MacOS Sierra

macOS 10.12 Sierra
A version of the macOS operating system
MacOS Sierra wordmark.svg
MacOS Sierra Desktop.png
macOS Sierra desktop
DeveloperApple Inc.
OS family
Source modelClosed, with open source components
Initial releaseSeptember 20, 2016; 2 years ago (2016-09-20)
Latest release10.12.6 (16G1618) / October 30, 2018; 41 days ago (2018-10-30)
Update methodMac App Store
Platformsx86-64
Kernel typeHybrid (XNU)
LicenseAPSL and Apple EULA
Preceded byOS X 10.11 El Capitan
Succeeded bymacOS 10.13 High Sierra
Official websitemacOS - Apple at the Wayback Machine (archived August 30, 2017)
Support status
Extended support ends in September 2019. iTunes, in August 2020

macOS Sierra (version 10.12)[2] is the thirteenth major release of macOS (previously ), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. The successor to OS X El Capitan, it was the first version of the operating system issued under the June 2016 rebranding as macOS. Sierra is named after California's Sierra Nevada mountain range.[3] Its major new features concern Continuity, iCloud, and windowing, as well as support for Apple Pay and Siri.

The first beta of macOS Sierra was released to developers shortly following the 2016 WWDC keynote on June 13, 2016. The first public-beta release followed on July 7, 2016. It was released to end users on September 20, 2016, as a free upgrade through the Mac App Store.[4]

System requirements

macOS Sierra requires at least 2 GB of RAM and 8 GB of storage space and will run on:[5]

Sierra is the first version of macOS since OS X Mountain Lion, released in 2012, that does not run on all computers that the previous version supported.[6] Developers have created workarounds to install macOS Sierra on some Mac computers that are no longer officially supported as long as they are packed with a CPU that supports SSE4.1.[7]

Changes

The default desktop picture is an image of Lone Pine Peak.

System features

Siri

A demonstration of Siri on macOS Sierra Beta.

The user can access the Siri intelligent assistant via the Dock, the menu bar or a keyboard shortcut and results are shown in a window in the upper-right corner.[8] Siri can send messages, search the web, find files and adjust settings. Results can be dropped into other applications or pinned to Notification Center.[8] For instance, pictures from search results can be dragged into a document.

iCloud Drive and Optimized Storage

This image shows what the Optimized Storage suggestions are.

iCloud Drive can upload the user's documents and desktop directories and sync them to other devices. The System Information application has a new section that gives the user detailed information about space usage per application or file and provides tools and suggestions for freeing up space. For instance, the user can let the system upload old files to iCloud Drive and remove their local copies, keeping them available on-demand in Finder. It can also remove old files from trash automatically. iTunes can delete watched, purchased films and TV programs from its library.[9][10]

Auto Unlock and Universal Clipboard

Building upon Continuity, an "umbrella term [for] features that facilitate the communication between [Apple devices]" using Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, Sierra adds two features.[9] With Auto Unlock, the user can unlock their user account by holding a paired Apple Watch close to the device. Time of flight is used to prevent relay attacks. Auto Unlock requires a Mac that was introduced in 2013 or later. With Universal Clipboard, the user can share the clipboard for cut, copy and paste between macOS Sierra and iOS 10 devices, including text and rich content, such as pictures or videos.

Tabs and Picture-in-Picture

Applications that support multiple windows can support multiple tabs within a single window, allowing the user to keep windows organized similarly to Safari.[11] With Picture-in-Picture, videos can be played in a window that follows the user across the system.[12]

Apple File System

Apple released a preview of a new file system in Sierra, called Apple File System (APFS), to overcome the limitations of HFS Plus. It is intended for solid-state drives and flash memory and will adopt several features found in modern file systems, such as snapshots and cloning, as well as native support for features that Apple already provides in HFS Plus through supplementary software, such as file-system encryption and TRIM support. The file system was released in macOS High Sierra.[13]

Night Shift

Night Shift is new in macOS 10.12.4, with the same functionality as its iOS counterpart. Night Shift reduces blue light at night to aid sleep. This can be scheduled in the System Preferences app (in the Displays menu) and can be toggled on or off in the Notification Center or using Siri.[14]

Since this feature relies on the Metal framework,[] Night Shift is not available on all systems that support macOS Sierra.[15]

Application features

Photos

Apple says it has improved the face recognition of the Photos application, adding object and scene recognition. It groups similar pictures together using faces, locations and object recognition to create "memories". Memories contain picture slideshows with transitions and music selected by the algorithm, which can be modified to the user's liking. The "People" album organizes photos by the people in them, and Places shows all photos on a world map.

Safari and Apple Pay

Safari provides an "extension point" which enables developers to bundle Safari extensions within their Cocoa applications and communicate with them directly from the applications.[16] Safari conceals the presence of installed "legacy" plug-ins, such as Adobe Flash Player, Java applets, Microsoft Silverlight, and QuickTime - from websites and requires the user to enable a specific plug-in on a per-use or per-website basis.[9]

Apple Pay allows vendors to embed an Apple Pay button on their websites. In Safari, users can click the Apple Pay button to check out, then complete a purchase using an iPhone or Apple Watch. Apple Pay requires a Mac that supports Continuity (2012 or later models) and either an iPhone 6 or later with iOS 10, or an Apple Watch with watchOS 3.

Messages

The Messages app adds aesthetic effects to messages, such as three times bigger emojis and click back with hearts or thumbs-up on a message bubble.[17] The ability to play YouTube videos and preview links in a conversation was introduced.[18] Users can view interactive content added to iMessage in iOS 10. The app also allows you to turn on or off read receipts on a conversation by conversation basis.[19][20]

iTunes

Apple Music within iTunes has been redesigned, making it simpler to find favorite songs and discover new ones. A new "For You" tab has been added, which suggests new music the user might like (similar to the existing Genius).[] A refined MiniPlayer with the ability to view lyrics while listening has also been introduced.[21]

Notes

The Notes app allows the user to share and collaborate on notes. This is done by clicking on a share button at the top of the window.[21]

Other changes

  • Disk Utility regains the ability to format and manage RAID sets, after it was removed in El Capitan.[9][22]
  • Finder has an option to show folders always at the top of the view hierarchy, for instance in list views.[9]
  • Mail adds a control to the top of email lists to quickly filter them, for instance, by read status or the presence of attachments.[9]

Security improvements

Gatekeeper

macOS Sierra slightly changes the Gatekeeper user interface and adds two new mechanisms. A new default in System Preferences hides the "Anywhere" option which allows the user to disable the mechanism and execute programs from any source without needing to approve each new one individually.

The first new mechanism allows developers to code-sign disk images that can be verified as a unit by the system. This allows developers to guarantee the integrity of external files that are distributed alongside the application bundle on the same disk image. An attacker could infect these external files with malicious code and with them exploit a vulnerability in the application, without having to break the signature of the application bundle itself. By signing the disk image, the developer can prevent tampering and force an attacker to repackage the files onto a new disk image, requiring a valid developer certificate to pass Gatekeeper without a warning.[23]

The second new mechanism is "path randomization", which executes application bundles from a random, hidden path and prevents them from accessing external files relative to their location. To avoid this, the developer has to distribute the application bundle and its external files on a signed disk image or in a signed installer package. The user can avoid this mechanism by moving the application bundle without its external files to a new location.[23]

Directory permissions and sudo

The Unix permissions for writing to the /Volumes directory are now restricted to root and no longer "world-writable".[24] Apple expanded System Integrity Protection to /Library/Application Support/com.apple.TCC,[25] a directory that contains a list of applications that are allowed to "control the computer", and restricts write access to programs which were signed with an Apple "private entitlement". The file-hosting service Dropbox has been criticized for manipulating the directory to add their Dropbox application to the list, rather than asking the user to do it for them explicitly in System Preferences.[26]

The sudo command-line utility with which a user can execute a command as another user, typically as root, is configured with the "tty_tickets" flag by default, restricting the session timeout to the terminal session (such as a window or tab) in which the user authenticated the program.[27]

Removed functionality

Sierra removes support for garbage collection from the Objective-C runtime,[28] a memory-management system that was added in Mac OS X Leopard (version 10.5) and declared deprecated in favor of Automatic Reference Counting in OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8). [29][30] Applications that have been compiled with garbage collection will no longer run.

Apple removed native support for the VPN protocol PPTP and made recommendations for alternatives that it considers more secure.[31]

The "time remaining" estimate has been removed in the 10.12.2 update after complaints of the battery life of 2016 MacBook Pros.[32][33][34]

The Game Center app has been removed.[21] However, the service still exists.

Reinstallation

Following the download of macOS Sierra (10.12) from the Mac App Store, the installer does not show under a users' "Purchased" tab in the Mac App Store app. Users can still re-download the Sierra installer by visiting the macOS Sierra page on the Mac App Store.[35]

Reception

macOS Sierra has received generally positive reviews. Users and critics have praised its functionality, including the addition of Siri and support for Apple Pay in Safari.[36]Macworld gave it 4.5 stars out of 5.[37]Engadget gave it a rating of 87 out of 100 praising the new features such as Siri integration, Universal Clipboard, and Apple Pay while criticizing the unreliability of Auto Unlock, that "Siri isn't always smart enough" and some of the Messages features are only available on iOS 10.[38] Developers of apps that rely on the PDFKit library built into macOS have complained that radical changes to PDFKit introduced in Sierra are causing instability and potential data corruption.[39]

Releases

Previous release Current release Beta
Version Build Release date Darwin Notes Standalone download
10.12 16A323 September 20, 2016 16.0.0 Original Mac App Store release N/A
10.12.1 16B2555 October 24, 2016 16.1.0 About the macOS Sierra 10.12.1 Update macOS Sierra 10.12.1 Update
16B2657 October 27, 2016
10.12.2 16C67 December 13, 2016 16.3.0 About the macOS Sierra 10.12.2 Update macOS Sierra 10.12.2 Update
macOS Sierra 10.12.2 Combo Update
16C68 December 14, 2016
10.12.3 16D32 January 23, 2017 16.4.0 About the macOS Sierra 10.12.3 Update macOS Sierra 10.12.3 Update
macOS Sierra 10.12.3 Combo Update
10.12.4 16E195 March 27, 2017 16.5.0 About the macOS Sierra 10.12.4 Update macOS Sierra 10.12.4 Update
macOS Sierra 10.12.4 Combo Update
10.12.5 16F73 May 15, 2017 16.6.0 About the macOS Sierra 10.12.5 Update macOS Sierra 10.12.5 Update
macOS Sierra 10.12.5 Combo Update
16F2073 June 5, 2017
10.12.6 16G29 July 19, 2017 16.7.0 About the macOS Sierra 10.12.6 Update macOS Sierra 10.12.6 Update
macOS Sierra 10.12.6 Combo Update
16G1036 October 31, 2017 About the security content of Security Update 2017-001 Sierra Security Update 2017-001 Sierra
16G1114 December 6, 2017 About the security content of Security Update 2017-002 Sierra Security Update 2017-002 Sierra
16G1212 January 23, 2018 About the security content of Security Update 2018-001 Sierra Security Update 2018-001 Sierra
16G1314 March 29, 2018 About the security content of Security Update 2018-002 Sierra Security Update 2018-002 Sierra
16G1408 June 1, 2018 About the security content of Security Update 2018-003 Sierra Security Update 2018-003 Sierra
16G1510 July 9, 2018 About the security content of Security Update 2018-004 Sierra Security Update 2018-004 Sierra
16G1618 October 30, 2018 About the security content of Security Update 2018-005 Sierra Security Update 2018-005 Sierra
16G1710 December 5, 2018 About the security content of Security Update 2018-006 Sierra Security Update 2018-006 Sierra

References

  1. ^ "macOS version 10.12 Sierra on Intel-based Mac computers". The Open Group. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ "Download - Apple Developer". Apple Developer. Retrieved 2016.
  3. ^ Loyola, Roman (7 July 2016). "macOS Sierra FAQ: What you need to know about the new Mac operating system". Macworld. Archived from the original on 15 July 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  4. ^ Majo, Benjamin (7 September 2016). "macOS Sierra will be released on September 20 for free to Mac owners". 9to5Mac. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  5. ^ "How to get macOS Sierra". Apple. Retrieved 2016.
  6. ^ Elliott, Matt (2016-06-13). "See which Macs will -- and won't -- work with MacOS". CNet. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  7. ^ "MacOS 10.12 Sierra Unsupported Macs Thread". MacRumors Forums. Archived from the original on 2016-06-16. Retrieved .
  8. ^ a b "How to use Siri in macOS Sierra". Macworld. Archived from the original on 2017-02-04. Retrieved .
  9. ^ a b c d e f Cunningham, Andrew; Hutchinson, Lee (September 20, 2016). "macOS 10.12 Sierra: The Ars Technica review". Ars Technica UK. Archived from the original on September 25, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  10. ^ Clover, Juli. "macOS Sierra: Save Disk Space With the New 'Optimize Storage' Option". Archived from the original on 2016-11-26. Retrieved .
  11. ^ "macOS Sierra: Apps Gain Safari-Style Tabs". Archived from the original on 2018-01-26. Retrieved .
  12. ^ "macOS Sierra: Picture in Picture Mode for Safari and iTunes Videos". Archived from the original on 2018-01-26. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "macOS High Sierra: You'll Hardly Notice You've Upgraded - The Mac Observer". The Mac Observer. 4 October 2017. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  14. ^ Clover, Juli. "Apple Releases macOS Sierra 10.12.4 With New Night Shift Mode". Archived from the original on 2017-04-01. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "How to Use Night Shift in macOS Sierra 10.12.4". Retrieved .
  16. ^ "Safari App Extension Programming Guide: Safari App Extensions". Apple Developer. Archived from the original on July 8, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  17. ^ "How to use Messages effects in macOS Sierra". iMore. Archived from the original on 2016-11-23. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "10 tiny macOS Sierra features I love". iMore. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. Retrieved .
  19. ^ "7 hidden features in macOS Sierra you may have missed". Macworld. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. Retrieved .
  20. ^ "How to Use Read Receipts on the iPhone and Mac". TekRevue. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. Retrieved .
  21. ^ a b c Matt Elliott (November 10, 2016). "10 hidden MacOS Sierra features you need to know". Archived from the original on 2017-02-18. Retrieved .
  22. ^ "How to configure a software RAID in macOS Sierra's Disk Utility". Macworld. Archived from the original on 2017-01-08. Retrieved .
  23. ^ a b Cunningham, Andrew (June 15, 2016). "Some nerdy changes in macOS and iOS 10: RAW shooting, a harsher Gatekeeper, more". Ars Technica UK. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  24. ^ Trouton, Rich (September 21, 2016). "macOS Sierra's /Volumes folder is no longer world-writable". Der Flounder. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  25. ^ Gruber, John (September 20, 2016). "Dropbox's MacOS Security Hack". Daring Fireball. Archived from the original on October 1, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  26. ^ Pauli, Darren (September 13, 2016). "Dropbox apologies for clunky administrator account access on Macs". The Register. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  27. ^ Trouton, Rich (September 21, 2016). "tty_tickets option now on by default for macOS Sierra's sudo tool". Der Flounder. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  28. ^ "Xcode Release Notes". Apple Developer. May 29, 2018. Section "Xcode 8.3". Retrieved 2018. OS X 10.11 was the last major release of macOS that supported the previously deprecated garbage collection runtime. Applications or features that depend upon garbage collection may not function properly or will not launch in macOS Sierra. Developers should use Automatic Reference Counting (ARC) or manual retain/release for memory management instead. (20589595)
  29. ^ Siracusa, John (October 29, 2007). "Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard: the Ars Technica review". Ars Technica. At section "Objective-C 2.0". Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  30. ^ Siracusa, John (July 25, 2012). "OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion: the Ars Technica review". Ars Technica. At section "Objective-C enhancements". Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  31. ^ "Prepare for removal of PPTP VPN before you upgrade to iOS 10 and macOS Sierra". Apple Support. July 16, 2016. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  32. ^ Kahn, Jordan (2016-12-13). "Why Apple is removing 'time remaining' battery life estimates following MacBook Pro complaints". 9to5Mac. Archived from the original on 2017-01-08. Retrieved .
  33. ^ Schroeder, Stan. "Apple's Sierra update 'fixes' Mac battery woes by removing 'time remaining' estimate". Mashable. Archived from the original on 2017-01-05. Retrieved .
  34. ^ O'Kane, Sean (2016-12-13). "Apple removes the 'time remaining' battery estimate in new macOS update". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2017-01-08. Retrieved .
  35. ^ "How to download macOS Sierra". Apple. October 17, 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017.
  36. ^ "MacOS Sierra review: Six big ways it's going to change your Apple experience". CNET. Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved .
  37. ^ "macOS Sierra review: Mixing iOS with OS X to make a better Mac". Macworld. Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved .
  38. ^ Wollman, Dana (September 20, 2016). "macOS Sierra review: Mac users get a modest update this year". Archived from the original on 2017-02-18. Retrieved 2017.
  39. ^ "Sierra PDF Problems Get Worse in 10.12.2". Tidbits. Archived from the original on 2017-03-20. Retrieved .

External links

Preceded by
OS X 10.11 (El Capitan)
macOS 10.12 (Sierra)
09/2016
Succeeded by
macOS 10.13 (High Sierra)

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

macOS_Sierra
 



 

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