieved 2017. 
  149. ^ "Bruce Bartlett on Tax Increases & Reagan on NRO Financial". October 29, 2003. Archived from the original on August 10, 2010. Retrieved 2010. 
  150. ^ a b Bartlett, Bruce (February 27, 2009). "Higher Taxes: Will The Republicans Cry Wolf Again?". Forbes. Retrieved 2010. 
  151. ^ Tempalski, Jerry (2003). "OTA Paper 81 - Revenue Effects of Major Tax Bills, rev. September 2006" (PDF). United States Department of the Treasury, Office of Tax Analysis. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 21, 2011. Retrieved 2007. 
  152. ^ Krugman, Paul (June 8, 2004). "The Great Taxer". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010. 
  153. ^ "Even Reagan Raised Taxes," Forbes. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
  154. ^ "Gross Domestic Product" (Excel). Bureau of Economic Analysis. July 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  155. ^ Hayward, p. 185
  156. ^ a b c Cannon (2001), p. 128
  157. ^ Brownlee, Elliot; Graham, Hugh Davis (2003). The Reagan Presidency: Pragmatic Conservatism & Its Legacies. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press. pp. 172-173. 
  158. ^ Steuerle, C. Eugene (1992). The Tax Decade: How Taxes Came to Dominate the Public Agenda. Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute Press. p. 122. ISBN 0-87766-523-0. 
  159. ^ Tempalski (2006), Table 2
  160. ^ "Historical Budget Data". Congressional Budget Office. March 20, 2009. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved 2009. 
  161. ^ "Federal Budget Receipts and Outlays". Retrieved 2010. 
  162. ^ "Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 - Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds (4.A)" (PDF). Retrieved 2010. 
  163. ^ "Reaganomics". PBS. June 10, 2004. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  164. ^ a b c Meacham, John; Murr, Andrew; Clift, Eleanor; Lipper, Tamara; Breslau, Karen; Ordonez, Jennifer (June 14, 2004). "American Dreamer". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008. 
  165. ^ a b c Dreier, Peter (April 3, 2011). "Don't add Reagan's Face to Mount Rushmore". The Nation. 
  166. ^ "Making Sense of the 'Me Decade'". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 2012. 
  167. ^ Bartlett, Bruce (June 5, 2012). "Rich Nontaxpayers". The New York Times. 
  168. ^ Kocieniewski, David (January 18, 2012). "Since 1980s, the Kindest of Tax Cuts for the Rich". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012. 
  169. ^ Rampell, Catherine (November 18, 2011). "Tax Pledge May Scuttle a Deal on Deficit". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012. 
  170. ^ Krugman, Paul (June 8, 2004). "The Great Taxer". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011. 
  171. ^ Barlett, Bruce (April 6, 2010). "Reagan's Tax Increases". Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved 2012. 
  172. ^ a b Rosenbaum, David E (January 8, 1986). "Reagan insists Budget Cuts are way to Reduce Deficit". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  173. ^ "Ronald Reagan: Presidency, Domestic Policies". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008. 
  174. ^ "Views from the Former Administrators". EPA Journal. Environmental Protection Agency. November 1985. Archived from the original on July 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  175. ^ "The Reagan Presidency". Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  176. ^ Pear, Robert (April 19, 1992). "U.S. to Reconsider Denial of Benefits to Many Disabled". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  177. ^ Bergsten, C. Fred (2001). "Strong Dollar, Weak Policy". The International Economy. 
  178. ^ Sornette, Didier; Johansen, Anders; &Amp,; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe (1996). "Stock Market Crashes, Precursors and Replicas". Journal de Physique I. 6 (1): 167-175. CiteSeerX Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/jp1:1996135. 
  179. ^ "Historical Debt Outstanding". U.S. Treasury Department. Retrieved 2010. 
  180. ^ Brandly, Mark (May 20, 2004). "Will We Run Out of Energy?". Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved 2008. 
  181. ^ a b Lieberman, Ben (September 1, 2005). "A Bad Response To Post-Katrina Gas Prices". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on November 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  182. ^ Thorndike, Joseph J. (November 10, 2005). "Historical Perspective: The Windfall Profit Tax--Career of a Concept". Retrieved 2008. 
  183. ^ a b "Reagan's Economic Legacy". Business Week. June 21, 2004. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  184. ^ Koprowski, Gene (March 7, 1991). "Tech Intelligence Revival? Commerce May Model on DIA's Project Socrates". Washington Technology. 
  185. ^ Smith, Esther (May 5, 1988). "DoD Unveils Competitive Tool: Project Socrates Offers Valuable Analysis". Washington Technology. 
  186. ^ Reagan, Ronald. (June 8, 1982). "Ronald Reagan Address to British Parliament". The History Place. Retrieved 2006. 
  187. ^ "Towards an International History of the War in Afghanistan, 1979-89". The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 2002. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  188. ^ "LGM-118A Peacekeeper". Federation of American Scientists. August 15, 2000. Retrieved 2007. 
  189. ^ "Großdemo gegen Nato-Doppelbeschluss, SPIEGEL on the mass protests against deployment of nuclear weapons in West Germany". 
  190. ^ Nicholas Lemann, "Reagan: The Triumph of Tone" The New York Review of Books 10 March, 2016
  191. ^ "Reagan and Thatcher, political soul mates". MSNBC. Associated Press. June 5, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  192. ^ Robert C. Rowland, and John M. Jones. Reagan at Westminster: Foreshadowing the End of the Cold War (Texas A&M University Press; 2010)
  193. ^ "Addresses to both Houses of Parliament since 1939," Parliamentary Information List, Standard Note: SN/PC/4092, Last updated: November 12, 2014, Author: Department of Information Services
  194. ^ "Former President Reagan Dies at 93". Los Angeles Times. June 6, 2004. Retrieved 2007. 
  195. ^ Cannon (1991), pp. 314-317.
  196. ^ a b "1983: Korean Airlines flight shot down by Soviet Union". A&E Television. Archived from the original on March 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  197. ^ Pace (1995). "GPS History, Chronology, and Budgets". The Global Positioning System (PDF). Rand. p. 248. 
  198. ^ Pellerin, United States Updates Global Positioning System Technology: New GPS satellite ushers in a range of future improvements
  199. ^ Stephen S. Rosenfeld (Spring 1986). "The Reagan Doctrine: The Guns of July". Foreign Affairs. 64 (4). Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. 
  200. ^ Crile, George (2003). Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-854-9. 
  201. ^ Pach, Chester (2006). "The Reagan Doctrine: Principle, Pragmatism, and Policy". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 36 (1): 75-88. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.00288.x. JSTOR 27552748. 
  202. ^ Coll, Steve (July 19, 1992). "Anatomy of a Victory: CIA's Covert Afghan War". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009. 
  203. ^ Harnden, Toby (September 26, 2001). "Taliban still have Reagan's Stingers". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2010. 
  204. ^ Harrison, Selig S. "A Chinese Civil War." The National Interest, February 7, 2011.
  205. ^ a b c "Deploy or Perish: SDI and Domestic Politics". Scholarship Editions. Retrieved 2007. 
  206. ^ Adelman, Ken (July 8, 2003). "SDI:The Next Generation". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 2007. 
  207. ^ Beschloss, p. 293
  208. ^ a b "Foreign Affairs: Ronald Reagan". PBS. Archived from the original on June 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  209. ^ Beschloss, p. 294
  210. ^ a b Thomas, Rhys (Writer/Producer) (2005). The Presidents (Documentary). A&E Television. 
  211. ^ Richard Allen Greene, "Critics question Reagan legacy," BBC News, June 9, 2004
  212. ^ What Guilt Does the U.S. Bear in Guatemala? The New York Times, May 19, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  213. ^ From U.S. Ally to Convicted War Criminal: Inside Chad's Hissène Habré's Close Ties to Reagan Admin. Democracy Now! May 31, 2016.
  214. ^ Tower, John; Muskie, Edmund; Scowcroft, Brent (1987). Report of the President's Special Review Board. Bantam Books. p. 104. ISBN 9780553269680. In 1983, the U.S. helped bring to the attention of Tehran the threat inherent in the extensive infiltration of the government by the communist Tudeh Party and Soviet or pro-Soviet cadres in the country. Using this information, the Khomeini government took measures, including mass executions, that virtually eliminated the pro-Soviet infrastructure in Iran.  Available online here.
  215. ^ a b Did Reagan Finance Genocide in Guatemala?, ABC News, Santiago Wills, May 14, 2013. " . . The [Guatemalan] army was targeting the Ixil and other indigenous groups, killing them indiscriminately, whether they had helped the guerrillas or not. . "
  216. ^ Allan Nairn: After Ríos Montt Verdict, Time for U.S. to Account for Its Role in Guatemalan Genocide. Democracy Now! May 15, 2013.
  217. ^ "Ríos Montt genocide case collapses". The Guardian. London. May 20, 2013. 
  218. ^ Ronald Reagan's genocidal secret: A true story of right-wing impunity in Guatemala, Salon, Miles Culpepper, 2015.
  219. ^ Farivar, Cyrus (August 27, 2014). "The executive order that led to mass spying, as told by NSA alumni: Feds call it "twelve triple three"; whistleblower says it's the heart of the problem". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2017. 
  220. ^ Jaycox, Mark (June 2, 2014). "A Primer on Executive Order 12333: The Mass Surveillance Starlet". San Francisco, California: Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 2017. 
  221. ^ Timothy J. Geraghty (2009). Peacekeepers at War: Beirut 1983 - The Marine Commander Tells His Story. Potomac Books. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-59797-595-7. 
  222. ^ Lou Cannon & Carl M. Cannon (2007). Reagan's Disciple: George W. Bush's Troubled Quest for a Presidential Legacy. PublicAffairs. p. 154. 
  223. ^ a b "Operation Agent Fury" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  224. ^ Cooper, Tom (September 1, 2003). "Grenada, 1983: Operation 'Urgent Fury'". Air Combat Information Group. Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  225. ^ "Los Angeles 1984". Swedish Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on December 30, 2006. Retrieved 2007. 
  226. ^ "The Debate: Mondale vs. Reagan". National Review. October 4, 2004. Archived from the original on April 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  227. ^ "Reaction to first Mondale/Reagan debate". PBS. October 8, 1984. Archived from the original on January 25, 2008. Retrieved 2007. 
  228. ^ "1984 Presidential Debates". CNN. Archived from the original on March 8, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  229. ^ a b "1984 Presidential Election Results". David Leip. Retrieved 2007. 
  230. ^ a b "The Reagan Presidency". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Retrieved 2008. 
  231. ^ a b "Phil Gailey and Warren Weaver Jr., "Briefing"". The New York Times. June 5, 1982. Retrieved 2011. 
  232. ^ Berkes, Howard (January 28, 2006). "Challenger: Reporting a Disaster's Cold, Hard Facts". NPR. Retrieved 2008. 
  233. ^ Noonan, Peggy (January 28, 1986). "Address to the Nation on the Explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger". University of Texas. Retrieved 2009. 
  234. ^ "America's Flight 17". Slate. July 23, 2014. 
  235. ^ President Reagan: The Role Of A Lifetime, Lou Cannon, 1991, pages 507-08.
  236. ^ Veterans, Camp Survivors Condemn President`s Visit, Sun Sentinel [Florida], Robert McClure, Michael Romano ,Michele Cohen, May 6, 2018.
  237. ^ Reagan Defends Cemetery Visit : Says German Dead Are Also Victims of Nazis, Los Angeles Times, Don Shannon, April 19, 1985.
  238. ^ Buchanan, Pat (1999). "Pat Buchanan's Response to Norman Podhoretz's OP-ED". The Internet Brigade. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  239. ^ Reeves, p. 249
  240. ^ Reagan Joins Kohl in Brief Memorial at Bitburg Graves, New York Times, Bernard Weinraub, May 6, 1985,
  241. ^ Reeves, p. 255
  242. ^ Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow. New York: The New Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-59558-103-7. 
  243. ^ Lamar, Jacob V., Jr (September 22, 1986). "Rolling Out the Big Guns". Time. Retrieved 2007. 
  244. ^ Randall, Vernellia R. (April 18, 2006). "The Drug War as Race War". The University of Dayton School of Law. Retrieved 2007. 
  245. ^ a b "Thirty Years of America's Drug War". Retrieved 2007. 
  246. ^ "The Reagan-Era Drug War Legacy". Drug Reform Coordination Network. June 11, 2004. Retrieved 2007. 
  247. ^ "NIDA InfoFacts: High School and Youth Trends". National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH. Retrieved 2007. 
  248. ^ "Interview: Dr. Herbert Kleber". PBS. Retrieved 2007. The politics of the Reagan years and the Bush years probably made it somewhat harder to get treatment expanded, but at the same time, it probably had a good effect in terms of decreasing initiation and use. For example, marijuana went from thirty-three percent of high-school seniors in 1980 to twelve percent in 1991. 
  249. ^ "The 'just say no' first lady". MSNBC. February 18, 2004. Retrieved 2007. 
  250. ^ Bronski, Michael. "Rewriting the Script on Reagan: Why the President Ignored AIDS". Retrieved 2016. 
  251. ^ Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. Macmillan. Retrieved 2016. 
  252. ^ Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. Macmillan. Retrieved 2016. 
  253. ^ "Reagan and AIDS: A Reassessment - IGF Culture Watch". IGF Culture Watch. Retrieved 2015. 
  254. ^ "Libya: Fury in the Isolation Ward". Time. August 23, 1982. Retrieved 2011. 
  255. ^ a b "Operation El Dorado Canyon". April 25, 2005. Retrieved 2008. 
  256. ^ a b c "1986:US Launches air-strike on Libya". BBC News. April 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  257. ^ "A/RES/41/38 November 20, 1986". United Nations. Retrieved 2014. 
  258. ^ Graham, Otis (January 27, 2003). "Ronald Reagan's Big Mistake". The American Conservative. Archived from the original on July 29, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  259. ^ a b Reagan, Ronald. (November 6, 1986) Statement on Signing the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Collected Speeches, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
  260. ^ "Understanding the Iran-Contra Affairs". 
  261. ^ "The Iran Contra scandal". CNN. 2001. Retrieved 2007. 
  262. ^ Parry, Robert (June 2, 2004). "NYT's apologies miss the point". Consortium for Independent Journalism. Retrieved 2007. 
  263. ^ Morrison, Fred L., F. L. (January 1, 1987). "Legal Issues in The Nicaragua Opinion". American Journal of International Law. 81 (1): 160-166. doi:10.2307/2202146. ISSN 0002-9300. JSTOR 2202146. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. 
  264. ^ "Managua wants $1B from US; demand would follow word court ruling". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. June 29, 1986. 
  265. ^ "Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America)". Cases. International Court of Justice. June 27, 1986. Retrieved 2009. 
  266. ^ a b "Reagan's mixed White House legacy". BBC News. June 6, 2004. Retrieved 2007. 
  267. ^ Mayer, Jane; McManus, Doyle (1988). Landslide: The Unmaking of The President, 1984-1988. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 292, 437. ISBN 978-0-395-45185-4. 
  268. ^ Dwyer, Paula (June 23, 1997). "Pointing a Finger at Reagan". Business Week. Archived from the original on August 7, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  269. ^ a b Sullivan, Kevin & Mary Jordan (June 10, 2004). "In Central America, Reagan Remains A Polarizing Figure". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007. 
  270. ^ Hamm, Manfred R. (June 23, 1983). "New Evidence of Moscow's Military Threat". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  271. ^ Lebow, Richard Ned & Stein, Janice Gross (February 1994). "Reagan and the Russians". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2010. 
  272. ^ a b c Gaidar, Yegor (2007). Collapse of an Empire: Lessons for Modern Russia (in Russian). Brookings Institution Press. pp. 190-205. ISBN 5-8243-0759-8. 
  273. ^ Gaidar, Yegor. "Public Expectations and Trust towards the Government: Post-Revolution Stabilization and its Discontents". Retrieved 2008. 
  274. ^ a b c d e f Knopf, PhD, Jeffery W. (August 2004). "Did Reagan Win the Cold War?". Strategic Insights. Center for Contemporary Conflict. III (8). Retrieved 2008. 
  275. ^ Stein, Sam (April 7, 2010). "Giuliani's Obama-Nuke Critique Defies And Ignores Reagan". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2017. 
  276. ^ a b Lettow, Paul (July 20, 2006). "President Reagan's Legacy and U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on April 11, 2010. 
  277. ^ a b "Hyvästi, ydinpommi". Helsingin Sanomat. September 5, 2010. pp. D1-D2. 
  278. ^ "Toward The Summit; Previous Reagan-Gorbachev Summits". The New York Times. May 29, 1988. Retrieved 2008. 
  279. ^ "Modern History Sourcebook: Ronald Reagan: Evil Empire Speech, June 8, 1982". Fordham University. May 1998. Retrieved 2007. 
  280. ^ a b Keller, Bill (March 2, 1987). "Gorbachev Offer 2: Other Arms Hints". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  281. ^ "INF Treaty". US State Department. Retrieved 2007. 
  282. ^ Talbott, Strobe (August 5, 1991). "The Summit Goodfellas". Time. Retrieved 2008. 
  283. ^ Reagan (1990), p. 713
  284. ^ Reagan (1990), p. 720
  285. ^ "1989: Malta summit ends Cold War". BBC News. December 3, 1984. Retrieved 2011. 
  286. ^ Weisman, Steven R. (September 8, 1983). "Reagan Begins to Wear a Hearing Aid in Public". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  287. ^ "Reagan Begins Using A Second Hearing Aid". United Press International. March 21, 1985. Retrieved 2008. 
  288. ^ Friess, Steve (August 9, 2006). "He amplifies hearing aids". USA Today. Retrieved 2008. 
  289. ^ "What is the 25th Amendment and When Has It Been Invoked?". History News Network. Retrieved 2007. 
  290. ^ Bumgarner, p. 285
  291. ^ Bumgarner, p. 204
  292. ^ Boyd, Gerald M (August 2, 1985). "'Irritated Skin' is Removed from Side of Reagan's Nose". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  293. ^ Herron, Caroline Rand & Michael Wright (October 13, 1987). "Balancing the Budget and Politics; More Cancer on Reagan's Nose". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  294. ^ Altman, Lawrence K (January 6, 1987). "President is Well after Operation to Ease Prostate". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  295. ^ Herron, Caroline Rand & Martha A. Miles (August 2, 1987). "The Nation; Cancer Found on Reagan's Nose". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  296. ^ "Statement by Assistant to the President for Press Relations Fitzwater on the President's Hand Surgery". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. January 7, 1989. Retrieved 2016. 
  297. ^ Reagan (1990), p. 280
  298. ^ Reston, James (July 5, 1987). "Washington; Kennedy And Bork". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  299. ^ Greenhouse, Linda (October 24, 1987). "Bork's Nomination Is Rejected, 58-42; Reagan 'Saddened'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007. 
  300. ^ "Media Frenzies in Our Time," Special to The Washington Post
  301. ^ "Anthony M. Kennedy". Supreme Court Historical Society. 1999. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  302. ^ Levine, Dan (April 6, 2011). "Gay judge never considered dropping Prop 8 case". Reuters. Retrieved 2011. 
  303. ^ "Biographical Directory of Federal Judges: Walker, Vaughn R." History of the Federal Judiciary. Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
  304. ^ "Pendleton, Clarence M. Jr". Notable Kentucky African Americans Database. University of Kentucky. Retrieved 2013. 
  305. ^ Gerald B. Jordan (June 7, 1988). "Pendleton Is Remembered Kindly But Colleague Regrets Official's Sharp Rhetoric". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2013. 
  306. ^ "Clarence Pendleton Blasts Comparable Pay Concept". Jet. December 10, 1984. p. 19. Retrieved 2013. 
  307. ^ "707 F.2d 862: United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Gilbert L. Dozier, Defendant-appellant". Retrieved 2013. 
  308. ^ "Persistence paid off for jailed Dozier," Minden Press-Herald, July 23, 1984, p. 1
  309. ^ Sherman, Bill (July 3, 2008). "Louisiana ag chiefs: past and present" (PDF). Market Bulletin. Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry. 91 (14): 1-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2013. Retrieved 2013. 
  310. ^ Netburn, Deborah (December 24, 2006). "Agenting for God". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007. 
  311. ^ "1992 Republican National Convention, Houston". The Heritage Foundation. August 17, 1992. Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  312. ^ Reinhold, Robert (November 5, 1991). "Four Presidents Join Reagan in Dedicating His Library". The New York Times. 
  313. ^ Reagan, Ronald (March 29, 1991). "Why I'm for the Brady Bill". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010. 
  314. ^ Reagan (1990), p. 726
  315. ^ "The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on August 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  316. ^ "Protester at Reagan Speech Had Press Credentials". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016. 
  317. ^ "Man Who Disrupted Reagan Speech Flees 4-Month Jail Term". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016. 
  318. ^ "How Do You Really Protect a President?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016. 
  319. ^ "Activist pleads guilty in Reagan attack". Deseret News. Retrieved 2016. 
  320. ^ a b c d Gordon, Michael R (November 6, 1994). "In Poignant Public Letter, Reagan Reveals That He Has Alzheimer's". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007. 
  321. ^ a b c Reagan, Nancy (2002), pp. 179-180
  322. ^ "The Alzheimer's Letter". PBS. Archived from the original on December 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007. 
  323. ^ Altman, Lawrence K (November 13, 1994). "November 6-12: Amid Rumors; Reagan Discloses His Alzheimer's". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  324. ^ "President Ronald Reagan's Alzheimer's Disease". Radio National. June 7, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  325. ^ Jacob Weisberg (January 5, 2016). Ronald Reagan: The American Presidents Series: The 40th President, 1981-1989. Henry Holt and Company. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8050-9728-3. 
  326. ^ Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. July 9, 1981. p. 5. ISSN 0021-5996. 
  327. ^ Associated Press (19 June 1981). "Cabinet Aide Greeted by Reagan as 'mayor'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018. 
  328. ^ Lesley Stahl (1999). Reporting Live. Simon & Schuster. pp. 256 & 318. ISBN 0-684-82930-4. 
  329. ^ a b c d e f g h i Altman, Lawrence K (October 5, 1997). "Reagan's Twilight - A special report; A President Fades Into a World Apart". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  330. ^ Thomas, Rhys (Writer/Producer); Baker, James (interviewee) (2005). The Presidents (Documentary). A&E Television. 
  331. ^ a b Altman, Lawrence K. (June 15, 2004). "The Doctors World; A Recollection of Early Questions About Reagan's Health". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  332. ^ Morris, Edmund (January 23, 2011). "Edmund Morris: Reagan and Alzheimer's". Newsweek. Retrieved 2016. 
  333. ^ Van Den Heuvel C, Thornton E, Vink R (2007). "Traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease: a review". Progress in Brain Research. Progress in Brain Research. 161: 303-316. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)61021-2. ISBN 978-0-444-53017-2. PMID 17618986. 
  334. ^ Szczygielski J, Mautes A, Steudel WI, Falkai P, Bayer TA, Wirths O (November 2005). "Traumatic brain injury: cause or risk of Alzheimer's disease? A review of experimental studies". Journal of Neural Transmission. 112 (11): 1547-1564. doi:10.1007/s00702-005-0326-0. PMID 15959838. 
  335. ^ "Reagan Breaks Hip In Fall at His Home". The New York Times. January 13, 2001. Retrieved 2008. 
  336. ^ "Reagan recovering from hip surgery, wife Nancy remains at his side". CNN. January 15, 2001. Retrieved 2008. 
  337. ^ "Reagan able to sit up after hip repair". CNN. January 15, 2001. Archived from the original on February 26, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  338. ^ "Reagan Resting Comfortably After Hip Surgery". CNN. January 13, 2001. Retrieved 2007. 
  339. ^ "Nancy Reagan Reflects on Ronald". CNN. March 4, 2001. Retrieved 2007. 
  340. ^ Gordon, Craig (March 9, 2009). "Nancy Reagan praises Obama". Politico. Retrieved 2011. 
  341. ^ "Nancy Reagan plea on stem cells". BBC News. May 10, 2004. Retrieved 2007. 
  342. ^ "Former President Reagan Dies at 93". Los Angeles Times. June 6, 2004. Retrieved 2013. 
  343. ^ a b Von Drehle, David (June 6, 2004). "Ronald Reagan Dies: 40th President Reshaped American Politics". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007. 
  344. ^ "Announcing the Death of Ronald Reagan" (Press release). The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. June 6, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  345. ^ "Ronald Reagan: Tributes". BBC News. June 6, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  346. ^ Leigh, Andrew (June 7, 2004). "Saying Goodbye in Santa Monica". National Review. Archived from the original on March 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  347. ^ "100,000 file past Reagan's casket". CNN. June 9, 2004. Retrieved 2007. 
  348. ^ "Lying In State for former President Reagan" (Press release). United States Capitol Police. June 11, 2004. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  349. ^ "Thatcher's eulogy can be viewed online". Retrieved 2010. 
  350. ^ "BBC NEWS - Americas - Reagan funeral guest list". BBC. 
  351. ^ "A Nation Bids Reagan Farewell: Prayer And Recollections At National Funeral For 40th President". CBS. Associated Press. June 11, 2004. Retrieved 2007. 
  352. ^ "Ronald Reagan Library Opening". Plan B Productions. November 4, 1991. Retrieved 2007. 
  353. ^ Andrew L. Johns, ed., A Companion to Ronald Reagan (Wiley-Blackwell, 2015).
  354. ^ Hayward, pp. 635-638
  355. ^ Beschloss, p. 324
  356. ^ "Ronald Reagan restored faith in America". Retrieved 2014. 
  357. ^ Lipset, Seymour Martin; Schneider, William. "The Decline of Confidence in American Institutions" (PDF). Political Science Quarterly. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  358. ^ Gilman, Larry. "Iran-Contra Affair". Advameg. Retrieved 2007. 
  359. ^ Feulner, Edwin J. (June 9, 2004). "The Legacy of Ronald Reagan". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  360. ^ Weisbrot, Mark (June 7, 2004). "Ronald Reagan's Legacy". Common Dreams News Center. Retrieved 2007. 
  361. ^ Kurtz, Howard (June 7, 2004). "Reagan: The Retake". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2005. 
  362. ^ "American President". Archived from the original on October 11, 2014. Retrieved 2014. 
  363. ^ Henry, David (December 2009). "Ronald Reagan and the 1980s: Perceptions, Policies, Legacies. Ed. by Cheryl Hudson and Gareth Davies. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. xiv, 268 pp. $84.95, ISBN 978-0-230-60302-8.)". The Journal of American History. 96 (3): 933-934. doi:10.1093/jahist/96.3.933. JSTOR 25622627. 
  364. ^ Heale, M.J. in Cheryl Hudson and Gareth Davies, eds. Ronald Reagan and the 1980s: Perceptions, Policies, Legacies (2008) Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 0-230-60302-5 p. 250
  365. ^ "Reagan's legacy". U-T San Diego. June 6, 2004. Archived from the original on December 6, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  366. ^ D'Souza, Dinesh (June 6, 2004). "Russian Revolution". National Review. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008. 
  367. ^ a b Chapman, Roger (June 14, 2004). "Reagan's Role in Ending the Cold War Is Being Exaggerated". George Mason University. Retrieved 2008. 
  368. ^ Chang, Felix (February 11, 2011). "Reagan Turns One Hundred: Foreign Policy Lessons". The National Interest. Retrieved 2011. 
  369. ^ Lebow, Richard Ned; Stein, Janice Gross (February 1994). "Reagan and the Russians". The Atlantic. 273 (2): 35-37. Retrieved 2017. 
  370. ^ a b Heintz, Jim (June 7, 2004). "Gorbachev mourns loss of honest rival". Oakland Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original (Reprint) on May 1, 2011. Retrieved 2008. 
  371. ^ Kaiser, Robert G (June 11, 2004). "Gorbachev: 'We All Lost Cold War'". The Washington Post. p. A01. Retrieved 2008. 
  372. ^ "Full Text: Thatcher Eulogy to Reagan". BBC News. June 11, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  373. ^ "Reagan and Thatcher; political soul mates". MSNBC. June 5, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  374. ^ Clayton, Ian (June 5, 2004). "America's Movie Star President". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved 2008. 
  375. ^ "Ronald Reagan: Tributes". BBC News. June 6, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  376. ^ a b c Loughlin, Sean (July 6, 2004). "Reagan cast a wide shadow in politics". CNN. Retrieved 2008. 
  377. ^ "Ronald Reagan Remains Potent Republican Icon". Voice of America. February 11, 2011. Retrieved 2012. 
  378. ^ Broder, John M (January 20, 2008). "The Gipper Gap: In Search of Reagan". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  379. ^ Issenberg, Sasha (February 8, 2008). "McCain touts conservative record". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2008. 
  380. ^ "Reagan's First Inaugural: "Government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem."". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved 2013. 
  381. ^ Carlos Lozada, "I just binge-read eight books by Donald Trump. Here's what I learned: From memoirs to financial advice to politics, inside the collected writings of Donald J. Trump," Washington Post 30 July, 2015
  382. ^ Jack Godwin, Clintonomics: How Bill Clinton Reengineered the Reagan Revolution (2009)
  383. ^ Eric Foner, "Obama the Professional," The Nation Jan. 14, 2010
  384. ^ Raasch, Chuck (June 10, 2004). "Reagan transformed presidency into iconic place in American culture". USA Today. Retrieved 2008. 
  385. ^ "Ronald Reagan". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  386. ^ "Toward the Summit; Previous Reagan-Gorbachev Summits". The New York Times. May 28, 1988. Retrieved 2008. 
  387. ^ "1987: Superpowers to reverse arms race". BBC News. December 8, 1987. Retrieved 2014. 
  388. ^ Woolley, John; Peters, Gerhard. "Presidential Job Approval". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 2016. 
  389. ^ Sussman, Dalia (August 6, 2001). "Improving With Age: Reagan Approval Grows Better in Retrospect". ABC. Retrieved 2007. 
  390. ^ "How the Presidents Stack Up". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2007. 
  391. ^ "Reagan Tops Presidential Poll". CBS. February 19, 2001. Retrieved 2007. 
  392. ^ "Presidents and History". Polling Report. Retrieved 2007. 
  393. ^ "Post-War Presidents: JFK, Ike, Reagan Most Popular". Rasmussen Reports. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008. 
  394. ^ "Presidential Survey". Siena Research Institute. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  395. ^ Hines, Nico (October 31, 2008). "The top ten - The Times US presidential rankings". The Times. UK. Retrieved 2009. 
  396. ^ C-SPAN (February 16, 2009). "C-SPAN Survey of Presidential Leaders". Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved 2012. 
  397. ^ "USPC Survey". Archived from the original on July 30, 2011. Retrieved 2011. 
  398. ^ a b Schroeder, Patricia (June 6, 2004). "Nothing stuck to 'Teflon President'". USA Today. Retrieved 2008. 
  399. ^ "'The Great Communicator' strikes chord with public". CNN. 2001. Retrieved 2008. 
  400. ^ "Reagan: The great communicator". BBC News. June 5, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  401. ^ "Mourning in America: Ronald Reagan Dies at 93". Fox News Channel. June 5, 2004. Retrieved 2009. 
  402. ^ "The Reagan Diaries". The High Hat. Retrieved 2009. 
  403. ^ "Sunday Culture: Charlie Wilson's War?". theseminal. Archived from the original on February 12, 2008. Retrieved 2009. 
  404. ^ a b Kurtz, Howard (June 7, 2004). "15 Years Later, the Remaking of a President". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008. 
  405. ^ Sprengelmeyer, M.E. (June 9, 2004). "'Teflon' moniker didn't have intended effect on Reagan". Howard Scripps News Service. Archived from the original on January 24, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  406. ^ Dionne, E.J. (October 31, 1988). "Political Memo; G.O.P. Makes Reagan Lure Of Young a Long-Term Asset". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  407. ^ "Affirmative Action". Retrieved 2010. 
  408. ^ Geffen, David. "Reagan, Ronald Wilson". Jewish Virtual Library. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved 2009. 
  409. ^ Hendrix, Anastasia (June 6, 2004). "Trouble at home for family values advocate". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008. 
  410. ^ Morning in America: how Ronald ... 2005. ISBN 978-0-691-09645-2. Retrieved 2010. 
  411. ^ Marinucci, Carla & Carolyn Lochhead (June 12, 2004). "Last Goodbye: Ex-president eulogized in D.C. before final ride into California sunset; Laid to Rest: Ceremony ends weeklong outpouring of grief". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009. 
  412. ^ "Ronald Reagan, Master Storyteller". CBS. June 6, 2004. Retrieved 2008. 
  413. ^ McCuddy, Bill (June 6, 2004). "Remembering Reagan's Humor". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 2008. 
  414. ^ "Remembering President Reagan For His Humor-A Classic Radio Gaffe". About. Retrieved 2007. 
  415. ^ "Zig Ziglar Bio". Zig Ziglar. Archived from the original on August 24, 2011. Retrieved 2011. 
  416. ^ "Association of Graduates USMA: Sylvanus Thayer Award Recipients". Association of Graduates, West Point, New York. Archived from the original on July 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  417. ^ "Laureates by Year - The Lincoln Academy of Illinois". The Lincoln Academy of Illinois. Retrieved 2016. 
  418. ^ " " (PDF). (in Japanese). Retrieved 2017. 
  419. ^ "Order of the Bath". The Official website of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on April 26, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  420. ^ Weisman, Steven R (October 24, 1989). "Reagan Given Top Award by Japanese". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008. 
  421. ^ World Peace Prize Recipients World Peace Prize.
  422. ^ Top Honer Prize Ronald Reagan WPPAC.(October 1990).
  423. ^ "Remarks on presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to President Ronald Reagan-President George Bush-Transcript". The White House: Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. January 18, 1993. Retrieved 2015. 
  424. ^ "Julio E. Bonfante". LeBonfante International Investors Group. Archived from the original on January 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008. 
  425. ^ "Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center". U.S. General Services Administration. Retrieved 2007. 
  426. ^ "USS Ronald Reagan Commemorates Former President's 90th Birthday". CNN. July 12, 2003. Retrieved 2008. 
  427. ^ "Naval Heritage Award Recipients". United States Navy Memorial. Retrieved 2015. 
  428. ^ "Public Law 107-137" (PDF). United States Government Printing Office. February 6, 2002. Retrieved 2007. 
  429. ^ "Congressional Gold Medal Recipients 1776 to present". Office of the Clerk, US House of Representatives. Retrieved 2007. 
  430. ^ "Postmaster General, Nancy Reagan unveil Ronald Reagan stamp image, stamp available next year" (Press release). USPS. November 9, 2004. Retrieved 2007. 
  431. ^ "Top 25: Fascinating People". CNN. June 19, 2005. Retrieved 2005. 
  432. ^ "Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century". Time. 2003. Retrieved 2007. 
  433. ^ "Greatest American". Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007. 
  434. ^ Geiger, Kimberly (August 1, 2006). "California: State to establish a Hall of Fame; Disney, Reagan and Alice Walker among 1st inductees". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008. 
  435. ^ "Governor Davis Proclaims February 6, 2002 "Ronald Reagan Day" in California". Office of the Governor, State of California. February 6, 2002. 
  436. ^ "Governor Schwarzenegger Signs Legislation Honoring President Ronald Reagan". Office of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. July 19, 2010. 
  437. ^ "President Kaczy?ski Presents Order of the White Eagle to Late President Ronald Reagan". United States Department of State. July 18, 2007. Archived from the original on March 5, 2009. Retrieved 2008. 
  438. ^ Bernstein, Carl (February 24, 1992). "The Holy Alliance". Time. Retrieved 2007. 
  439. ^ "Reagan statue unveiled in Capitol Rotunda". MSNBC. Associated Press. June 3, 2009. Retrieved 2011. 
  440. ^ "Obama creates Reagan centennial commission". MSNBC. Associated Press. June 2, 2009. Retrieved 2011. 
  441. ^ "Ronald Reagan statue unveiled at US Embassy in London". BBC News. July 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011. 


Further reading

Primary sources

  • Reagan, Nancy (2002). I Love You, Ronnie: The Letters of Ronald Reagan to Nancy Reagan. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-76051-2. 
  • Reagan, Ronald (2003). Skinner, Kiron K.; Anderson, Annelise; Anderson, Martin, eds. Reagan: A Life in Letters. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-1967-8. 
  • Reagan, Ronald (2003). An American Life. New York: Free Press, A Division of Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7434-0025-9. 


  • Johns, Andrew L., ed. A Companion to Ronald Reagan (Wiley-Blackwell, 2015). xiv, 682 pp.; topical essays by scholars emphasizing historiography; contents free at many libraries

External links

Official sites


News coverage

Essays and historiographies


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Connect with defaultLogic
What We've Done
Led Digital Marketing Efforts of Top 500 e-Retailers.
Worked with Top Brands at Leading Agencies.
Successfully Managed Over $50 million in Digital Ad Spend.
Developed Strategies and Processes that Enabled Brands to Grow During an Economic Downturn.
Taught Advanced Internet Marketing Strategies at the graduate level.

Manage research, learning and skills at defaultLogic. Create an account using LinkedIn or facebook to manage and organize your Digital Marketing and Technology knowledge. defaultLogic works like a shopping cart for information -- helping you to save, discuss and share.

  Contact Us