Voiceless Palato-alveolar Affricate
Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
t?
t
IPA number103 134
Encoding
Entity (decimal)t​͡​ʃ
Unicode (hex)U+0074 U+0361 U+0283
X-SAMPAtS or t_rS
KirshenbaumtS
Listen

The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t⟩, ⟨t⟩ or ⟨t?⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨?⟩). It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".

Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar stop /k/ (as in English church; also in Gulf Arabic, Slavic languages, Indo-Iranian languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental stop /t/ by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel (as in English nature; also in Amharic, etc.).

Features

Features of the voiceless domed postalveolar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed (partially palatalized) postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the front of the tongue bunched up ("domed") at the palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe ? 'cow' Some dialects contrast labialized and non-labialized forms.
Albanian çelur [tlu?] 'open'
Aleut Atkan dialect cham?ul [tm?ul] 'to wash'
Amharic [anti] 'you'
Arabic[1] Central Palestinian (Normally unwritten) ['matt?abe] 'library' Corresponds to [k] in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Iraqi ? [t't:b] 'book'
Jordanian ? (Normally unwritten) [t't?a:b]
Armenian Eastern[2] ? 'sparrow'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic chmah [tma:] 'how many?' Used in the Urmia and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [k] in other varieties.
Azeri ?kinçi [ækinti] 'the ploughman'
Bengali ? [t?ma] 'spectacles' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Basque txalupa [talupa] 'boat'
Bulgarian ??? [tutu'li] 'lark' See Bulgarian phonology
Central Alaskan Yup'ik nacaq ['nataq] 'parka hood'
Choctaw hakchioma [haktioma] 'tobacco'
Coptic Bohairic dialect ? [toh] 'touch'
Czech mor?e ['mo?rt] 'guinea pig' See Czech phonology
English leach ['li:t] 'leach' See English phonology
Esperanto ?ar [tar] 'because' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese gera [te:?a] 'to do' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Faroese phonology
French Standard caoutchouc [kautu] 'rubber' Relatively rare; occurs mostly in loanwords. See French phonology
Acadian tiens [t?] '(I/you) keep' Allophone of /k/ and /tj/ before a front vowel.
Galician cheo ['teo] 'full' Galician-Portuguese /t/ is conserved in Galician and merged with /?/ in most Portuguese dialects. See Galician phonology
Georgian[3] ? [tixi] 'impasse'
German Standard[4] Tschinelle [ti'n?l?] 'cymbal' Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] See Standard German phonology
Greek Cypriot [te?] 'and' Contrasts with /t:/ and prenasalised [d].
Hebrew [tu'va] 'answer' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani ? [t:j] 'tea' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Haitian Creole match [mat] 'sports match'
Hungarian gyümölcs ['?ymøltle:] 'juice' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5] ciao ['ta:o] 'ciao' See Italian phonology
K'iche' K'iche' [k'i'te?] 'K'iche' Contrasts with ejective form
Kabardian ? 'shallow'
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Macedonian ? [tka] 'wait' See Macedonian phonology
Malay cuci [tuti] 'wash'
Maltese bli? [blit] 'bleach'
Marathi ? [th?:] 'tea' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Nahuatl ?y?t?chtli [a:jo:'to:tti] 'armadillo'
Norwegian Some dialects kjøkken [tøk:en] 'kitchen' See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[7] jaro [ta?o] 'needle'
Occitan chuc ['tyk] 'juice' See Occitan phonology
Persian [tu:b] 'wood' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna ciemny ['tmn] 'dark' // and /t/ merge into [t] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /t/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiceless retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
Portuguese Most Brazilian dialects[9] presente [p?e?'zti] 'present' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ?/ (including when [i, ?, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects tchau ['taw] 'bye' In Standard European Portuguese it occurs only in recent loanwords.
Punjabi [t:l] 'rice'
Quechua chunka [t?ka] 'ten'
Romanian cer [te?r] 'sky' See Romanian phonology
Rotuman[10] joni ['tni] 'to flee'
Sanskrit ? [tn?d?r?] 'moon' Contrasts with aspirated form.
Scottish Gaelic slàinte ['sla:n?t] 'health' Southern dialects only; standard pronunciation is [t?]. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian Some speakers ?okoláda [to?ko?':d?a?] 'chocolate' In varieties that don't distinguish // from /t/.
Silesian Gmina Istebna[11] [example needed] These dialects merge // and /t/ into [t].
Jablunkov[11] [example needed]
Spanish[12] chocolate 'chocolate' See Spanish phonology
Swahili jicho [?ito] 'eye'
Swedish Finland tjugo [t:] 'twenty' See Swedish phonology
Some rural Swedish dialects kärlek [tæ:?e:k] 'love'
Tlingit jinkaat ['ti?k?a:t?] 'ten'
Turkish çok [tok] 'very' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh Ç?bja [tbja] 'pepper' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[13] ? [to?'t?r?] 'four' See Ukrainian phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[14] chane [tan?]

Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Polish, Catalan, and Thai have a voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t/; this is technically postalveolar but it is less precise to use /t/.

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate
t
t?
Listen

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Australian[15] tree [t?i?] 'tree' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /tr/.[15][16][17][18] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [t].[16] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[16][17]
Received Pronunciation[16][17]
Port Talbot[18] [ti:]

Notes

  1. ^ Watson (2002:17)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  4. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51-52)
  5. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Ladefoged (2005:158)
  8. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Kara? & Kolis (1995:62)
  9. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
  10. ^ Blevins (1994:492)
  11. ^ a b D?browska (2004:?)
  12. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  13. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  14. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  15. ^ a b Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 144.
  16. ^ a b c d Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186-188, 192.
  17. ^ a b c Wells (2008).
  18. ^ a b Connolly (1990), p. 121.

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Voiceless_palato-alveolar_affricate
 



 

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