Triangular Array

In mathematics and computing, a **triangular array** of numbers, polynomials, or the like, is a doubly indexed sequence in which each row is only as long as the row's own index.

Notable particular examples include these:

- The Bell triangle, whose numbers count the partitions of a set in which a given element is the largest singleton
^{[1]} - Catalan's triangle, which counts strings of parentheses in which no close parenthesis is unmatched
^{[2]} - Euler's triangle, which counts permutations with a given number of ascents
^{[3]} - Floyd's triangle, whose entries are all of the integers in order
^{[4]} - Hosoya's triangle, based on the Fibonacci numbers
^{[5]} - Lozani?'s triangle, used in the mathematics of chemical compounds
^{[6]} - Narayana triangle, counting strings of balanced parentheses with a given number of distinct nestings
^{[7]} - Pascal's triangle, whose entries are the binomial coefficients
^{[8]}

Triangular arrays of integers in which each row is symmetric and begins and ends with 1 are sometimes called **generalized Pascal triangles**; examples include Pascal's triangle, the Narayana numbers, and the triangle of Eulerian numbers.^{[9]}

Triangular arrays may list mathematical values other than numbers; for instance the Bell polynomials form a triangular array in which each array entry is a polynomial.^{[10]}

Arrays in which the length of each row grows as a linear function of the row number (rather than being equal to the row number) have also been considered.^{[11]}

Apart from the representation of triangular matrices, triangular arrays are used in several algorithms. One example is the CYK algorithm for parsing context-free grammars, an example of dynamic programming.^{[12]}

Romberg's method can be used to estimate the value of a definite integral by completing the values in a triangle of numbers.^{[13]}

The Boustrophedon transform uses a triangular array to transform one integer sequence into another.^{[14]}

- Triangular number, the number of entries in such an array up to some particular row

**^**Shallit, Jeffrey (1980), "A triangle for the Bell numbers",*A collection of manuscripts related to the Fibonacci sequence*(PDF), Santa Clara, Calif.: Fibonacci Association, pp. 69-71, MR 0624091.**^**Kitaev, Sergey; Liese, Jeffrey (2013), "Harmonic numbers, Catalan's triangle and mesh patterns",*Discrete Mathematics*,**313**(14): 1515-1531, arXiv:1209.6423, doi:10.1016/j.disc.2013.03.017, MR 3047390.**^**Velleman, Daniel J.; Call, Gregory S. (1995), "Permutations and combination locks",*Mathematics Magazine*,**68**(4): 243-253, doi:10.2307/2690567, MR 1363707.**^**Miller, Philip L.; Miller, Lee W.; Jackson, Purvis M. (1987),*Programming by design: a first course in structured programming*, Wadsworth Pub. Co., pp. 211-212, ISBN 9780534082444.**^**Hosoya, Haruo (1976), "Fibonacci triangle",*The Fibonacci Quarterly*,**14**(2): 173-178.**^**Losanitsch, S. M. (1897), "Die Isomerie-Arten bei den Homologen der Paraffin-Reihe",*Chem. Ber.*,**30**: 1917-1926, doi:10.1002/cber.189703002144.**^**Barry, Paul (2011), "On a generalization of the Narayana triangle",*Journal of Integer Sequences*,**14**(4): Article 11.4.5, 22, MR 2792161.**^**Edwards, A. W. F. (2002),*Pascal's Arithmetical Triangle: The Story of a Mathematical Idea*, JHU Press, ISBN 9780801869464.**^**Barry, P. (2006), "On integer-sequence-based constructions of generalized Pascal triangles" (PDF),*Journal of Integer Sequences*,**9**(06.2.4): 1-34.**^**Rota Bulò, Samuel; Hancock, Edwin R.; Aziz, Furqan; Pelillo, Marcello (2012), "Efficient computation of Ihara coefficients using the Bell polynomial recursion",*Linear Algebra and its Applications*,**436**(5): 1436-1441, doi:10.1016/j.laa.2011.08.017, MR 2890929.**^**Fielder, Daniel C.; Alford, Cecil O. (1991), "Pascal's triangle: Top gun or just one of the gang?", in Bergum, Gerald E.; Philippou, Andreas N.; Horadam, A. F.,*Applications of Fibonacci Numbers (Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fibonacci Numbers and Their Applications, Wake Forest University, N.C., U.S.A., July 30-August 3, 1990)*, Springer, pp. 77-90, ISBN 9780792313090.**^**Indurkhya, Nitin; Damerau, Fred J., eds. (2010),*Handbook of Natural Language Processing, Second Edition*, CRC Press, p. 65, ISBN 9781420085938.**^**Thacher, Jr., Henry C. (July 1964), "Remark on Algorithm 60: Romberg integration",*Communications of the ACM*,**7**(7): 420-421, doi:10.1145/364520.364542.**^**Millar, Jessica; Sloane, N. J. A.; Young, Neal E. (1996), "A new operation on sequences: the Boustrouphedon transform",*Journal of Combinatorial Theory*, Series A,**76**(1): 44-54, arXiv:math.CO/0205218, doi:10.1006/jcta.1996.0087.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

What We've Done

Led Digital Marketing Efforts of Top 500 e-Retailers.

Worked with Top Brands at Leading Agencies.

Successfully Managed Over $50 million in Digital Ad Spend.

Developed Strategies and Processes that Enabled Brands to Grow During an Economic Downturn.

Taught Advanced Internet Marketing Strategies at the graduate level.

Manage research, learning and skills at defaultlogic.com. Create an account using LinkedIn to manage and organize your omni-channel knowledge. defaultlogic.com is like a shopping cart for information -- helping you to save, discuss and share.