xkcd, sometimes styled XKCD,[? 2] is a webcomic created by American author Randall Munroe. The comic's tagline describes it as "A webcomic of romance, sarcasm, math, and language".[? 3] Munroe states on the comic's website that the name of the comic is not an initialism but "just a word with no phonetic pronunciation".
The subject matter of the comic varies from statements on life and love to mathematical, programming, and scientific in-jokes. Some strips feature simple humor or pop-culture references. Although it has a cast of stick figures, the comic occasionally features landscapes, graphs and charts, and intricate mathematical patterns such as fractals. New cartoons are added three times a week, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.[? 2]
Munroe has released two spinoff books from the comic. His 2014 book What If? is based on his blog of the same name that answers unusual science questions from readers in a light-hearted but scientifically grounded way.[? 4][? 5] The What If column on the site is updated with new articles from time to time. His 2015 book Thing Explainer explains scientific concepts using only the one thousand most commonly used words in English.[? 6]
As a student, Munroe often drew charts, maps, and "stick figure battles" in the margins of his school notebooks, besides solving mathematical problems unrelated to his classes. By the time he graduated from university, Munroe's "piles of notebooks" became too large and he started scanning the images.
xkcd began in September 2005, when Munroe decided to scan his doodles and put them on his personal website. According to Munroe, the comic's name has no particular significance and is simply a four-letter word without a phonetic pronunciation, something he describes as "a treasured and carefully guarded point in the space of four-character strings." In January 2006, the comic was split off into its own website, created in collaboration with Derek Radtke.
In May 2007, the comic garnered widespread attention by depicting online communities in geographic form. Various websites were drawn as continents, each sized according to their relative popularity and located according to their general subject matter.[? 7] This put xkcd at number two on the Syracuse Post-Standard's "The new hotness" list. By 2008, xkcd was able to financially support Munroe and Radtke "reasonably well" through the sale of multiple thousand T-shirts per month.
On September 19, 2012, "Click and Drag" was published, which featured a panel which can be explored via clicking and dragging its insides.[? 8] It immediately triggered positive response on social websites and forums. The large image nested in the panel measures 165,888 pixels wide by 79,822 pixels high. Munroe later described it as "probably the most popular one I ever put on the Internet", as well as placing it among his own favorites.
"Time" began publication at midnight EDT on March 25, 2013, with the comic's image updating every 30 minutes until March 30, when they began to change every hour, lasting for over four months. The images constitute time lapse frames of a story, with the mouseover text originally reading "Wait for it.", later changed to "RUN." and changed again to "The end." on July 26. The story began with a male and female character building a sandcastle complex on a beach who then embark on an adventure to learn the secrets of the sea. On July 26, the comic superimposed a frame (3094) with the phrase "The End". Tasha Robinson of The A.V. Club wrote of the comic: "[...] the kind of nifty experiment that keeps people coming back to XKCD, which at its best isn't a strip comic so much as an idea factory and a shared experience".Cory Doctorow mentioned "Time" in a brief article on Boing Boing on April 7, saying the comic was "coming along nicely". The 3,099-panel "Time" comic ended on July 26, 2013, and was followed by a blog post summarizing the journey.[? 9] In 2014, it won the Hugo Award in the Best Graphic Story category.
Around 2007, Munroe drew all the comics on paper, then scanned and processed them on a tablet computer (a Fujitsu Lifebook).[? 10] As of 2014, he was using a Cintiq graphics tablet for drawing (like many other cartoonists), alongside a laptop for coding tasks.
Munroe has been a fan of newspaper comic strips since childhood, describing xkcd as an "heir" to Charles M. Schulz's Peanuts. Despite this influence, xkcds quirky and technical humor would have been difficult to syndicate in newspapers. In webcomics, Munroe has said that "one can draw something that appeals to 1 percent of the audience -- 1 percent of United States, that is three million people, that is more readers than small cartoons can have." Munroe cited the lack of a need for editorial control due to the low bar of access to the Internet as "a salvation."
"Malamanteau", with mouseover text "The article has twenty-three citations, one of which is an obscure manuscript from the 1490s and the other twenty-two are arguments on Language Log
While there is no specific storyline to the webcomic, there are some recurring themes and characters. Recurring themes of xkcd include "technology, science, mathematics and relationships."xkcd frequently features jokes related to popular culture, such as Guitar Hero, Facebook, Vanilla Ice, and Wikipedia.
There are many strips opening with the words "My Hobby:", usually depicting the nondescript narrator character describing some type of humorous or quirky behavior. However, not all strips are intended to be humorous. Romance and relationships are frequent themes, and other xkcd strips consist of complex depictions of landscapes. Many xkcd strips refer to Munroe's "obsession" with potential velociraptor attacks.
References to Wikipedia articles or to defaultlogic.com resource as a whole have occurred several times in xkcd.[? 11][? 12][? 13] A facsimile of a made-up defaultlogic.com resource entry for "malamanteau" (a stunt word created by Munroe to poke fun at Wikipedia's writing style) provoked a controversy within defaultlogic.com resource that was picked up by various media. Another "Hobby" strip said that a donation between pro-life and pro-choice activists could be chosen by the word count in a defaultlogic.com resource article, which would probably cause huge controversy and the site to possibly crash.
Almost all xkcd strips have a tooltip (specified using the title attribute in HTML), the text of which usually contains a secondary punchline or annotation related to that day's comic.
One of the only recurring characters is a man wearing a flat black hat. He is extremely sociopathic, and has dedicated his life to causing confusion and harm to others just for his own entertainment. He has no name, so most characters just call him "Black Hat". He gained a girlfriend, commonly named "Danish" by the community, during the course of a small series called "Journal" who is just as cruel as he is.
One of the few other recurring characters is a man with a beret, sometimes, simply referred to as "Beret Guy." He seems to be naive, obsessed with bakeries, optimistic, and completely out of touch with reality. He runs a startup that makes incredible amounts of money, despite him not even knowing what they do. In one instance, he hired Lin-Manuel Miranda as an accountant and, in another instance, sprouted literal "endless wings."
Geographical maps, their various different formats and creation methods are a frequently recurring theme in the comic.  On occasion these maps have been mentioned by analysts due to their imaginative or original presentation of figures or statistics. In the comic 1939, Election Map, colored stick figures are used to display how people voted according to their region giving a clearer picture of how people voted in the 2016 election. Alan Cole, an economist at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School, critically analyzed the map, concluding that it is the most elegant and informative he has seen. 
On several occasions, fans have been motivated by Munroe's comics to carry out, in real life, the subject of a particular drawing or sketch. Some notable examples include:
- Richard Stallman was confronted by students dressed as ninjas before speaking at the Yale Political Union - inspired by "Open Source".[? 14]
- On September 23, 2007, hundreds of people gathered at Reverend Thomas J. Williams Park, 42°23?44?N 71°07?50?W / 42.39561°N 71.13051°W, in North Cambridge, Massachusetts, whose coordinates were mentioned in "Dream Girl".[? 15] Munroe appeared, commenting, "Maybe wanting something does make it real", reversing the conclusion he drew in the last frame of the same strip. This park is recognized by NASA's Spot The Station program, which provides information on viewing opportunities for the International Space Station.
- When xkcd strip "Time" won a Hugo award in the "Best Graphic Story" category in August 2014, it was accepted by Cory Doctorow on behalf of Munroe, dressing as Munroe had drawn him in an earlier strip, "1337: Part 5".[? 16]
- xkcd readers began sneaking chess boards onto roller coasters after "Chess Photo" was published.[? 17] - inspired by "Chess Photo".[? 18]
- The game of "geohashing" has gained more than 1,000 players, who travel to random coordinates calculated by the algorithm described in "Geohashing".[? 19]
- In October 2007, a group of researchers at University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute conducted a census of the Internet and presented their data using a Hilbert curve, which they claimed was inspired by an xkcd comic that used a similar technique.[? 20] Inspired by the same comic, the Carna Botnet used a Hilbert curve to present data in their 2012 Internet Census.
- Based on "Packages",[? 21] programmers have set up programs to automatically find an item for sale on the Internet for $1.00 every day.
- In response to "Password Strength",[? 22]Dropbox shows two messages reading "lol" and "Whoa there, don't take advice from a webcomic too literally ;)" when attempting to register with the password "correcthorsebatterystaple".ArenaNet recommended that Guild Wars 2 users create passwords following the guidelines of the same comic. The website https://howsecureismypassword.net/ says one's password would be cracked 'Instantly' if 'correcthorsebatterystaple' is entered.
- Inspired by the xkcd comic "Online Communities 2",[? 23] Slovak artist Martin Vargic created the "Map of the Internet 1.0."
- In 2008, Munroe posted a parody of the Discovery Channel's I Love the World advertising campaign on xkcd,[? 24] which was later reenacted by Neil Gaiman, Wil Wheaton, and Cory Doctorow.
Awards and recognition
wearing a red cape and a pair of goggles based on his appearance in xkcd
. Doctorow later wore the costume again while accepting a Hugo Award on Munroe's behalf.
xkcd has been recognized at various award ceremonies. In the 2008 Web Cartoonists' Choice Awards, the webcomic was nominated for "Outstanding Use of the Medium", "Outstanding Short Form Comic", and "Outstanding Comedic Comic", and won "Outstanding Single Panel Comic".xkcd was voted "Best Comic Strip" by readers in the 2007 and 2008 Weblog Awards The webcomic was nominated for a 2009 NewNowNext Award in the category "OMFG Internet Award". Randall Munroe was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Fan Artist in both 2011 and 2012, and he won a Hugo Award for Best Graphic Story in 2014, for "Time".
On September 2009, Munroe released a book, entitled xkcd: volume 0, containing selected xkcd comics.[? 25] The book was published by breadpig, under a Creative Commons license, CC BY-NC 3.0, with all of the publisher's profits donated to Room to Read to promote literacy and education in the developing world. Six months after release, the book had sold over 25,000 copies. The book tour in New York City and Silicon Valley was a fundraiser for Room to Read that raised $32,000 to build a school in Salavan Province, Laos.[? 26]
On October 2012, xkcd: volume 0 was included in the Humble Bundle eBook Bundle. It was available for download only to those who donated higher than the average donated for the other eBooks. The book was released DRM-free, in two different-quality PDF files.
On March 12, 2014, Munroe announced the book What If?: Serious Scientific Answers to Absurd Hypothetical Questions. The book was released on September 2, 2014. The book expands on the What If? blog on the xkcd website.[? 5] On May 13, 2015, Munroe announced a new book titled Thing Explainer. Eventually released on November 24, 2015, Thing Explainer is based on the xkcd strip "Up Goer Five" and only uses the thousand most commonly used words to explain different scientific devices.[? 6]
- ^ Chivers, Tom (November 6, 2009). "The 10 best webcomics, from Achewood to XKCD". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ a b Arthur, Charles; Schofield, Jack; Keegan, Victor; et al. (December 17, 2008). "100 top sites for the year ahead". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Guzmán, Mónica (May 11, 2007). "What's Online". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. p. D7. Retrieved 2008.
Created by math and programming geek Randall Munroe, the xkcd comic updates every Monday with a new adventure for its cast of oddball stick figures.
- ^ "Ad Lib, Section: Ticket". Kalamazoo Gazette. Booth Newspapers. August 17, 2006.
- ^ "xkcd.com search: "parody week"". Ohnorobot. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Fernandez, Rebecca (November 25, 2006). "xkcd: A comic strip for the computer geek". Red Hat Magazine. Archived from the original on March 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ a b Holly, Russell (March 12, 2014). "XKCD 'What if?' book announced by Randall Munroe". geek.com. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Shankland, Stephen (13 May 2015). "XKCD cartoonist's new book: 'Thing Explainer'". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ a b Ryberg, Jonas (2013-11-13). "Interview: XKCD's creator tells us "I'm lucky to have readers at all"". DigitalArts.
- ^ a b c Cohen, Noam (May 26, 2008). "This Is Funny Only if You Know Unix". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008.
- ^ Tossell, Ivor (May 18, 2007). "We're looking at each other, and it's not a pretty sight". Globe and Mail. Canada. p. 2. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Cubbison, Brian (May 5, 2007). "PostScript: Upstate Blogroll, New Hotness, and more". Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "'Click And Drag,' XKCD Webcomic, Rewards Explorers (IMAGES)". Huffington Post. September 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ "Everything You Need to Know About xkcd Comic "Click and Drag"". Geekosystem. September 19, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ Dyess, Phil. "Check out XKCD's epic multi-day animation comic · The A.V. Club". Avclub.com. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Hudson, Laura (August 2, 2013). "Creator of xkcd Reveals Secret Backstory of His Epic 3,099-Panel Comic". Wired. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Edwards, Gavin (2014-09-02). "'XKCD' Cartoonist Randall Munroe Drops Mad Science". Rolling Stone. Retrieved .
- ^ a b c d e Moses, Andrew (November 21, 2007). "Former NASA staffer creates comics for geeks". The Gazette. University of Western Ontario. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ O'Kane, Erin (April 5, 2007). "Geek humor: Nothing to be ashamed of". The Whit Online. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ ObsessiveMathsFreak (May 13, 2010). "Wikipedia Is Not Amused By Entry For xkcd-Coined Word". Slashdot. Retrieved 2010.
- ^ McKean, Erin (May 30, 2010). "One-day wonder: How fast can a word become legit?". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Trinh, Peter (September 14, 2007). "A comic you can't pronounce". Imprint Online. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "xkcd: Journal 5". xkcd.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "xkcd: Tuesdays". xkcd.com. Retrieved .
- ^ "This might be the best map of the 2016 election you ever see".
- ^ Zapana, Victor (October 18, 2007). "Stallman trumpets free software". The Yale Daily News. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "Richard Stallman Debate". Blog of the YPU. October 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Cohen, Georgiana (September 26, 2007). "The wisdom of crowds". The Phoenix. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "NASA Spot The Station". NASA. Retrieved 2016.
- ^ a b Anders, Charlie Jane (August 17, 2014). "All The Most Exciting Moments From The 2014 Hugo Awards!". io9. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Yu, Chun (November 12, 2007). "The man hiding behind the raptor". The Tartan. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "Geohashing wiki". wiki.xkcd.com. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ "Maps and statistics". wiki.xkcd.com. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ McNamara, Paul (October 9, 2007). "Researchers ping through first full 'Internet census' in 25 years". Buzzblog. Networkworld.com. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "62 Days + Almost 3 Billion Pings + New Visualization Scheme = the First Internet Census Since 1982". Information Science Institute. October 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "Internet Census 2012: Port scanning /0 using insecure embedded devices". Archived from the original on October 13, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "csKw:projects:cheepcheep". Shaunwagner.com. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "xkcd #576". bieh.net. November 8, 2010. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ Cluley, Graham (August 13, 2012). "Correcthorsebatterystaple - the guys at Dropbox are funny". Naked Security. Sophos. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Kerstein, Martin (January 31, 2013). "Mandatory Password Change is Coming". GuildWars2.com. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "Popular "secure" Passwords: Hard to remember, but easy to guess for computers". steemit. August 17, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ Condliffe, Jamie (2014-01-30). "This Beautiful Map of the Internet Is Insanely Detailed". Gizmodo. Retrieved .
- ^ "Neil Gaiman, Wil Wheaton Reenact 'XKCD' Strip". Comics Alliance. February 8, 2010. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "2008 List of Winners and Finalists". Web Cartoonists' Choice Awards. Archived from the original on March 10, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
- ^ Aylward, Kevin (November 11, 2008). "The 2007 Weblog Award Winners". Retrieved 2009.
- ^ Aylward, Kevin (January 15, 2009). "The 2008 Weblog Awards Winners". Retrieved 2009.
- ^ "2009 NewNowNext Awards". Viacom International Inc. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
- ^ Warn, Sarah (May 21, 2009). "Photos: 2009 NewNowNext Awards". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on July 12, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
- ^ "Hugo Awards Page". Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ "Hugo Awards Page". Archived from the original on April 9, 2012. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "2014 Hugo Award Winners". Retrieved 2014.
- ^ "Sidekick for Hire -- xkcd: volume 0". Breadpig. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Ohanian, Alexis (March 15, 2010). "The xkcd school in Laos is complete! Rejoice!". Breadpig. Archived from the original on 2010-03-22. Retrieved 2010.
- ^ "Humble eBook Bundle is Now Five Times More Hilarious!". Humble Indie Bundle. October 16, 2012. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
In the text these references are preceded by a double dagger (?):
- ^ Munroe, Randall (February 7, 2007). "Philosophy". xkcd. Retrieved 2016.
- ^ a b Munroe, Randall (September 11, 2010). "About xkcd". xkcd. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Munroe, Randall. "xkcd". xkcd. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Munroe, Randall. "What If? - The Book". whatif.xkcd.com. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ a b Munroe, Randall (March 12, 2014). "What if I wrote a book?". blog.xkcd.com. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ a b Munroe, Randall (13 May 2015). "New book: Thing Explainer". blog.xkcd.com. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (May 2, 2007). "Online Communities". xkcd. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (September 19, 2012). "Click and Drag". xkcd. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (July 29, 2013). "1190: Time". blog.xkcd.com. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (March 16, 2007). "In which I lose the originals of the last three months of comics and the laptop I create them with". blog.xkcd.com. Retrieved 2017.
- ^ a b Munroe, Randall (July 4, 2007). "Wikipedian Protester". xkcd. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ a b Munroe, Randall (May 12, 2010). "Malamanteau". xkcd. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Comics related to defaultlogic.com resource include:
- Munroe, Randall (January 24, 2007). "The Problem with Wikipedia". xkcd. Retrieved 2011.
- Munroe, Randall (November 16, 2011). "Citogenesis". xkcd. Retrieved 2011.
- Munroe, Randall (July 7, 2008). "In Popular Culture". xkcd. Retrieved 2011.
- Munroe, Randall (January 30, 2013). "Star Trek into Darkness". xkcd. Retrieved 2013.
- Munroe, Randall (April 1, 2013). "Externalities". xkcd. Retrieved 2013.
- Munroe, Randall (August 25, 2014). "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles". xkcd. Retrieved 2014.
- ^ a b Munroe, Randall (February 19, 2007). "Open Source". xkcd. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (March 26, 2007). "Dream Girl". xkcd. Retrieved 2010.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (March 23, 2007). "Blagofaire". xkcd. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ "People Playing Chess on Roller Coasters". xkcd. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (April 16, 2007). "Chess Photo". xkcd. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (May 26, 2005). "Geohashing". xkcd. Retrieved 2012.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (December 11, 2006). "Map of the Internet". xkcd. Retrieved 2007.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (May 1, 2009). "Packages". xkcd. Retrieved 2011.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (August 10, 2011). "Password Strength". xkcd. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (October 6, 2010). "Online Communities 2". xkcd. Retrieved 2015.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (June 27, 2008). "xkcd Loves the Discovery Channel". xkcd. Retrieved 2008.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (September 10, 2009). "Book!". blog.xkcd.com. Retrieved 2010.
- ^ Munroe, Randall (October 11, 2009). "School". blog.xkcd.com. Retrieved 2013.