Diacritics in Latin & Greek
acute( ´ )
double acute( ? )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ? )
circumflex( ^ )
caron, há?ek( ? )
breve( ? )
inverted breve(   ̑  )
cedilla( ¸ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
palatal hook(   ? )
retroflex hook(   ? )
hook above, d?u h?i(  ? )
horn(  ? )
iota subscript(  ͅ )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosin?( ? )
perispomene(  ͂ )
overring( ? )
underring( ? )
rough breathing( ? )
smooth breathing( ? )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( ' )
bar( )
colon( : )
comma( , )
period( . )
hyphen( ? )
prime( ? )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora(  ҄ )
pokrytie(  ? )
titlo(  ? )
Gurmukh? diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( ? ? ? )
chandrabindu( ? ? )
nukta( ? )
virama( ? ? ? ? ? )
visarga( ? ? )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( ? )
handakuten( ? )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Dotted circle?
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols

Virama (Sanskrit, vir?ma ? ?) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ?including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter. The name is Sanskrit for "cessation, termination, end". As a Sanskrit word, it is used in place of several language-specific terms, such as halant (Hindi, halant ? ?); halant (Marathi?, halant ? ?), hoshonto (Bengali, hôsôntô ? ?); (Assamese or , hoxonto or hosonto ? ?); (Sylheti: , ho?onto ?); halantu (Telugu, halantu ? ?); pulli (Tamil, pui ? ?), chandrakkala (Malayalam?, candrakkala ? ?); halanta (Kannada?, halanta ? ?); halanta (Oriya, ha?anta ? ?); halant (Punjabi?, halant ? ?); a that (Burmese: ?, a.sat IPA: [?aa?], lit. "nonexistence" ?); and karan (?)[1][2], pinthu (), lit. "point" or "dot" or thanthakhat (?).[3][4]

In Devanagari and many other Indic scripts, a virama is used to cancel the inherent vowel of a consonant letter and represent a consonant without a vowel, a "dead" consonant. For example, in Devanagari,

  1. ? is a consonant letter, ka,
  2. ् is a virama; therefore,
  3. (ka + virama) represents a dead consonant k.

If this k is further followed by another consonant letter, for example, ?a ?, the result might look like ?, which represents k?a as ka + (visible) virama + ?a. In this case, two elements k and ?a ? are simply placed one by one, side by side. Alternatively, k?a can be also written as a ligature , which is actually the preferred form.

Generally, when a dead consonant letter C1 and another consonant letter C2 are conjoined, the result may be:

  1. A fully conjoined ligature of C1+C2;
  2. Half-conjoined--
    • C1-conjoining: a modified form (half form) of C1 attached to the original form (full form) of C2
    • C2-conjoining: a modified form of C2 attached to the full form of C1; or
  3. Non-ligated: full forms of C1 and C2 with a visible virama.[5]

If the result is fully or half-conjoined, the (conceptual) virama which made C1 dead becomes invisible, logically existing only in a character encoding scheme such as ISCII or Unicode. If the result is not ligated, a virama is visible, attached to C1, actually written.

Basically, those differences are only glyph variants, and three forms are semantically identical. Although there may be a preferred form for a given consonant cluster in each language and some scripts do not have some kind of ligatures or half forms at all, it is generally acceptable to use a nonligature form instead of a ligature form even when the latter is preferred if the font does not have a glyph for the ligature. In some other cases, whether to use a ligature or not is just a matter of taste.

The virama in the sequence C1 + virama + C2 may thus work as an invisible control character to ligate C1 and C2 in Unicode. For example,

  • ka ? + virama + ?a ? = k?a

is a fully conjoined ligature. It is also possible that the virama does not ligate C1 and C2, leaving the full forms of C1 and C2 as they are:

  • ka ? + virama + ?a ? = k?a ?

is an example of such a non-ligated form.

The sequences [?ka ?k?a a a], in correct Devanagari handwriting, should be written as conjuncts (the virama and the top cross line of the second letter disappear, and what is left of the second letter is written under the ? and joined to it).

See also


  1. ^ "? ? ". Longdo Dict. 
  2. ^ th:?
  3. ^ "? ? ". Longdo Dict. 
  4. ^ th:?
  5. ^ Constable, Peter (2004). "Clarification of the Use of Zero Width Joiner in Indic Scripts" (PDF). Public Review Issue #37. Unicode, Inc. Retrieved .  External link in |work= (help)

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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