Ted Nelson
Ted Nelson
Ted Nelson cropped.jpg
Ted Nelson, speaking at the Tech Museum of Innovation in 2011
Born (1937-06-17) June 17, 1937 (age 80)
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Alma mater Swarthmore College
Harvard University
Keio University
Known for Hypertext
Scientific career
Fields Information technology, philosophy, and sociology
Institutions Project Xanadu
Influences Vannevar Bush

Theodor Holm "Ted" Nelson (born June 17, 1937) is an American pioneer of information technology, philosopher, and sociologist. He coined the terms hypertext and hypermedia in 1963 and published them in 1965.[1] Nelson coined the terms transclusion,[1]virtuality,[2] and intertwingularity (in Literary Machines).

Early life and education

Nelson is the son of Emmy Award-winning director Ralph Nelson and the Academy Award-winning actress Celeste Holm.[3] His parents' marriage was brief and he was mostly raised by his grandparents, first in Chicago and later in Greenwich Village.[4]

Nelson earned a BA from Swarthmore College in 1959. While there, he made an experimental humorous student film titled The Epiphany of Slocum Furlow, in which the titular hero discovers the meaning of life. His contemporary at the college, musician and composer Peter Schickele scored the film.[5] In 1960 Nelson began graduate work at Harvard University in philosophy, earning a master's degree in sociology in 1963.

During college and graduate school, he envisioned a computer-based writing system that would provide a lasting repository for the world's knowledge, and also permit greater flexibility of drawing connections between ideas. This came to be known as Project Xanadu.

Much later in life, in 2002, he obtained a Doctorate in Media and Governance from Keio University.

Project Xanadu

Nelson founded Project Xanadu in 1960, with the goal of creating a computer network with a simple user interface. The effort is documented in his 1974 book Computer Lib / Dream Machines and the 1981 Literary Machines. Much of his adult life has been devoted to working on Xanadu and advocating for it.

The Xanadu project itself failed to flourish, for a variety of reasons which are disputed. Journalist Gary Wolf published an unflattering history of Nelson and his project in the June 1995 issue of Wired magazine, calling it "the longest-running vaporware project in the history of computing".[6] On his own website, Nelson expressed his disgust with the criticisms, referring to Wolf as "Gory Jackal", and threatened to sue him.[7] He also outlined his objections in a letter to Wired,[8] and released a detailed rebuttal of the article.[9]

Nelson has stated that some aspects of his vision are being fulfilled by Tim Berners-Lee's invention of the World Wide Web, but he dislikes the World Wide Web, XML and all embedded markup - regarding Berners-Lee's work as a gross over-simplification of his original vision:

HTML is precisely what we were trying to PREVENT-- ever-breaking links, links going outward only, quotes you can't follow to their origins, no version management, no rights management.[10]

Jaron Lanier explains the difference between the World Wide Web and Nelson's vision, and the implications:

A core technical difference between a Nelsonian network and what we have become familiar with online is that [Nelson's] network links were two-way instead of one-way. In a network with two-way links, each node knows what other nodes are linked to it. ... Two-way linking would preserve context. It's a small simple change in how online information should be stored that couldn't have vaster implications for culture and the economy.[11]

Other projects

In 1965, he presented the paper "Complex Information Processing: A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate" at the ACM National Conference, in which he coined the term "hypertext".[1]

Nelson co-founded "itty bitty machine company", or "ibm", which was a small computer retail store operating from 1977 to 1980 in Evanston, Illinois. The itty bitty machine company was one of the few retail stores to sell the original Apple I computer. In 1978 he had a significant impact upon IBM's thinking when he outlined his vision of the potential of personal computing to the team that three years later launched the IBM PC.[12]

From the 1960s to the mid-2000s, Nelson built an extensive collection of direct advertising mail he received in his mailbox, mainly from companies selling products in IT, print/publishing, aerospace, and engineering. In 2017, the Internet Archive began to publish it online in scanned form, in a collection titled "Ted Nelson's Junk Mail Cartons".[13][14][15]


As of 2011, Nelson was working on a new information structure, ZigZag,[16] which is described on the Xanadu project website, which also hosts two versions of the Xanadu code. He also developed XanaduSpace, a system for the exploration of connected parallel documents (an early version of this software may be freely downloaded).[17]

Influence and recognition

In January 1988 Byte magazine published an article about Nelson's ideas, titled "Managing Immense Storage". This stimulated discussions within the computer industry, and encouraged people to experiment with Hypertext features.

In 1998, at the Seventh WWW Conference in Brisbane, Australia, Nelson was awarded the Yuri Rubinsky Memorial Award.

In 2001 he was knighted by France as Officier des Arts et Lettres. In 2004 he was appointed as a Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford, and associated with the Oxford Internet Institute, where he was a visiting fellow from 2004 through 2006.[18] In 2007 he celebrated his 70th birthday by giving an invited lecture at the University of Southampton.[19] In 2014 ACM SIGCHI honored him with a Special Recognition Award.[20]


Nelson is credited with coining several new words that have come into common usage especially in the world of computing. Among them are:


Many of his books are published through his own company, Mindful Press.[22]


  1. ^ a b c Rettberg, Jill Walker. "Complex Information Processing: A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate". Electronic Literature as a Model of Creativity and Innovation in Practice. 
  2. ^ Tognazzini, Bruce. "Magic and Software Design". asktog.com. Retrieved 2017. 
  3. ^ John Leland (July 2, 2011). "Love and Inheritance: A Family Feud". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011. 
  4. ^ "Internet Pioneers: Ted Nelson". Ibiblio. Retrieved 2011. 
  5. ^ Ted Nelson (1959). "The Epiphany of Slocum Furlow". Student film available on YouTube. Retrieved 2013. 
  6. ^ Gary Wolf (June 1995). "The Curse of Xanadu". Wired magazine. Retrieved 2011. 
  7. ^ "What they say". Ted.hyperland.com. Retrieved . 
  8. ^ "Letters about "The Curse of Xanadu"". Wired.com. 2009-01-04. Retrieved . 
  9. ^ "Errors in "The Curse of Xanadu," by Gary Wolf". vinci.org. 2010. Retrieved 2011. Errors in 'The Curse of Xanadu', by Gary Wolf 
  10. ^ Ted Nelson (1999). "Ted Nelson's Computer Paradigm Expressed as One-Liners". Retrieved 2011. 
  11. ^ Jaron Lanier, Who Owns the Future, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013. p. 227
  12. ^ John Markoff (December 11, 2007). "When Big Blue Got a Glimpse of the Future". Bits.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011. 
  13. ^ "Ted Nelson's Junk Mail (and the Archive Corps Pilot)". ASCII by Jason Scott. 2017-05-31. Retrieved . 
  14. ^ "Why Is the Internet Archive Painstakingly Preserving One Man's Junk Mail?". Motherboard. Retrieved . 
  15. ^ "Ted Nelson's Junk Mail Cartons". Internet Archive. Retrieved . 
  16. ^ Ted Nelson. "ZigZag and Its Structure". Xanadu.com. Retrieved . 
  17. ^ Ted Nelson (June 25, 2007). "XanaduSpace". Xanarama.net. Retrieved 2011. 
  18. ^ "Dr Ted Nelson: Former Fellow". Oxford Internet Institute. Retrieved 2011. 
  19. ^ 70th Birthday Lecture: Intertwingularity: where ideas collide on YouTube
  20. ^ ACM SIGCHI 2014 awards page
  21. ^ Stuart Moulthrop (May 1991). "You Say You Want a Revolution? Hypertext and the Laws of Media". Postmodern Culture. The Johns Hopkins University Press. doi:10.1353/pmc.1991.0019. Retrieved 2011. 
  22. ^ Mindful Press
  23. ^ L. R. Shannon (February 16, 1988). "Peripherals: A Book That Grew Up". New York Times. Retrieved 2011. 
  24. ^ "Ted Nelson Possiplex book launch at The Tech Museum - Eventbrite". The Tech Museum San Jose. October 6, 2010. Retrieved 2011. 
  25. ^ "Ted Nelson Speaks About Possiplex". The San Francisco Chronicle. October 8, 2010. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved 2011. 

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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