Zanclean Flood

Artistic interpretation of the flooding of the Mediterranean through the Gibraltar Strait (A) and the Strait of Sicily (F) about 5.3 million years ago
Artistic interpretation of the flooding of the Mediterranean through the Gibraltar Strait
Artistic interpretation of the flooding of the Mediterranean through the Gibraltar Strait (view from the southwest of the strait)

The Zanclean flood or Zanclean Deluge is a flood theorized to have refilled the Mediterranean Sea 5.33 million years ago.[1] This flooding ended the Messinian salinity crisis and reconnected the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean, although it is possible that even before the flood there were partial connections to the Atlantic Ocean. The reconnection marks the beginning of the Zanclean age.

According to this model, water from the Atlantic Ocean refilled the dried up basin through the modern-day Strait of Gibraltar. The Mediterranean Basin flooded mostly during a period estimated to have been between several months and two years.[2][3] Sea level rise in the basin may have reached rates at times greater than ten metres per day (thirty feet per day).[2] Based on the erosion features preserved until modern times under the Pliocene sediment, Garcia-Castellanos et al. estimate that water rushed down a drop of more than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) with a discharge of up to 2×108 m3/s (7.1×109 cu ft/s), about 1,000 times that of the present day Amazon River.[2] Studies of the underground structures at the Gibraltar Strait show that the flooding channel descended in a rather gradual way toward the bottom of the basin rather than forming a steep waterfall.

Not all scientific studies have agreed with the catastrophist interpretation of this event. Some researchers have estimated that the reinstallment of a "normal" Mediterranean Sea basin following the Messinian "Lago Mare" episode took place in a much more gradual way, taking as long as 10,000 years.[4]

Background

The geologic history of the Mediterranean is governed by plate tectonics involving the African Plate, the Arabian Plate and the Eurasian Plate which shrank the previously existing Tethys until its western part became the present-day Mediterranean.[5] For reasons not clearly established, during the latest Miocene the Mediterranean was severed from the Atlantic Ocean and partly dried up when the Guadalhorce and Rifian corridors that had previously connected the Mediterranean to the Atlantic closed,[6] triggering the Messinian Salinity Crisis with the formation of thick salt deposits on the former seafloor[7] and erosion of the continental slopes.[8] The Nile and Rhône carved deep canyons during this time.[9] Water levels in the Mediterranean during this time dropped by kilometres;[10] the exact magnitude of the drop and whether it was symmetric between the Western Mediterranean and the Eastern Mediterranean is unclear;[11] it is possible that interconnected seas remained on the floor of the Mediterranean.[12]

The presence of Atlantic fish in Messinian deposits[12] and the volume of salt deposited during the Messinian Salinity Crisis implies that there was some remnant flow from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean even before the Zanclean flood.[6] Already before the Zanclean flood, increased precipitation and runoff had lowered the salinity of the remnant sea,[7] with some water putatively originating in the Paratethys north of the Mediterranean.[13]

Event

The Zanclean flood occurred when the Strait of Gibraltar opened.[14] Tectonic subsidence of the Gibraltar region may have lowered the sill until it breached.[7] The exact triggering event is not known with certainty; faulting or sea level rise are debatable. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that a stream flowing into the Mediterranean eroded through the Strait of Gibraltar until it captured the Atlantic Ocean[10] and that the Strait did not exist before this erosion event.[15]

During the flood, a channel formed across the Strait of Gibraltar,[14] which starts at the Camarinal Sill in the Strait of Gibraltar,[16] splits around the Vizconde de Eza high of the Alboran Sea[17] and eventually connects with the Alboran Channel before splitting into several branches that end in the Algero-Balear basin.[16][18] The channel has an U-like shape in its starting region, which is consistent with its formation during a giant flood.[19] The sector of the Zanclean channel that passes through the Camarinal Sill may have a different origin, however.[11]

Whether the Zanclean flood occurred gradually or as a catastrophic event is controversial.[20] The magnitude of a catastrophic flood has been simulated by modelling. One single-dimensional model assumes a catastrophic flood of more than 10-100 sverdrup.[note 1] Another estimate assumes that after the first breach of the sill, the flowing water eroded the threshold and forming the channel across the Gibraltar strait, increasing the flow of water which in turn increased the erosion until water levels rose enough in the Mediterranean to slow the flood.[19] Under such a scenario, a peak discharge of over 100,000,000 cubic metres per second (3.5×109 cu ft/s) occurred with water velocities of over 40 metres per second (130 ft/s); such flow rates are about a thousand times larger than the discharge of the Amazon River and ten times as much as the Missoula Floods.[23] This flood would have descended a relatively gentle ramp into the Mediterranean basin, not as a giant waterfall.[24] Later simulations using more explicit geography constrain the flow to about 100 Sverdrup, which is about 100,000,000 cubic metres per second (3.5×109 cu ft/s). They further indicate the formation of large gyres in the Alboran Sea during the flooding[21] and that the flood eroded the Camarinal Sill at a rate of 0.4-0.7 metres per day (1.3-2.3 ft/d).[25] The exact size of the flood is dependent on the pre-flood water levels in the Mediterranean and higher water levels there would result in a much smaller flood.[26]

The flood affected only the Western Mediterranean at first, because the Sicily Sill (located at the present Straits of Sicily) formed a barrier separating its basin from the Eastern Mediterranean basin;[27] in addition a sill may have existed in the eastern Alboran Sea at this time.[28] While it was at first assumed that the filling of the eastern Mediterranean would have taken thousands of years, later estimates of the size of the Strait of Gibraltar channel implied that it would have taken much less, potentially less than a year until reconnection.[29] A 2018 study suggested that the Mediterranean reversed water losses in around two years.[30]

A large flood is not the only explanation for the reconnection of the Mediterranean with the Atlantic and concomitant environmental changes; more gradual reflooding of the Mediterranean including reflooding through other water sources is also possible.[31][32] The absence of a catastrophic flooding event is supported by geological evidence found along the southern margin of the Alboran Sea.[33]

A January 2018 study by scientists from the University of Malta, published in the journal Scientific Reports, however, presented geological evidence that the catastrophic megaflood was indeed responsible. The study, led by geoscientist Aaron Micallef, used seafloor data from between Sicily's eastern coast and Malta to identify a body of sediment which Micallef and his colleagues believe to have been pushed eastwards as the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar caused a massive amount of water to flow from the Atlantic. The collection of sediment Micallef and his colleagues observed was 160 kilometres long, 95 kilometres wide, and as much as 900 metres deep in some areas, abutting an underwater limestone cliff known as the Malta Escarpment.[30][34][35]

Timing

The timing of the Zanclean flood is uncertain, with one possibility being a flood around 5.33 million years ago;[36] the end of the Messinian/Miocene and beginning of the Zanclean/Pliocene is usually associated with the flood.[37] The main Zanclean flood may have been preceded by an earlier smaller flood event,[11][38] and the presence of deep sea terraces has been used to infer that the refilling of the Mediterranean occurred in several pulses.[39] Complete refilling of the Mediterranean may have taken about a decade.[7]

Consequences

The Zanclean flood created the Strait of Gibraltar; it is questionable that tectonic or volcanic events could have created the strait themselves seeing as the main plate boundaries do not run through the strait and there is little seismic activity in its area.[40] The current morphology of the strait is characterized by two sills, the maximally 284 metres (932 ft) deep Camarinal Sill and the somewhat deeper Spartel Sill[41] farther west; the narrowest part of the strait is located east of either sill,[42] and this narrowest part is considerably deeper.[41] It is possible that these sills were formed after the flood through gravity-induced movement of neighbouring terrain.[43]

The Zanclean flood caused a major change in the environment of the Mediterranean basin; the continental "Lago Mare" facies was replaced by Zanclean deep sea deposits.[7] The flood may have affected global climate, considering that the much smaller flood triggered when Lake Agassiz drained did result in a cold period.[44]

Rising sea levels made the deeply incised Nile river become a ria as far inland as Aswan, 900 km from the modern mediterranean coast.[45] The Zanclean flood resulted in the final isolation of numerous Mediterranean islands such as Crete,[46] resulting in speciation of animals found there.[47] On the other hand, the formation of the Gibraltar Strait prevented animals from crossing over between Africa and Europe.[48] Further the reconnection allowed sea animals such as cetaceans and their ancestors and pinnipeds to colonize the Mediterranean from the Atlantic.[49]

Evidence of the flooding has been obtained on Zanclean-age sediments, both in boreholes and in sediments that were subsequently uplifted and raised above sea level.[50] A sharp erosional surface separates the pre-Zanclean flood surface from the younger deposits, which are always marine in origin.[51]

The rates at which the Mediterranean filled during the flood were more than enough to trigger substantial induced seismicity.[52] Resulting large landslides would have sufficed at creating large tsunamis with waveheights reaching 100 metres (330 ft), evidence of which has been found in the Algeciras Basin.[53]

Similar megafloods

Similar floods have occurred elsewhere on Earth during history; examples include the Bonneville flood in North America,[9] during which Lake Bonneville overflowed through Red Rock Pass into the Snake River Basin, as well as the Black Sea deluge hypothesis that postulates a flood from the Mediterranean into the Black Sea through the Bosporus.[54]

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ 1 sverdrup is 1,000,000 cubic metres per second.[21] Total outflow of all rivers is about 1.2 sverdrup.[22]

References

  1. ^ Blanc, P.-L. (2002). "The opening of the Plio-Quaternary Gibraltar Strait: assessing the size of a cataclysm". Geodinamica Acta. 15 (15): 303-317. Bibcode:2002GeoAc..15..303B. doi:10.1016/S0985-3111(02)01095-1. 
  2. ^ a b c Garcia-Castellanos, D., Estrada, F., Jiménez-Munt, I., Gorini, C., Fernàndez, M., Vergés, J., De Vicente, R. (10 December 2009) Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis, Nature 462, pp. 778-781, doi:10.1038/nature08555
  3. ^ M. Roveri et al. (2008). "A high-resolution stratigraphic framework for the latest Messinian events in the Mediterranean area" (PDF). Stratigraphy. 5 (3-4): 323-342. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2012. 
  4. ^ Gill, Victoria (9 December 2009). "Ancient Mediterranean flood mystery solved". BBC News. Retrieved 2013. 
  5. ^ Cipollari et al. 2013, p. 473.
  6. ^ a b Periáñez & Abril 2015, p. 49.
  7. ^ a b c d e Cipollari et al. 2013, p. 474.
  8. ^ Just et al. 2011, p. 51.
  9. ^ a b Garcia-Castellanos et al. 2009, p. 778.
  10. ^ a b Abril & Periáñez 2016, p. 242.
  11. ^ a b c Abril & Periáñez 2016, p. 243.
  12. ^ a b Stoica et al. 2016, p. 854.
  13. ^ Stoica et al. 2016, p. 867.
  14. ^ a b Estrada et al. 2011, p. 362.
  15. ^ Loget, Nicolas; Van Den Driessche, Jean (June 2006). "On the origin of the Strait of Gibraltar". Sedimentary Geology. 188-189: 341-356. Bibcode:2006SedG..188..341L. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2006.03.012. ISSN 0037-0738. 
  16. ^ a b Estrada et al. 2011, p. 369.
  17. ^ Estrada et al. 2011, p. 368.
  18. ^ Estrada et al. 2011, p. 371.
  19. ^ a b Garcia-Castellanos et al. 2009, p. 779.
  20. ^ Cornée et al. 2016, p. 115,116.
  21. ^ a b Periáñez & Abril 2015, p. 55.
  22. ^ Lagerloef, Gary; Schmitt, Raymond; Schanze, Julian; Kao, Hsun-Ying (1 December 2010). "The Ocean and the Global Water Cycle". Oceanography. 23 (4): 85. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2010.07. 
  23. ^ Garcia-Castellanos et al. 2009, p. 780.
  24. ^ Garcia-Castellanos et al. 2009, p. 781.
  25. ^ Periáñez & Abril 2015, p. 60.
  26. ^ Stoica et al. 2016, p. 868.
  27. ^ Just et al. 2011, p. 52.
  28. ^ Cornée et al. 2016, p. 127.
  29. ^ Just et al. 2011, p. 53.
  30. ^ a b "Mediterranean megaflood confirmed | Cosmos". cosmosmagazine.com. Retrieved . 
  31. ^ Marzocchi, Alice; Flecker, Rachel; Baak, Christiaan G.C. van; Lunt, Daniel J.; Krijgsman, Wout (1 July 2016). "Mediterranean outflow pump: An alternative mechanism for the Lago-mare and the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis". Geology. 44 (7): 525. Bibcode:2016Geo....44..523M. doi:10.1130/G37646.1. ISSN 0091-7613. 
  32. ^ Zecchin, Massimo; Civile, Dario; Caffau, Mauro; Muto, Francesco; Di Stefano, Agata; Maniscalco, Rosanna; Critelli, Salvatore (December 2013). "The Messinian succession of the Crotone Basin (southern Italy) I: Stratigraphic architecture reconstructed by seismic and well data". Marine and Petroleum Geology. 48: 455. doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2013.08.014. ISSN 0264-8172. 
  33. ^ Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Münch, Philippe; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela; Moussa, Abdelkhalak Ben; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Drinia, Hara; Azdimousa, Ali; Touhami, Abdelouahed Ouazani; Merzeraud, Gilles; Fauquette, Séverine; Corsini, Michel; Moissette, Pierre; Feddi, Najat (March 2014). "The Early Pliocene reflooding in the Western Mediterranean: New insights from the rias of the Internal Rif, Morocco". Comptes Rendus Geoscience. 346 (3-4): 97. Bibcode:2014CRGeo.346...90C. doi:10.1016/j.crte.2014.03.002. ISSN 1631-0713. 
  34. ^ Micallef, Aaron; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Otero, Daniel Cunarro; Gutscher, Marc-André; Barreca, Giovanni; Spatola, Daniele; Facchin, Lorenzo; Geletti, Riccardo (2018-01-18). "Evidence of the Zanclean megaflood in the eastern Mediterranean Basin". Scientific Reports. 8 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-19446-3. ISSN 2045-2322. 
  35. ^ Kornei, Katherine. "A Megaflood-Powered Mile-High Waterfall Refilled the Mediterranean [Video]". Scientific American. Retrieved . 
  36. ^ Cornée et al. 2016, p. 116.
  37. ^ van den Berg, B.C.J.; Sierro, F.J.; Hilgen, F.J.; Flecker, R.; Larrasoaña, J.C.; Krijgsman, W.; Flores, J.A.; Mata, M.P.; Bellido Martín, E.; Civis, J.; González-Delgado, J.A. (December 2015). "Astronomical tuning for the upper Messinian Spanish Atlantic margin: Disentangling basin evolution, climate cyclicity and MOW". Global and Planetary Change. 135: 89. Bibcode:2015GPC...135...89V. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2015.10.009. ISSN 0921-8181. 
  38. ^ Estrada et al. 2011, p. 372.
  39. ^ Estrada et al. 2011, p. 374.
  40. ^ Blanc 2012, p. 303.
  41. ^ a b Blanc 2012, p. 308.
  42. ^ Blanc 2012, p. 304.
  43. ^ Blanc 2012, p. 316.
  44. ^ Garcia-Castellanos et al. 2009, p. 779,780.
  45. ^ Goudie, A.S. (2005). "The drainage of Africa since the Cretaceous". Geomorphology. 67: 437-456. 
  46. ^ Leppard, Thomas P. (2015). "The Evolution of Modern Behaviour and its Implications for Maritime Dispersal During the Palaeolithic". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 25 (4): 830. doi:10.1017/S0959774315000098. ISSN 0959-7743. 
  47. ^ Hofman, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Osikowski, Artur; Szymura, Jacek M. (2014). "Complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frogPelophylax cretensis(Anura, Ranidae)". Mitochondrial DNA: 525. doi:10.3109/19401736.2014.974158. 
  48. ^ Gibert, Luís; Scott, Gary R.; Montoya, Plini; Ruiz-Sánchez, Francisco J.; Morales, Jorge; Luque, Luis; Abella, Juan; Lería, María (1 June 2013). "Evidence for an African-Iberian mammal dispersal during the pre-evaporitic Messinian". Geology. 41 (6): 694. Bibcode:2013Geo....41..691G. doi:10.1130/G34164.1. ISSN 0091-7613. 
  49. ^ Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. (1 January 2016). "Marine Mammals in the Mediterranean Sea: An Overview". In Larson, Shawn E.; Lowry, Dayv. Northeast Pacific Shark Biology, Research, and Conservation, Part B. Advances in Marine Biology. 75. pp. 7-8. doi:10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.005. ISBN 978-0-12-805152-8. ISSN 0065-2881. 
  50. ^ Cipollari et al. 2013, p. 487.
  51. ^ Nesteroff, Wladimir D.; William B.F. Ryan; Kenneth J. Hsu; Guy Pautot; Forese C. Wezel; Jennifer M. Lort; Maria B. Cita; Wolf Maync; Herbert Stradner; Paulian Dumitrica (1972). "Evolution de la sédimentation pendant le Néogène en Méditerranée d'après les Forages JOIDES-DSDP". University of Milan Institute of Geology and Paleontology Publication (in French) (125): 200. 
  52. ^ Silva et al. 2017, p. 137.
  53. ^ Silva et al. 2017, p. 140.
  54. ^ O'Connor, Jim E.; Costa, John E. (2004). The World's Largest Floods, Past and Present: Their Causes and Magnitudes. U.S. Geological Survey. p. 4,5. ISBN 978-0-607-97378-5. 

Sources

External links


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