Tai Tham Script
Tai Tham
Tai Tham script sample.png
Type
Languages Northern Thai, Tai Lü, Khün, Isan and Lao
Time period
c. 1300–present
Parent systems
Child systems
New Tai Lue
Direction Left-to-right
ISO 15924 Lana, 351
Unicode alias
Tai Tham
U+1A20–U+1AAF
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.

The Tai Tham script, Lanna script (Thai: ) or Tua Mueang (Lanna, Northern Thai pronunciation: [t?a.ma?] About this sound listen, Tai Lü: , Tham, "scripture"), is used for three living languages: Northern Thai (that is, Kham Mueang), Tai Lü and Khün. In addition, the Lanna script is used for Lao Tham (or old Lao) and other dialect variants in Buddhist palm leaves and notebooks. The script is also known as Tham or Yuan script.

The Northern Thai language is a close relative of Thai and member of the Chiang Saeng language family. It is spoken by nearly 6,000,000 people in Northern Thailand and several thousand in Laos of whom few are literate in Lanna script. The script is still read by older monks. Northern Thai has six linguistic tones and Thai only five, making transcription into the Thai alphabet problematic. There is some resurgent interest in the script among younger people, but an added complication is that the modern spoken form, called Kammuang, differs in pronunciation from the older form.[1] There are 670,000 speakers of Tai Lü of whom those born before 1950 are literate in Tham, also known as Old Tai Lue.[] The script has also continued to be taught in the monasteries. The New Tai Lue script is derived from Tham. There are 120,000 speakers of Khün for which Lanna is the only script.

Name board outside a Buddhist temple in Chiang Mai written with Lanna characters: Wat Mokhamtuang (and street number 119 in Thai)

Consonants

Consonants are divided into two groups: main consonants () and added consonants (). There are 33 main consonants, and there are 15 added consonants. The main consonants are those from Pali. The main consonant group is further divided into two groups: categorized (, vagga) and uncategorized consonants (?, avagga). There are 25 categorized consonants, and there are 8 uncategorized consonants. The added consonant group consists of consonants that have been added to write Tai sounds that do not occur in Pali.

Categorized
Obstruents Nasals
main added main added main added main
Lanna-1.png
k?
/k/
hi?h
Lanna-2.png
kh?
/x/
hi?h
Lanna-3.png
kh?
/x/
hi?h
Lanna-4.png
ka?
/k/
low
Lanna-5.png
kha?
/x/
low
Lanna-6.png
kha?
/x/
low
Lanna-7.png
nga?
/?/
low
Lanna-8.png
ch?
/t/
hi?h
Lanna-9.png
s?
/s/
hi?h
Lanna-10.png
cha?
/t/
low
Lanna-11.png
sa?
/s/
low
Lanna-12.png, Lanna-jh-Lue.png
sa?
/s/
low
Lanna-13.png
nya?
/?/
low
Lanna-14.png
la t?
/t/
hi?h
Lanna-15.png, Lanna-ratha-Lue.png
la th?
/t?/
hi?h
Lanna-17.png
da?
/d/
mid
Lanna-15-5.png
la tha?
/t?/
low
Lanna-16.png
la na?
/n/
low
Lanna-18.png
t?
/t/
hi?h
Lanna-19.png
th?
/t?/
hi?h
Lanna-20.png
ta?
/t/
low
Lanna-21.png
tha?
/t?/
low
Lanna-22.png
na?
/n/
low
Lanna-23.png
b?
/b/
mid
Lanna-24.png
p?
/p/
hi?h
Lanna-25.png
ph?
/p?/
hi?h
Lanna-26.png
f?
/f/
hi?h
Lanna-27.png
pa?
/p/
low
Lanna-28.png
fa?
/f/
low
Lanna-29.png
pha?
/p?/
low
Lanna-30.png
ma?
/m/
low
Uncategorized
Lanna-31.png
nya?
/?/
low
Lanna-44.png

/j/
mid
Lanna-32.png
ha?
/h/
low
Lanna-33.png
la?
/l/
low
Lanna-34.png
wa?
/w/
low
Lanna-35.png
s?
/s/
hi?h
Lanna-36.png
s?
/s/
hi?h
Lanna-37.png
s?
/s/
hi?h
Lanna-38.png
h?
/h/
hi?h
Lanna-39.png
la?
/l/
low
Lanna-40.png, Lanna-a.png
?
/?/
mid
Lanna-41.png
ha?
/h/
low
Lanna-lae.png, Lanna-lae-Lue.png
l?e
/l:/
Lanna-na.png
n?
/n?:/
Lanna-ss.png
s?r s?n? ho?n?
/s: s:? h:?/
Lanna-nyny.png
nya? nya?
/?a ?a/
Lanna-rarong.png
ra r?n?
/la?.h?:?/
Lanna-42.png
lu?e
/l/
Lanna-43.png
l?e
/l:/

Vowels

Northern Thai language written in Tai Tham script in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Vowels are written at various locations around their consonant, like Thai.[2] There are special letters for initial vowels, and many vowel combinations.

Pali vowels

Tai Tham Lanna-40.png - Lanna-aa.png Lanna-Pali-i.png Lanna-Pali-ii.png Lanna-Pali-u.png Lanna-Pali-uu.png Lanna-Pali-e.png Lanna-e.png -Lanna-aa.png
? -? ? ? ? ? ? -,-, ?
IPA /?á?/ /:/ /?í?/ /:/ /?ú?/ /:/ /:/ /:/

Tonal markers

Lanna-tone1.png
mai yo
/máj.j/
Lanna-tone2.png
mai kho chang
/máj.x:.tá:?/

Tai Tham and Other Scripts

Categorized letters

Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/ká/ Lanna-1.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/xá/ Lanna-2.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/xá/ Lanna-3.png ? - - ?
/ka?/ Lanna-4.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/xa?/ Lanna-5.png ? - ? ?
/xa?/ Lanna-6.png ? - - ? Lao-Pali-gh.png ? ?
/?a?/ Lanna-7.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/tá/ Lanna-8.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/sá/ Lanna-9.png ? - - ? Lao-Pali-ch.png ? ?
/ta?/ Lanna-10.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/sa?/ Lanna-11.png ? - ? ?
/sa?/ Lanna-12.png ? - - ? Lao-Pali-jh.png ? ?
/?a?/
/ja?/[3]
Lanna-13.png ? - - ? Lao-Pali-ny.png ? ?
Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/tá/ Lanna-14.png ? - - ? Lao-Pali-T.png ? ?
/t?á/ Lanna-15.png ? - - ? Lao-Pali-Th.png ? ?
/dá/ Lanna-17.png ? - ? ?,? Lao-Pali-D.png,? ? ?
/t?a?/ Lanna-15-5.png ? - - ? Lao-Pali-Dh.png ? ?
/na?/ Lanna-16.png ? - - ? Lao-Pali-N.png ? ?
Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/tá/ Lanna-18.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/t?á/ Lanna-19.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/ta?/ Lanna-20.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/t?a?/ Lanna-21.png ? - ? ? Lao-Pali-dh.png ? ?
/na?/ Lanna-22.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/bá/ Lanna-23.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/pá/ Lanna-24.png ? - ? ? ?
/p?á/ Lanna-25.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/fá/ Lanna-26.png ? - ? ? ?
/pa?/ Lanna-27.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/fa?/ Lanna-28.png ? - ? ? ?
/p?a?/ Lanna-29.png ? - ? ? Lao-Pali-bh.png ? ?
/ma?/ Lanna-30.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?

Uncategorized letters

Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/?a?/
/ja?/[3]
Lanna-31.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/já/ Lanna-44.png ? - ? ? ?, ?
/ha?/
/la?/
Lanna-32.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/l/ Lanna-42.png ? - - ? ? ?
/la?/ Lanna-33.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/l:/ Lanna-43.png ? - - ? ? ?
/wa?/ Lanna-34.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
Tai Tham New Tai Lue Thai Lao Burmese Khmer
IPA Alphabet Subs.
/sá/ Lanna-35.png ? - - ? Lao-Sanskrit-sh.png ? ?
/sá/ Lanna-36.png ? - - ? Lao-Sanskrit-S.png ? ?
/sá/ Lanna-37.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/há/ Lanna-38.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/la?/ Lanna-39.png ? - - ? Lao-Pali-L.png ? ?
/?á/ Lanna-40.png ? - ? ? ? ? ?
/ha?/ Lanna-41.png ? - - ? ?

Numerals

Arabic numerals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Hora digits ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Tham digits ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Thai numerals ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Lao numerals ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Burmese numerals ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Khmer numerals ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Sanskrit and Pali

The Tai Tham script (like all Indic scripts) uses a number of modifications to write Pali and related languages (in particular, Sanskrit). When writing Pali, only 33 consonants and 12 vowels are used.

Categorised ( vagga)

class unaspirated
unvoiced
?
aspirated
unaspirated
voiced
aspirated
voiced
nasal
velar Lanna-1.png[ka] Lanna-2.png khá [kha] Lanna-4.png ka? [ga] Lanna-6.png kha? [gha] Lanna-7.png nga? [?a]
palatal Lanna-8.png[ca] Lanna-9.png[cha] Lanna-10.png ca? [ja] Lanna-12.png sa? [jha] Lanna-13.png nya? [ña]
retroflex Lanna-14.png[?a] Lanna-15.png thá [?ha] Lanna-17.png da? [?a] Lanna-15-5.png tha? [?ha] Lanna-16.png na? [?a]
dental Lanna-18.png[ta] Lanna-19.png thá [tha] Lanna-20.png ta? [da] Lanna-21.png tha? [dha] Lanna-22.png na? [na]
labial Lanna-24.png[pa] Lanna-25.png phá [pha] Lanna-27.png pa? [ba] Lanna-29.png pha? [bha] Lanna-30.png ma? [ma]
tone class H L

Uncategorised ( ? avagga)

glottal palatal retroflex dental labial tonal class
Lanna-31.png nya? [ya] Lanna-32.png ha? [ra] Lanna-33.png la? [la] Lanna-34.png wa? [va] L
Lanna-35.png[?a] Lanna-36.png[?a] Lanna-37.png[sa] H
Lanna-38.png[ha]

Unicode

Tai Tham script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

Block

The Unicode block for Tai Tham is U+1A20–U+1AAF:

Tai Tham[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1A2x
U+1A3x ᨿ
U+1A4x
U+1A5x  ᩖ  ᩘ  ᩙ  ᩚ  ᩛ  ᩜ  ᩝ  ᩞ
U+1A6x   ᩠   ᩢ  ᩥ  ᩦ  ᩧ  ᩨ  ᩩ  ᩪ  ᩫ  ᩬ
U+1A7x  ᩳ  ᩴ  ᩵  ᩶  ᩷  ᩸  ᩹  ᩺  ᩻  ᩼  ᩿
U+1A8x
U+1A9x
U+1AAx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 11.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Fonts

There are currently a few fonts that support this range. Thai people are used to typing the Thai script by placing a front vowel before a consonant; this might cause incorrect input method for Tai Tham script because the consonant must be always typed before the associated vowel, regardless of the relative written position of the vowel, similar to typing the Khmer, Myanmar or Tamil script.

  • A Tai Tham KH New - 244 characters in version 1.000 September 15, 2016
    • Ranges: Basic Latin (100); Tai Tham (144)
    • OpenType layout tables: Default
    • Family: Sans-serif
    • Styles: Regular
    • Availability: Free download[4]
  • A Tai Tham KH - 239 characters in version 2.000 February 27, 2016
    • Ranges: Basic Latin (95); Tai Tham (144)
    • OpenType layout tables: Default
    • Family: Sans-serif
    • Styles: Regular
    • Availability: Free download[4]
  • Tai Tham LN - 244 characters in version 1.000 November 15, 2014
    • Ranges: Basic Latin (100); Tai Tham (144)
    • OpenType layout tables: Default
    • Family: Sans-serif
    • Styles: Regular
    • Availability: Free download[4]

(The following links are from Alan Wood's Unicode Resources,[5] which is no longer being maintained.[6])

  • Chiangsaen Alif - 318 characters (376 glyphs) in version 1.00 February 24, 2010, initial release
    • Ranges:   Basic Latin (96); Tai Tham (127); Geometric Shapes (1)
    • OpenType layout tables:   Latin
    • Family:   Sans-serif
    • Styles:   Regular
    • Availability:   Free download[7]
  • Lanna Alif - 318 characters (376 glyphs) in version 1.00 February 24, 2010, initial release
    • Ranges:   Basic Latin (96); Tai Tham (127); Geometric Shapes (1)
    • OpenType layout tables:   Latin
    • Family:   Sans-serif
    • Styles:   Regular
    • Availability:   Free download[7]
  • Lanna Unicode UI - 374 characters (487 glyphs) in version 0.40 July 14, 2010
    • Ranges:   Basic Latin (25); Latin-1 Supplement (5); Greek and Coptic (1); Tai Tham (127); Mathematical Operators (1); Geometric Shapes (1)
    • OpenType layout tables:   Latin
    • Family:   Sans-serif
    • Styles:   Regular
    • Availability:   Free download[8]
  • Alan Wood's Tai Tham test page[9]

References

  1. ^ Natnapang Burutphakdee (October 2004). Khon Muang Neu Kap Phasa Muang [Attitudes of Northern Thai Youth towards Kammuang and the Lanna Script] (PDF) (M.A. Thesis). Presented at 4th National Symposium on Graduate Research, Chiang Mai, Thailand, August 10-11, 2004. Asst. Prof. Dr. Kirk R. Person, adviser. Chiang Mai: Payap University. P. 7, digital image 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-09. Retrieved 2013. The reason why they called this language 'Kammuang' is because they used this language in the towns where they lived together, which were surrounded by mountainous areas where there were many hill tribe people. 
  2. ^ see examples of syllabic vowels in Ian James' rendition of Lanna, New Lanna at SkyKnowledge.com
  3. ^ a b In Tai Lue
  4. ^ a b c "Tai Tham Fonts". Kengtung.org. Archived from the original on 29 January 2017. 
  5. ^ Wood, Alan (15 September 2012). "Southeast Asian Unicode fonts for Windows computers". Alan Wood's Unicode Resources. Archived from the original on 14 January 2014. Retrieved 2016. 
  6. ^ Wood, Alan (15 November 2015). "Unicode and multilingual support in HTML, fonts, Web browsers and other applications: Caution and apology". Alan Wood's Unicode resources. Retrieved 2016. I regret that I no longer have the time to keep this website up-to-date. The test pages include the Unicode 6.3 characters, and some of the Unicode 7.0 characters, but nothing more recent. The pages of fonts and utilities have not been updated for several years. 
  7. ^ a b Silpachai, Alif. "SIMs Heart". Tai Tham (Lanna) Unicode Font. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 2016. 
  8. ^ "Download: Tai Tham Fonts (Lanna)". Octra Bond's World. Archived from the original on 2010-11-22. Retrieved 2016. 
  9. ^ Wood, Alan. "Test for Unicode support in Web browsers: Tai Tham". Alan Wood's Unicode Resources. Archived from the original on 14 January 2014. Retrieved 2016. 

Further reading

External links

  • ISO/IEC 10646:2003/Amd.5:2008 Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) -- Amendment 5: AMENDMENT 5: Tai Tham, Tai Viet, Avestan, Egyptian Hieroglyphs, CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C, and other characters

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Tai_Tham_script
 



 

Connect with defaultLogic
What We've Done
Led Digital Marketing Efforts of Top 500 e-Retailers.
Worked with Top Brands at Leading Agencies.
Successfully Managed Over $50 million in Digital Ad Spend.
Developed Strategies and Processes that Enabled Brands to Grow During an Economic Downturn.
Taught Advanced Internet Marketing Strategies at the graduate level.


Manage research, learning and skills at defaultLogic. Create an account using LinkedIn or facebook to manage and organize your Digital Marketing and Technology knowledge. defaultLogic works like a shopping cart for information -- helping you to save, discuss and share.

Visit defaultLogic's partner sites below:
PopFlock.com : Music Genres | Musicians | Musical Instruments | Music Industry
NCR Works : Retail Banking | Restaurant Industry | Retail Industry | Hospitality Industry

  Contact Us