Voiceless Dental Sibilant Affricate

A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:

Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate

Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate
ts
IPA number103 132
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʦ
Unicode (hex)U+02A6
X-SAMPAts
Kirshenbaumts
Listen

The voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t?s⟩ or ⟨t?s⟩ (formerly with ⟨?⟩ or ⟨?⟩). The voiceless alveolar affricate occurs in many Indo-European languages, such as German, Pashto, Russian and most other Slavic languages such as Polish and Serbo-Croatian; also, among many others, in Georgian, in Japanese, in Mandarin Chinese, and in Cantonese. Some international auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto, Ido and Interlingua also include this sound.

Features

Features of the voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • The stop component of this affricate is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge. For simplicity, this affricate is usually called after the sibilant fricative component.
  • There are at least three specific variants of the fricative component:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [s] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [?] or laminal [?].
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

The following sections are named after the fricative component.

Dentalized laminal alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] ? 'net' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms
Basque[3] hotz [o?ts?] 'cold' Contrasts with a sibilant affricate with an apical fricative component.[3]
Belarusian[4] ?? ['tstka] 'aunt' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Chinese Standard[5][6] 'breakfast' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Standard Chinese phonology
Czech[7] co [ts?o?] 'what' See Czech phonology
Hungarian[8] cica ['ts?its] 'kitten' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[9] [example needed]
Kazakh[10] [example needed] Only in loanwords from Russian[11]
Kyrgyz[12] [example needed] Only in loanwords from Russian.[12] See Kyrgyz phonology
Latvian[13] cena ['ts?en?ä] 'price' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[14] ? [ts?ve?t?] 'flower' See Macedonian phonology
Pashto ? [?t?s?'lor] 'four' See Pashto phonology
Polish[15] co 'what' See Polish phonology
Romanian[16] pre? [pre?ts?] 'price' See Romanian phonology
Russian[17] ? [ts?är?] 'Tsar' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[18][19] ? cilj [ts?î:?] 'target' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[20] cvet [tsé:t?] 'bloom' See Slovene phonology
Ukrainian[21] ? [tsj] 'this one' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[22] cybla ['tsblä] 'onion' See Upper Sorbian phonology
Uzbek[23] [example needed]

Non-retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Najdi[24] [t?salb] 'dog' Corresponds to /k/ and /t/ in other dialects
Asturian Some dialects[25] otso [ot?so] 'eight' Corresponds to standard /t/
Basque[3] hots [ots?] 'sound' The fricative component is apical. Contrasts with a laminal affricate with a dentalized fricative component.[3]
Catalan[26] potser [pu'tts?e] 'maybe' The fricative component is apical. See Catalan phonology
Central Alaskan Yup'ik[27] cetaman [t?s?'taman] 'four' Allophone of /t/ before schwa
Danish Standard[28] to ['ts?o:?] 'two' The fricative component is apical.[28] In some accents, it is realized as [t?].[28] Usually transcribed /t?/ or /t/. Contrasts with the unaspirated stop [t], which is usually transcribed /d?/ or /d/. See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[29] mat ['mät?s] 'market' Optional pre-pausal allophone of /t/.[29]
English Broad Cockney[30] tea ['t?si?] 'tea' Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /t/.[31][32] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[32] ['t?si?]
New York[33] Possible syllable-initial and sometimes also utterance-final allophone of /t/.[33] See English phonology
New Zealand[34] Word-initial allophone of /t/.[34] See English phonology
North Wales[35] ['t?si:] Word-initial and word-final allophone of /t/; in free variation with a strongly aspirated stop [t?].[35] See English phonology
Scouse[36] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /t/.[36] See English phonology
General South African[37] wanting ['w?nt?s] 'wanting' Possible syllable-final allophone of /t/.[37]
Filipino tsokolate [t?sok?late] 'chocolate'
Georgian[38] ?? [k'?t?si] 'man'
Luxembourgish[39] Zuch [t?su?] 'train' See Luxembourgish phonology
Marathi ? ['t?sap?] 'clip' Represented by /?/, which also represents [t]. It is not a marked difference.
Portuguese European[40] parte sem vida 'lifeless part' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ?/, or assimilation due to the deletion of /i ~ ? ~ e/. Increasingly used in Brazil.[41]
Brazilian[40][41] participação [pa?t?sipa'sw] 'participation'
Most speakers[42] shiatsu [?i'at?su] 'shiatsu' Marginal sound. Many Brazilians might break the affricate with epenthetic [i], often subsequently palatalizing /t/, specially in pre-tonic contexts (e.g. tsunami [t?isu'nm?i]).[43] See Portuguese phonology
Spanish Madrid[44] ancha ['än?t?s?ä] 'wide' Palatalized;[44] with an apical fricative component. It corresponds to [t] in standard Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Chilean
Some Rioplatense dialects tía ['t?sia?] 'aunt'

Variable

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[45] Zeit [t?sät] 'time' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[45] See Standard German phonology
Italian Standard[46] grazia ['?rät?t?sjä] 'grace' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical. In the latter case, the stop component is laminal denti-alveolar.[46] See Italian phonology

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate
t
t
t

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English General American[47] tree 'tree' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /tr/; more commonly postalveolar [t].[47] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[47]
Italian Sicily[48] straniero 'foreign' Apical. Regional realization of the sequence /tr/; may be a sequence [t] or [t] instead.[49] See Italian phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995), p. 6.
  3. ^ a b c d Hualde, Lujanbio & Zubiri (2010:1). Although this paper discusses mainly the Goizueta dialect, the authors state that it has "a typical, conservative consonant inventory for a Basque variety".
  4. ^ Padluzhny (1989), pp. 48-49.
  5. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), pp. 109-110.
  6. ^ Lin (2001), pp. 17-25.
  7. ^ Palková (1994), pp. 234-235.
  8. ^ Szende (1999), p. 104.
  9. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  10. ^ Kara (2002), p. 10.
  11. ^ Kara (2002), p. 11.
  12. ^ a b Kara (2003), p. 11.
  13. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  14. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  15. ^ Roc?awski (1976), pp. 160.
  16. ^ Ovidiu Dr?ghici. "Limba Român? contemporan?. Fonetic?. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie" (PDF). Retrieved 2013.[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ Chew (2003), p. 67.
  18. ^ Kordi? (2006), p. 5.
  19. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  20. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  21. ^ S. Buk; J. Ma?utek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". arXiv:0802.4198.
  22. ^ ?ewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22, 38).
  23. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 12.
  24. ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5.
  25. ^ (in Asturian) Normes ortográfiques, Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Archived 2013-03-23 at the Wayback Machine., page 14
  26. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2007), p. 144.
  27. ^ Jacobson (1995), p. 2.
  28. ^ a b c Grønnum (2005), p. 120.
  29. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  30. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322-323.
  31. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  32. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  33. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 515.
  34. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 100.
  35. ^ a b Penhallurick (2004), pp. 108-109.
  36. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  37. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2013), p. 194.
  38. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  39. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67-68.
  40. ^ a b (in Portuguese) Palatalization of dental occlusives /t/ and /d/ in the bilingual communities of Taquara and Panambi, RS - Alice Telles de Paula Page 14
  41. ^ a b Seqüências de (oclusiva alveolar + sibilante alveolar) como um padrão inovador no português de Belo Horizonte - Camila Tavares Leite
  42. ^ Adaptações fonológicas na pronúncia de estrangeirismos do Inglês por falantes de Português Brasileiro - Ana Beatriz Gonçalves de Assis
  43. ^ A influência da percepção inferencial na formação de vogal epentética em estrangeirismos - Aline Aver Vanin
  44. ^ a b "Castilian Spanish - Madrid by Klaus Kohler".
  45. ^ a b Mangold (2005), pp. 50 and 52.
  46. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 75-76.
  47. ^ a b c Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186-188, 192.
  48. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 64.
  49. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 64-65.

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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