Tai Nua Language
Tai Nuea
?
Pronunciation [tai ta? xo?][need tone]
Native to China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos
Region Southwest China
Native speakers
(720,000 cited 1983-2007)[1]
Kra-Dai
Tai Le alphabet
Official status
Official language in
co-official in Dehong, China
Language codes
Either:
tdd - Tai Nüa
thi - Tai Long
Glottolog tain1252  [2]
tail1247  [3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Tai Nuea (Tai Nüa: ?) (also called Tai N?a, Tai Nüa, Dehong Dai, or Chinese Shan; own name: Tai2 L?6, which means "upper Tai" or "northern Tai", or ? [tai ta? xo?]; Chinese: D?inày? or Déhóng D?iy? ?; Thai: , pronounced [p:s?: tj na] or , pronounced [p:s?: tj tâj.k]) is one of the languages spoken by the Dai people in China, especially in the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in the southwest of Yunnan province. It is closely related to the other Tai languages. Speakers of this language across the border in Myanmar are known as Shan.[] It should not be confused with Tai Lü (Xishuangbanna Dai). There are also Tai Nuea speakers in Thailand.

Names

Most Tai Nuea people call themselves tai?l, which means 'upper Tai' or 'northern Tai'. Note that this is different from Tai Lue, which is pronounced tai?l in Tai Nuea.

Dehong is a transliteration of the term taxo, where ta means 'bottom, under, the lower part (of)', and xo means 'the Hong River' (more widely known as the Salween River or Nujiang in Chinese) (Luo 1998).

Dialects

Zhou (2001:13) classifies Tai Nuea into the Dehong () and Menggeng () dialects. Together, they add up to a total of 541,000 speakers.

Ethnologue also recognizes Tai Long of Laos as a separate language. It is spoken by 4,800 people (as of 2004) in Luang Prabang Province, Laos.

Phonology

Tai Nuea is a tonal language with a very limited inventory of syllables with no consonant clusters. 16 syllable-initial consonants can be combined with 84 syllable finals and six tones.

Consonants

Tai Nuea has 17 consonants:

p, p?, f, m
t, t?, ts, s, n
k, x, ?
?, h, l, j, w

All consonants except for n can occur at the beginning of a syllable. Only the following consonants can occur at the end of a syllable: /p, t, k, m, n, ?/.

Vowels and diphthongs

Tai Nuea has ten vowels and 13 diphthongs:

a, a:, ?, e, i, ?, ?, ?, o, u
iu, eu, ?u; ui, oi, ?i; ?i, ?u; ai, a?, au; a:i, a:u

Tones

Tai Nuea has six tones:

  • 1. rising [] (24)
  • 2. high falling [] (53) or high level [?] (55)
  • 3. low level [?] (11)
  • 4. low falling [] (31)
  • 5. mid falling [] (43) or high falling [] (53)
  • 6. mid level [?] (33)

Syllables with p, t, k as final consonants can have only one of three tones (1., 3., or 5.).

Writing system

The Tai Le script is closely related to other Southeast-Asian writing systems such as the Thai alphabet and is thought to date back to the 14th century.

The original Tai Nuea spelling did not generally mark tones and failed to distinguish several vowels. It was reformed to make these distinctions, and diacritics were introduced to mark tones. The resulting writing system was officially introduced in 1956. In 1988, the spelling of tones was reformed; special tone letters were introduced instead of the earlier Latin diacritics.

The modern alphabet has a total of 35 letters, including the five tone letters. It is encoded under the name "Tai Le" in the Basic Multilingual Plane of Unicode at U+1950-U+1974.

The Tai Nuea numerals are similar to Myanmar numerals; they are in fact unified with Myanmar's numerals in Unicode (U+1040-U+1049) despite some glyph variations.

The transcription below is given according to the Unicode tables.

Consonants

Letter Transcription IPA Letter Transcription IPA Letter Transcription IPA
? k [k] ? x [x] ? ng [?]
? ts [ts] ? s [s] ? y [j]
? t [t] ? th [t?] ? l [l]
? p [p] ? ph [p?] ? m [m]
? f [f] ? v [w]
? h [h] ? q [?]
? kh [k?] ? tsh [ts?] ? n [n]

Vowels and diphthongs

Consonants that are not followed by a vowel letter are pronounced with the inherent vowel [a]. Other vowels are indicated with the following letters:

Letter Transcription IPA Letter Transcription IPA
? a [a:]
? i [i] ? u [u]
? ee [e] ? oo [o]
? eh [?] ? o [?]
? ue [?] ? e [?]
? aue [a?] ? ai [ai]

Diphthongs are formed by combining some vowel letters with the consonant ? [w] and some vowel letters with ? [ai]/[j].

Tones

In the Thai and Tai Lü writing systems, the tone value in the pronunciation of a written syllable depends on the tone class of the initial consonant, vowel length and syllable structure. In contrast, the Tai Nuea writing system has a very straightforward spelling of tones, with one letter (or diacritic) for each tone. The first tone is not marked.

Examples in the table show the syllable [ta] in different tones, in old (1956) and new (1988) spellings.

Number New Old
1. ? ?
2. ??
3. ??
4.
5. ??
6.

Language use

Tai Nuea has official status in some parts of Yunnan (China), where it is used on signs and in education. Yunnan People's Radio Station (Yúnnán rénmín gu?ngb? diàntái ) broadcasts in Tai Nuea. On the other hand, however, very little printed material is published in Tai Nuea in China. However, many signs of roads and stores in Mangshi are in Tai Nuea.

In Thailand, a collection of 108 proverbs was published with translations into Thai and English.[4]

References

  1. ^ Tai Nüa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Tai Long at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tai Nua". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tai Long". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Thawi Swangpanyangkoon and Edward Robinson. 1994. (2537 Thai). Dehong Tai proverbs. Sathaban Thai Suksa, Chulalankorn Mahawitayalai.
  • Chantanaroj, Apiradee. 2007. A Preliminary Sociolinguistic Survey of Selected Tai Nua Speech Varieties. Master's thesis, Payap University.
  • Luo Yongxian. 1998. A dictionary of Dehong, Southwest China. Pacific Linguistics Series C, no. 145. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Roong-a-roon Teekhachunhatean : Reflections on Tai Dehong Society from Language Point of View. In: Journal of Language and Linguistics 18.2 (January-June 2000), pp. 71-82.
  • Zh?u Yàowén , F?ng Bólóng , Mèng Z?nxiàn : Déhóng D?iwén ? (Dehong Dai). In: Mínzú y?wén 1981.3.
  • Zhou Yaowen, Luo Meizhen / , . 2001.  ?, , / Dai yu fang yan yan jiu: yu yin, ci hui, wen zi. Beijing? / Min zu chu ban she.
  • Zh?ng G?ngj?n : D?iwén jí qí wénxiàn (The Dai language and Dai documents). In: Zh?ngguósh? yánji? dòngtài 1981.6.
  • Neua (Na) in Yunnan (PRC) and the LPDR: a minority and a "non-minority" in the Chinese and Lao political systems, Jean A. Berlie, School of Oriental and African Studies editor, University of London, London, United Kingdom 1993.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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